Plastics -- Guide to the acquisition and presentation of design data

ISO 17282:2004 gives guidelines for the acquisition and presentation of data that can be used for design with plastics. Emphasis is given to the acquisition of data needed by computerised methods for design. It includes data needed for the analysis of the flow of polymer melts during the manufacture of a component as well as data needed for the prediction of mechanical performance of the component in service. The data requirements cover design with unfilled plastics as well as filled, short-fibre reinforced and continuous-fibre reinforced materials.

Plastiques -- Lignes directrices pour l'acquisition et la présentation de caractéristiques de conception

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Status
Published
Publication Date
08-Jun-2004
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
29-Apr-2004
Completion Date
09-Jun-2004
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 17282
First edition
2004-06-01
Corrected version
2007-02-01
Plastics — Guide to the acquisition and
presentation of design data —
Plastiques — Lignes directrices pour l'acquisition et la présentation de
caractéristiques de conception
Reference number
ISO 17282:2004(E)
ISO 2004
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 17282:2004(E)
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© ISO 2004
All rights reserved. Unless otherwise speci
...

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 17282
First edition
2004-06-01
Corrected version
2007-02-01
Plastics — Guide to the acquisition and
presentation of design data
Plastiques — Lignes directrices pour l'acquisition et la présentation de
caractéristiques de conception
Reference number
ISO 17282:2004(E)
ISO 2004
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 17282:2004(E)
PDF disclaimer

This PDF file may contain embedded typefaces. In accordance with Adobe's licensing policy, this file may be printed or viewed but

shall not be edited unless the typefaces which are embedded are licensed to and installed on the computer performing the editing. In

downloading this file, parties accept therein the responsibility of not infringing Adobe's licensing policy. The ISO Central Secretariat

accepts no liability in this area.
Adobe is a trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated.

Details of the software products used to create this PDF file can be found in the General Info relative to the file; the PDF-creation

parameters were optimized for printing. Every care has been taken to ensure that the file is suitable for use by ISO member bodies. In

the unlikely event that a problem relating to it is found, please inform the Central Secretariat at the address given below.

© ISO 2004

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or

ISO's member body in the country of the requester.
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Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 17282:2004(E)
Contents Page

Foreword............................................................................................................................................................ iv

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ v

1 Scope ..................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ........................................................................................................................... 1

3 Symbols ................................................................................................................................................. 3

3.1 Test variables ........................................................................................................................................ 3

3.2 Material properties for stress analysis (see Tables 2 and 3)............................................................. 3

3.3 Failure properties (see Table 4) ........................................................................................................... 4

3.4 Material properties for processing simulation (see Tables 3, 4 and 5) ............................................ 5

4 Data needed for design ........................................................................................................................ 6

4.1 General................................................................................................................................................... 6

4.2 Design for thermomechanical performance ...................................................................................... 6

4.2.1 The design process .............................................................................................................................. 6

4.2.2 Design data for thermomechanical performance.............................................................................. 7

4.3 Design for processing analysis......................................................................................................... 10

4.3.1 Processing simulation........................................................................................................................ 10

4.3.2 Data for simulation of injection moulding........................................................................................ 10

4.3.3 Data for simulation of extrusion........................................................................................................ 12

4.3.4 Data for simulation of blow moulding, blown film extrusion and thermoforming....................... 12

5 Determination of design data ............................................................................................................ 13

5.1 General................................................................................................................................................. 13

5.2 Data acquisition for design for mechanical performance .............................................................. 13

5.3 Data acquisition for design for processing ..................................................................................... 14

Annex A (informative) Illustrations of the application of finite element analyses to plastics

components......................................................................................................................................... 19

Annex B (informative) Application of processing simulation analysis for plastics .................................. 48

© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 17282:2004(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 17282 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 61, Plastics, Subcommittee SC 2, Mechanical

properties.
This corrected version of ISO 17282:2004 incorporates the following corrections:

 in paragraph 4 of the Introduction, the references to Tables 6 and 7 have been corrected;

 Clause 2 (normative references) has been updated, the only important change being the replacement of

ISO 6252 (which has been withdrawn) by ISO 22088-2;
 in the heading to 3.4, the references to the tables have been corrected;
 in Table 12, ISO 6252 has been replaced by ISO 22088-2 (twice);
 Equations (A.6) and (A.7), which were missing, have been inserted;

 throughout the document, a number of symbols and their subscripts have been corrected;

 a number of minor editorial improvements have been made.
iv © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
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ISO 17282:2004(E)
Introduction

Plastics and composites are increasingly being used in load-bearing applications where they compete with

traditional materials such as steels and aluminium. In these applications, it is important to achieve a confident

knowledge of the safe operating limits of the component through competent design. Computer methods for

design are available, and are continually being improved, that enable predictions to be made of the

performance of plastics under a variety of situations. These situations include mechanical performance under

service loads and environments as well as a flow of the polymer melt during the manufacture of a component.

In order to design effectively with plastics in load-bearing applications, comprehensive data are generally

needed which take into account the effects of time, temperature, rate and environment on properties. A

number of International Standards have been developed that specify how certain data for plastics should be

measured and presented. These are ISO 10350-1 and ISO 10350-2, and ISO 11403-1, ISO 11403-2 and

ISO 11403-3.

The purpose of these standards is to enable comparable data to be measured on different materials from

different sources to aid the process of materials selection. A substantial quantity of data is specified by these

standards and, although not the primary purpose of the standards, some of these data are suitable for design.

However, additional or alternative data will also be needed for many applications.

The purpose of this guide is to augment existing data presentation standards by identifying data that are

needed specifically for design with plastics. The selection of these data is guided by the requirements of

available computer methods for design. Preferred test methods, test specimens and test conditions are

recommended in section 5 for determining these data. For some properties, ISO test methods or specimens

are not yet available. Reference is then made in the Notes to Tables 12 and 13 to suitable procedures for data

acquisition that may become standardised at a later stage.

It is intended that this guide assist the development of databases that will interface with computer methods for

design so that the property data required by these methods can be readily accessed. For certain properties,

some analysis and interpretation of data is needed in order to present information in the form required by the

design analysis. Some procedures for data analysis are described in the annexes.
© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 17282:2004(E)
Plastics — Guide to the acquisition and presentation of design
data
1 Scope

This International Standard gives guidelines for the acquisition and presentation of data that can be used for

design with plastics. Emphasis is given to the acquisition of data needed by computerised methods for design.

It includes data needed for the analysis of the flow of polymer melts during the manufacture of a component

as well as data needed for the prediction of mechanical performance of the component in service. The data

requirements cover design with unfilled plastics as well as filled, short-fibre reinforced and continuous-fibre

reinforced materials.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 294-3, Plastics — Injection moulding of test specimens of thermoplastics materials — Part 3: Small plates

ISO 294-5, Plastics — Injection moulding of test specimens of thermoplastics materials — Part 5: Preparation

of standard specimens for investigating anisotropy

ISO 527-2, Plastics — Determination of tensile properties — Part 2: Test conditions for moulding and

extrusion plastics

ISO 527-4, Plastics — Determination of tensile properties — Part 4: Test conditions for isotropic and

orthotropic fibre-reinforced plastic composites

ISO 527-5, Plastics — Determination of tensile properties — Part 5: Test conditions for unidirectional fibre-

reinforced plastic composites
ISO 899-1, Plastics — Determination of creep behaviour — Part 1: Tensile creep

ISO 1183, Plastics — Methods for determining the density and relative density of non-cellular plastics

ISO 2577, Plastics — Thermosetting moulding materials — Determination of shrinkage

ISO 3167, Plastics — Multipurpose test specimens

ISO 6603-2, Plastics — Determination of puncture impact behaviour of rigid plastics — Part 2: Instrumented

impact test

ISO 6721-2, Plastics — Determination of dynamic mechanical properties — Part 2: Torsion-pendulum method

ISO 6721-3, Plastics — Determination of dynamic mechanical properties — Part 3: Flexural vibration —

Resonance-curve method
© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 17282:2004(E)

ISO 6721-4, Plastics — Determination of dynamic mechanical properties — Part 4: Tensile vibration — Non-

resonance method

ISO 6721-5, Plastics — Determination of dynamic mechanical properties — Part 5: Flexural vibration — Non-

resonance method

ISO 6721-7, Plastics — Determination of dynamic mechanical properties — Part 7: Torsional vibration — Non-

resonance method

ISO 6721-8, Plastics — Determination of dynamic mechanical properties — Part 8: Longitudinal and shear

vibration — Wave propagation method

ISO 6721-10, Plastics — Determination of dynamic mechanical properties — Part 10: Complex shear viscosity

using a parallel-plate oscillatory rheometer

ISO 10350-1, Plastics — Acquisition and presentation of comparable single-point data — Part 1: Moulding

materials

ISO 11357-2, Plastics — Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) — Part 2: Determination of glass transition

temperature

ISO 11357-3, Plastics — Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) — Part 3: Determination of temperature and

enthalpy of melting and crystallization

ISO 11357-4, Plastics — Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) — Part 4: Determination of specific heat

capacity

ISO 11357-5, Plastics — Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) — Part 5: Determination of characteristic

reaction-curve temperatures and times, enthalpy of reaction and degrees of conversion

ISO 11357-7, Plastics — Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) — Part 7: Determination of crystallization

kinetics

ISO 11359-2, Plastics — Thermomechanical analysis (TMA) — Part 2: Determination of coefficient of linear

thermal expansion and glass transition temperature

ISO 11403-1, Plastics — Acquisition and presentation of comparable multipoint data — Part 1: Mechanical

properties

ISO 11403-2, Plastics — Acquisition and presentation of comparable multipoint data — Part 2: Thermal and

processing properties

ISO 11443, Plastics — Determination of the fluidity of plastics using capillary and slit-die rheometers

ISO 15310, Fibre-reinforced plastic composites — Determination of the in-plane shear modulus by the plate

twist method

ISO 17744, Plastics — Determination of specific volume as a function of temperature and pressure (pvT

diagram) — Piston apparatus method

ISO 22088-2, Plastics — Determination of resistance to environmental stress cracking (ESC) — Part 2:

Constant tensile load method
2 © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
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ISO 17282:2004(E)
3 Symbols
3.1 Test variables
ε tensile strain

NOTE Use of the true strain log (1 + ε) in place of the engineering strain is necessary when engineering strain

values exceed about 0,1. Below a strain of 0,1, there is no significant difference between these quantities.

ε tensile strain rate
ε plastic component of the tensile strain
NOTE This is used in elastic–plastic models for describing non-linear behaviour.
γ shear strain
γ shear strain rate
γ plastic component of the shear strain
t time
σ stress
T temperature
f frequency
ch chemical environment
N number of cycles to failure in a fatigue test
R ratio of minimum to maximum stresses in a fatigue test
T rate of change of temperature
p pressure
p cavity pressure at hold
t hold time
h specimen thickness
v slip velocity
3.2 Material properties for stress analysis (see Tables 2 and 3)
E tensile modulus obtained from a test at constant strain rate

E E tensile moduli along and transverse to, respectively, the direction of preferred fibre or molecular

p n
orientation in a transversely isotropic material

G shear modulus of a transversely isotropic material for stress application in the direction of preferred

orientation
D tensile creep compliance
© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 17282:2004(E)
E tensile stress relaxation modulus

D , D tensile creep compliances along and transverse to, respectively, the direction of preferred orientation

p n
in a transversely isotropic material
E', E'' tensile storage and loss moduli, respectively
G', G'' shear storage and loss moduli, respectively
σ true tensile yield stress (see Note 4 to Table 12)
λ hydrostatic stress sensitivity parameter (see Note 6 to Table 12)

σ , σ tensile yield stresses for loading along and transverse to, respectively, the direction of preferred

Tp Tn
orientation in a transversely isotropic material (see Notes 4 and 9 to Table 12)

σ , σ shear yield stresses for loading along and transverse to, respectively, the direction of preferred

Sp Sn
orientation in a transversely isotropic material (see Note 9 to Table 12)
ν Poisson’s ratio
ν elastic component of the Poisson’s ratio

ν plastic component of the Poisson’s ratio equal to minus the ratio of the plastic component of the

lateral strain to the plastic component of the axial strain in a specimen under a tensile stress (see

Note 5 to Table 12)

ν Poisson’s ratio for an anisotropic material determined with the uniaxial stress applied along the

direction of preferred orientation
ψ flow parameter
α coefficient of linear thermal expansion

α ,α coefficients of linear thermal expansion parallel and normal to the direction of preferred orientation in

p n
a transversely isotropic material
c specific heat
3.3 Failure properties (see Table 4)
σ tensile strength obtained from a test at constant specimen deformation rate

σ , σ tensile strengths for loading along and transverse to, respectively, the direction of preferred

up un
orientation in a transversely isotropic material

ε strain at break obtained from a tensile test at constant specimen deformation rate

ε , ε strains at break for loading along and transverse to, respectively, the direction of preferred

up un
orientation in a transversely isotropic material
σ tensile creep rupture strength

σ , σ creep rupture strengths for loading along and transverse to, respectively, the direction of preferred

cp cn
orientation in a transversely isotropic material
σ tensile fatigue strength
4 © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
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ISO 17282:2004(E)

σ , σ tensile fatigue strengths for loading along and transverse to, respectively, the direction of preferred

fp fn
orientation in a transversely isotropic material
3.4 Material properties for processing simulation (see Tables 5 to 11)
η melt viscosity
η uniaxial extensional viscosity
η biaxial extensional viscosity
η viscosity of the reactive system
reactive
N first normal stress difference
ρ bulk density
ρ melt density
ρ density of the solid
ρ density of reacted system
reacted
k thermal conductivity
k thermal conductivity of the polymer melt
c specific heat
c specific heat of the polymer melt

T solidification temperature, a reference temperature defined by the mould filling simulation software

T ejection temperature, a reference temperature defined by the mould filling simulation software

v specific volume
∆H heat of reaction
t isothermal induction time
ind
α gelation conversion
gel
R reaction rate

µ , µ dynamic coefficients of friction between plastic and metal used for the barrel or screw respectively

b s
T melting temperature
T glass transition temperature
T crystallisation temperature
∆H enthalpy of melting
∆H enthalpy of crystallization
X degree of crystallinity
© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO 17282:2004(E)
X rate of crystallization
S moulding shrinkage parallel to the direction of preferred orientation
S moulding shrinkage normal to the direction of preferred orientation

ν Poisson’s ratio for a transversely isotropic material determined with the uniaxial stress applied along

the direction of preferred orientation

ν Poisson’s ratio for a transversely isotropic material determined with the applied stress along a

direction normal to the direction of preferred orientation and the lateral strain measured in the

preferred orientation direction

G shear modulus of a transversely isotropic material for stress application in the direction of preferred

orientation

α coefficient of linear thermal expansion parallel to the direction of preferred orientation in an

anisotropic material

α coefficient of linear thermal expansion normal to the direction of preferred orientation in an

anisotropic material
4 Data needed for design
4.1 General
The design data identified here are grouped under two headings:
 Data for analysis of thermomechanical performance (section 4.2)
 Data for processing analysis (section 4.3)
4.2 Design for thermomechanical performance
4.2.1 The design process

The process of design for the mechanical performance of a component involves two operations. The first is an

analysis of the stress and strain distributions in the component under service load. The second is a

comparison of the maximum levels of stress, strain or displacement predicted by the analysis with maximum

allowable values based on failure criteria for the material or operating conditions of the component. These

operations are then repeated in order to select component dimensions and geometry whilst ensuring that safe

limits are not exceeded. The data requirements for these two operations are different.

The data requirements for stress analysis are determined by the constitutive law that relates stress and strain

under the appropriate service loading conditions. Choice of a valid constitutive relationship will depend upon

the following factors.

 Mechanical behaviour, whether the material is isotropic or anisotropic or shows glassy or rubber-like

behaviour.

 The level of induced strain. If this is small, then linear viscoelastic or linear elastic behaviour may be

considered but, at higher strains, relationships between stress and strain will be non-linear.

 The history of the applied load or displacement and the temperature. Since plastics are viscoelastic,

properties depend on time, frequency and strain rate and so their response to short-term loads such as

impact will be very different from that under sustained load.
6 © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
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ISO 17282:2004(E)

A finite element analysis (FEA) is a versatile method for calculating stress, strain and temperature distributions

in a component of complex geometry. For this reason, the data requirements identified here for performing a

stress analysis have been guided by available materials models that are suitable for plastics. An accurate

calculation relies on the use of a materials model for the analysis which employs a realistic constitutive

relationship.

The satisfactory operating limits of a component may be specific to the component or the plastics material

from which it is made. Safe operating limits for the material are generally expressed in terms of ultimate

values of stress or strain and will depend on many factors such as the temperature, the humidity, processing

conditions, the presence of an aggressive environment and the history of the applied load. Where failure is

caused by crack growth, additional property data may be needed.
4.2.2 Design data for thermomechanical performance

Data required for design for thermomechanical performance consist of data for carrying out a stress analysis

and data for estimating material failure. In principle, these data requirements depend on the detailed materials

characteristics exhibited by the material, and on the service conditions relevant to the application. However, in

practice, the designer may adopt various simplifications by approximating materials behaviour or service

conditions in order to make the design analysis technically tractable and financially viable. This influences

data requirements and the practical use of data.

From the designer’s point of view, the simplest form of materials behaviour is that of an isotropic, linear,

temperature-insensitive, elastic material. However, as stated in section 4.2.1, plastics may exhibit aspects of

anisotropy, nonlinearly, temperature-dependence, viscoelasticity or plasticity. Where a particular aspect is

relevant to a design problem, the designer may decide to avoid a more complex analysis by assuming a

simpler form of behaviour and compensate for this by use of “effective” material properties. Examples include

use of a secant or tangent modulus to represent nonlinearity in a linear analysis, use of a long-time creep

modulus to represent viscoelasticity in an elastic analysis, and use of “average” or “representative” property

values to replace anisotropy and temperature-sensitivity. However, although a simpler (approximate) form of

representation may be used, data for the more complex form of behaviour will generally be required in order to

select appropriate “effective” properties.

Definition of the design problem involves specification of component geometry (shape, size, etc.) and service

conditions (e.g. loads and other constraints). Although FEA packages can handle complex circumstances, the

designer may idealise component geometry and may approximate service conditions in order to simplify the

design calculations (e.g. by creating a “statically determinate” situation for which stresses and strains can be

calculated separately, only the latter calculation requiring material properties). Similarly, the designer may use

an approximate design calculation (e.g. assuming “pseudo-elasticity”). These idealisations and assumptions

introduce inaccuracies into the design predictions which are not attributable to the quality of the design data,

although appropriate data selection is required.

A crucial aspect of design analysis is the selection of suitable materials models. This selection determines

consequent requirements for materials design data, and depends, in particular, on the nature of the service

loads, for example:

 sustained loading, involving effects such as creep or stress relaxation, for which time under load is the

important parameter;

 cyclic loading, for example in damped vibrations, for which frequency is the important parameter;

 high-rate loading, for example due to impact, for which strain rate is the important parameter.

© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved 7
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ISO 17282:2004(E)
Table 1 — Typical service conditions, materials behaviour and model types
Service conditions Crucial parameter Relevant types of materials Model type(s)
behaviour (see below)
Simpler conditions Elastic A, B
Elastic–plastic C
Sustained loading Time Viscoelastic C1, D1, E1
Cyclic loading Frequency C2, D2, E2
viscoplastic
High-rate loading Strain rate C3, D3, E3
Model type:

a) Linear elasticity is the simplest and most commonly used materials model, at least for a first analysis.

b) A hypoelastic model enables approximate solutions to be obtained under strain levels where behaviour is non-

linear. Hyperelastic models are available for elastomeric materials and are not considered in this International

Standard.

c) Elastic–plastic models for metals are available in most FEA packages and are able to handle non-linear and three-

dimensional stress conditions. Those based on von Mises yielding may have restricted suitability for plastics, and a

more general form of the yield criterion with sensitivity to hydrostatic stress (the linear Drucker–Prager model) is

considered here. Some versions of elastic–plastic models combine the effects of elasticity, plasticity and also time,

frequency or rate. These latter types of model (C1, C2 and C3) are indicated in this table, but only C3 is considered

in this International Standard.

d) Linear viscoelasticity is limited to small-strain behaviour, but data can be used in the three different forms (D1, D2,

D3) depending on whether time, frequency or rate is the crucial service parameter.

e) Non-linear viscoelasticity models for general service conditions are not available in a useable form, but models

exist for use under special conditions. These include a creep form (E1) based on isochronous curves, a finite-linear

form (E2) for large amplitude vibrations and a rate-dependent form (E3): the last two are not discussed further in

this International Standard.

As already noted, the stress analysis will also need to consider isotropic or anisotropic properties, linear or

non-linear behaviour and the effects of temperature. It is therefore evident that there are many sets of

conditions under which materials properties may be needed in principle, and it is necessary to focus on the

most important cases. This is discussed now with reference to the model types indicated in Table 1.

Further consideration of these types le
...

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