Intelligent transport systems -- Bicyclist detection and collision mitigation systems (BDCMS) -- Performance requirements and test procedures

This document specifies the concept of operation, minimum functionality, system requirements, system interfaces, and test procedures for bicyclist detection and collision mitigation systems (BDCMS). It also defines the system test criteria necessary to verify that a given implementation meets the requirements of this document. Implementation choices are left to system designers, wherever possible. BDCMS are fundamentally intended to provide emergency braking (EB) of equipped vehicles in order to mitigate collision severity between the subject vehicle (SV) and a bicyclist. BDCMS detect bicyclists forward of the SV, determine if the detected bicyclists are in a hazardous situation with respect to the SV, and initiate EB if a hazardous situation exists and a collision is imminent. Systems that include other countermeasures such as evasive steering are outside the scope of this document. This document defines two types of BDCMS (based on operation in different ambient illuminance) and two classes of BDCMS (based on operation on different vehicle size classes), as depicted in Table 1. This document does not apply to motorcycles. The operational design domain is public roads. BDCMS is not intended for off-road use. Responsibility for the safe operation of the vehicle remains with the driver. Licensable motor vehicles intended for use on public roads (i.e. motorcycles, cars, light trucks, buses, motor coaches), and other heavy vehicles as hazards are outside the scope of this document and are covered under ISO 22839. Pedestrians are outside the scope of this document and are covered under ISO 19237. Annex A contains informative information relative to BDCMS.

Systèmes de transport intelligents -- Systèmes de détection des cyclistes et d’atténuation des collisions (BDCMS) -- Exigences de performance et procédures d'essai

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Status
Published
Publication Date
17-Feb-2020
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
10-Jan-2020
Completion Date
18-Feb-2020
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 22078
First edition
2020-02
Intelligent transport systems —
Bicyclist detection and collision
mitigation systems (BDCMS) —
Performance requirements and test
procedures
Systèmes de transport intelligents — Systèmes de détection des
cyclistes et d’atténuation des collisions (BDCMS) — Exigences de
performance et procédures d'essai
Reference number
ISO 22078:2020(E)
ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 22078:2020(E)
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© ISO 2020

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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO 22078:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Symbols .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5 Requirements .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1 Minimum enabling capabilities ................................................................................................................................................ 3

5.2 Operating model — State transition diagram .............................................................................................................. 4

5.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2.2 State functional descriptions................................................................................................................................. 4

5.3 System types ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.4 System classes ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.5 Performance requirements .......................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.5.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.5.2 Hazardous situation ...................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.5.3 Operating speed................................................................................................................................................................ 6

5.5.4 Horizontal curve radius capability ................................................................................................................... 7

5.5.5 Countermeasure requirements ........................................................................................................................... 7

5.5.6 Driver controls and human interface ............................................................................................................. 8

6 Test procedures ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.2 Bicyclist test target specification ............................................................................................................................................. 9

6.2.1 Test target physical characteristics .................. ................................................................................................ 9

6.2.2 Detectability specifications ..................................................................................................................................... 9

6.3 Environmental conditions ............................................................................................................................................................. 9

6.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.3.2 Driving surface................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.3.3 Ambient air temperature .......................................................................................................................................... 9

6.3.4 Horizontal visibility ....................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.3.5 Ambient illumination ................................................................................................................................................10

6.4 Test procedure for longitudinal scenario (limited dynamic-test) ...........................................................12

6.5 Test procedure for crossing scenario (limited dynamic-test) .....................................................................13

Annex A (informative) Information relative to BDCMS ..................................................................................................................15

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................18

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 22078:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 204, Intelligent transport systems.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO 22078:2020(E)
Introduction

Bicyclist detection and collision mitigation systems (BDCMS) reduce the severity of collisions between

a human-driven vehicle and bicyclists that cannot be avoided and may reduce the likelihood of such

collisions by automatically activating emergency braking (EB). BDCMS assist in slowing the subject

vehicle (SV) when a collision is likely.

BDCMS functions may be used as a stand-alone system or might be part of a driver assistance system.

As depicted in Figure 1, the BDCMS will provide information to the driver and perform SV actuation in

the form of longitudinal control.
Figure 1 — BDCMS functional elements
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 22078:2020(E)
Intelligent transport systems — Bicyclist detection and
collision mitigation systems (BDCMS) — Performance
requirements and test procedures
1 Scope

This document specifies the concept of operation, minimum functionality, system requirements, system

interfaces, and test procedures for bicyclist detection and collision mitigation systems (BDCMS). It also

defines the system test criteria necessary to verify that a given implementation meets the requirements

of this document. Implementation choices are left to system designers, wherever possible.

BDCMS are fundamentally intended to provide emergency braking (EB) of equipped vehicles in order

to mitigate collision severity between the subject vehicle (SV) and a bicyclist. BDCMS detect bicyclists

forward of the SV, determine if the detected bicyclists are in a hazardous situation with respect to the

SV, and initiate EB if a hazardous situation exists and a collision is imminent. Systems that include other

countermeasures such as evasive steering are outside the scope of this document.

This document defines two types of BDCMS (based on operation in different ambient illuminance) and

two classes of BDCMS (based on operation on different vehicle size classes), as depicted in Table 1. This

document does not apply to motorcycles. The operational design domain is public roads. BDCMS is not

intended for off-road use.
Table 1 — Types and classes of BDCMS
BDCMS class I BDCMS class II
BDCMS type I Daytime only Daytime only
Light vehicles only Heavy vehicles only

BDCMS type II Daytime, twilight, and night-time Daytime, twilight, and night-time

Light vehicles only Heavy vehicles only
Responsibility for the safe operation of the vehicle remains with the driver.

Licensable motor vehicles intended for use on public roads (i.e. motorcycles, cars, light trucks, buses,

motor coaches), and other heavy vehicles as hazards are outside the scope of this document and are

covered under ISO 22839.

Pedestrians are outside the scope of this document and are covered under ISO 19237.

Annex A contains informative information relative to BDCMS.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 8608, Mechanical vibration — Road surface profiles — Reporting of measured data

ISO 19206-4:— , Road vehicle — Test devices for target vehicles, vulnerable road users and other objects,

for assessment of active safety functions —Part 4: Requirements for bicyclist targets

ISO/CIE 19476, Characterization of the performance of illuminance meters and luminance meters

1) Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: ISO/DIS 19206-4:2020.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 22078:2020(E)
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
bicyclist

human-vehicle combination consisting of a human riding on top of a two-wheel frame (bicycle) with a

steering mechanism, brakes, two pedals for propulsion (optionally with motor-assisted pedalling) that

does not require a licence for use on public roads
3.2
bicyclist collision
collision between the subject vehicle (SV) (3.12) and a bicyclist (3.1)
3.3
daytime
condition where the ambient illuminance is greater than 2 000 lx
3.4
driver override

driver-initiated suppression of an emergency braking (EB) (3.5) or collision warning (CW)

countermeasure
3.5
emergency braking

bicyclist detection and collision mitigation systems (BDCMS) countermeasure that responds to the

detection of a hazardous situation by automatically activating braking, and optionally issuing a collision

warning (CW), to quickly reduce the subject vehicle (SV) (3.12) velocity
3.6
hazardous situation

condition whereby the position and orientation of a detected bicyclist (3.1), in relation to the position

and orientation of the subject vehicle (SV) (3.12), will result in an imminent collision

3.7
heavy vehicle

single vehicle or combination of vehicles equipped with a pneumatic braking system, defined as

category 1-2 or category 2 in the United Nations Economic and Social Council World Forum for

Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations ECE/TRANS/WP.29/1045
3.8
impact point

relative position, from the subject vehicle (SV) (3.12) point of view, where a collision with a bicyclist

(3.1) is expected in a hazardous situation, defined as the relative position where the SV will contact the

bicyclist
3.9
light vehicle

vehicle defined as category 1-1 in the United Nations Economic and Social Council World Forum for

Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations ECE/TRANS/WP.29/1045
3.10
night-time
condition where the ambient illuminance is less than 1 lx
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ISO 22078:2020(E)
3.11
off-road

road surface conditions (i.e. unpaved) not intended for vehicular traffic or governed by normal traffic laws

3.12
subject vehicle

vehicle equipped with bicyclist detection and collision mitigation systems (BDCMS)

3.13
twilight
condition where the ambient illuminance is 3-400 lx

Note 1 to entry: Generally, twilight occurs during civil twilight, from when the geometric centre of the sun’s disk

dips below the horizon until the geometric centre of the sun’s disk is less than 6 ° below the horizon.

4 Symbols
v velocity of the bicyclist
v maximum bicyclist speed for the BDCMS operation
max
v minimum bicyclist speed for the BDCMS operation
min
v velocity of the SV
v maximum SV speed for the BDCMS operation
max
v minimum SV speed for the BDCMS operation
min
W width of the SV
5 Requirements
5.1 Minimum enabling capabilities
Vehicles equipped with BDCMS shall able to:
— detect the hazardous situation;
— determine the SV velocity;

— initiate appropriate BDCMS countermeasures (optionally CW) and generate at least the minimum

required BDCMS speed reduction;

— activation and modulation of the brakes whether or not the driver is already braking.

— enhancement of the driver control based on brakes with a yaw stability capability and a capability

to manage longitudinal wheel slip, by utilizing an electronic stability control (ESC) system;

— management of permission of the driver's ability to increase the deceleration to any higher value up

to the maximum possible vehicle deceleration after EB has been initiated;

— management of permission of the driver's ability to override commands at any time;

— provision of information about system availability to the driver.
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ISO 22078:2020(E)
5.2 Operating model — State transition diagram
5.2.1 General

The BDCMS shall function according to the state transition diagram in Figure 2. Specific implementation,

beyond what is illustrated in Figure 2, of the state transitions is left to the manufacturer.

Key
1 ignition on or (optional) ignition on and driver turn on
SV speed ≥ v and SV speed ≤ v
SV SV
min max
3 failure detected (automatic deactivation possible)

SV speed < v or SV speed > v , exception: when SV speed falls below v or exceeds v , while EB

SV SV SV SV
min max min max
is active, EB continues to be operational as long as the command is being issued
5 fail self-test, ignition off or (optional) driver turn off
6 fail self-test, ignition off or (optional) driver turn off
Figure 2 — BDCMS state transition diagram including optional features
5.2.2 State functional descriptions
5.2.2.1 General

The BDCMS state descriptions address the functional requirements of BDCMS, identifying which

functions shall be performed in each state.
5.2.2.2 BDCMS off state

No countermeasures are performed in the BDCMS off state. Upon turning the ignition to the off

position, BDCMS shall transition to the BDCMS off state. Whenever the self-test function determines

that BDCMS are not able to deliver adequate performance, or when the driver manually turns off the

BDCMS (optional), it shall transition to the BDCMS off state. BDCMS may be in the BDCMS off state when

the vehicle is on.
5.2.2.3 BDCMS inactive state

In the BDCMS inactive state, BDCMS shall monitor vehicle speed and determine if it is appropriate to

activate the system.

BDCMS shall enter the BDCMS inactive state from the BDCMS off state if the ignition on sequence has

been completed and the engine is running. BDCMS shall enter inactive state from the active state if the

conditions for activating are not met, for example, if the vehicle speed drops below v . If a

min

manufacturer-defined failure mode is encountered for which an automatic recovery (optional) is

possible, the BDCMS shall transition from the BDCMS active state to the BDCMS inactive state. Based on

4 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO 22078:2020(E)

the results of a diagnostic self-test, functions of all or some of the countermeasures may be restored.

Once the recovery occurs, the system may transition back to the BDCMS active state. Finally, if the

driver manually turns on BDCMS (optional), then it shall transit from the BDCMS off state to the BDCMS

inactive state.
5.2.2.4 BDCMS active state

BDCMS shall enter this state if the vehicle speed is greater than or equal to v and less than v .

SV SV
min max

In the BDCMS active state, it shall monitor for triggering conditions resulting in the selection of EB and

decide to activate countermeasures or optionally override if so instructed by the operator. BDCMS may

optionally provide a CW to the driver.

If a system failure is detected or there is an inability to perform a countermeasure, BDCMS shall transfer

to the BDCMS inactive state if automatic recovery from the failure is possible. If the system fails, and a

self-test results in a case where automatic recovery without driver intervention is not possible, BDCMS

shall transfer to the BDCMS off state. Means of notification of these failures to the driver is left up to the

manufacturer.
5.3 System types
There are two types of BDCMS:
— type 1: BDCMS is capable of daytime activation;
— type 2: BDCMS is capable of daytime, twilight and night-time activations.
5.4 System classes
There are two classes of BDCMS:
— class 1: BDCMS operate on light vehicles only;
— class 2: BDCMS operate on heavy vehicles only.
5.5 Performance requirements
5.5.1 General

BDCMS shall, at a minimum, provide an EB countermeasure based on determination of a hazardous

situation.
5.5.2 Hazardous situation

BDCMS shall monitor the area forward of the SV, whenever it is in the active state, to determine if a

hazardous situation exists.

Typical hazardous situations such as longitudinal and crossing ones are shown in Figure 3. BDCMS shall

determine if a hazardous situation exists for any relative bicyclist approach angle and size of bicyclist.

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO 22078:2020(E)
Figure 3 — Bicyclist longitudinal and crossing hazardous situations

BDCMS may optionally detect bicycles when a pedestrian is present next to the bicycle. Performance

limitations are given by bad weather conditions (e.g. fog, rain, and snow), illumination (e.g. glaring by

backlighting), occlusions and abnormal shapes of bicyclists (e.g. special clothing, large transported items).

BDCMS shall not initiate emergency countermeasures when a bicyclist is detected forward of the SV

when the situation is determined not to be hazardous (i.e. when the bicyclist and SV trajectory are such

that a collision is not imminent).

BDCMS shall determine a hazardous situation on roads with a horizontal curve radius of 500 m or

greater (see 5.5.3 and A.1).
5.5.3 Operating speed
5.5.3.1 General

BDCMS shall operate with an SV speed between 4,2 m/s (15 km/h) and 15,3 m/s (55 km/h) and shall

address bicyclists with a speed between 2,8 m/s (10 km/h) and 5,6 m/s (20 km/h). Beyond these

operating speed ranges, the upper and lower speed limits of BDCMS operation for the SV and the upper

and lower speed limits for bicyclists, regardless of the direction of motion of bicyclists, may be exceeded

by the manufacturer. Operating speeds are absolute values.
5.5.3.2 Minimum SV speed ( v )
min
All BDCMS shall have a value of v of 4,2 m/s (15 km/h) or less.
min

BDCMS shall enter the inactive state if the SV speed drops below v (or the OEM set value if it is

min
lower than 4,2 m/s [15 km/h]) and EB is not in process.
5.5.3.3 Maximum SV speed ( v )
max
All BDCMS shall have a value of v of 15,3 m/s (55 km/h) or greater.
max
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ISO 22078:2020(E)
5.5.3.4 Minimum bicyclist speed ( v )
min
All BDCMS shall have a value of v of 2,8 m/s (10 km/h) or less.
min
5.5.3.5 Maximum bicyclist speed ( v )
max
All BDCMS shall have a value of v of 5,6 m/s (20 km/h) or greater.
max
5.5.4 Horizontal curve radius capability
All BDCMS systems shall operate along curves of radii at and above 500 m.
5.5.5 Countermeasure requirements
5.5.5.1 General

The following requirements represent minimum functionality as defined for BDCMS operation.

Manufacturers may exceed this minimum functionality at their discretion.
5.5.5.2 Provision of EB
All BDCMS shall provide EB based on determination of a hazardous situation.
5.5.5.3 Class I — Light vehicles
5.5.5.3.1 Initiation of EB
EB shall not be initiated if the situation is determined not to be hazardous.
5.5.5.3.2 Minimum speed reduction in EB

BDCMS shall activate the EB countermeasure upon determination of a hazardous situation. It is the

intent of this document that the SV EB countermeasure provides as much speed reduction as possible

to mitigate a hazardous situation; however, as current state-of-the-art sensors have limitations, the

detection area for crossing bicyclists is also limited. For example, only bicycles with certain speeds

can be detected in certain crossing scenarios. Additionally, certain BDCMS implementations may be

combined with an automated evasion countermeasure which could lead to different approaches to

mitigating the hazardous situation. For example, certain longitudinal bicyclist positions near the

edges of the SV trajectory may lead to a reduced speed reduction. In these circumstances, while the

minimum speed reduction may not be fully achieved, BDCMS shall begin the EB countermeasure upon

the determination of a hazardous situation so that some speed reduction is realized. Considering these

limitations, BDCMS shall achieve at least the specified minimum speed reduction as defined in the basic

validation tests of Clause 6.
5.5.5.3.3 Termination of EB
BDCMS may deactivate if the situation is determined to be no longer hazardous.
5.5.5.4 Class II — Heavy vehicles
5.5.5.4.1 Initiation of EB
EB shall not be initiated if the situation is determined not to be hazardous.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 7
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ISO 22078:2020(E)
5.5.5.4.2 Minimum speed reduction in EB

BDCMS shall activate the EB countermeasure upon determination of a hazardous situation. It is the

intent of this document that the the SV EB countermeasure provides as much speed reduction as

possible to mitigate a hazardous situation; however, as current state-of-the-art sensors have limitations,

the detection area for crossing bicyclists is also limited. For example, only bicycles with certain speeds

can be detected in certain crossing scenarios. Additionally, certain BDCMS implementations may be

combined with an automated evasion countermeasure which could lead to different approaches to

mitigating the hazardous situation. For example, certain longitudinal bicyclist positions near the

edges of the SV trajectory may lead to a reduced speed reduction. In these circumstances, while the

minimum speed reduction may not be fully achieved, BDCMS shall begin the EB countermeasure upon

the determination of a hazardous situation so that some speed reduction is realized. Considering these

limitations, BDCMS shall achieve at least the specified minimum speed reduction as defined in the basic

validation tests in Clause 6.
5.5.5.4.3 Termination of EB
BDCMS may deactivate if the situation is determined to be no longer hazardous.
5.5.5.5 Driver-commanded enhancement of EB

BDCMS shall allow a driver-initiated increase in braking force unless the SV is already braking at its

maximum capability.
5.5.5.6 Driver initiated override of EB

BDCMS may optionally permit the driver to override EB by driver actions in a manner to be defined by

the manufacturer. After EB has been activated and the driver has overridden it, EB may again activate

after the driver override has ended.
5.5.5.7 Braking with reduced traction

EB shall not lead to locked wheels for periods longer than the anti-lock brake system (ABS) or ESC

devices would allow.
5.5.6 Driver controls and human interface
5.5.6.1 System limitation information

The driver shall at least be informed of BDCMS operating limitations by means of the owner's manual or

equivalent alternative.
5.5.6.2 BDCMS fault indication

The driver shall be provided with an indication of system failure. Specific implementation of the

indication is left to the manufacturer.
5.5.6.3 BDCMS state indication

The driver shall be provided with an indication of the BDCMS off-state. Specific implementation of the

indication is left to the manufacturer.
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ISO 22078:2020(E)
6 Test procedures
6.1 General

Test procedures defined in Clause 6 are not intended to be used as exhaustive conformity tests. They

are basic validation tests for use by the manufacturer. More extensive tests may be performed, at the

discretion of the manufacturer, to ensure BDCMS conformity to the functional requirements of this

document.
Low-beam light shall be used for the test.

All BDCMS shall at a minimum be tested against the two scenarios defined in 6.4 and 6.5. For the

crossing scenario, without mitigation, the impact point would be at the centre of the SV and the centre

of the bottom bracket of the bicycle, assuming no position tolerance.

BDCMS type 1 systems shall at minimum be tested under type 1 illumination as defined in 6.3.5.2.

BDCMS typ
...

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