Thermal performance of windows and doors -- Determination of solar heat gain coefficient using solar simulator

ISO 19467:2017 specifies a method to measure the solar heat gain coefficient of complete windows and doors. ISO 19467:2017 applies to windows and doors a) with various types of glazing (glass or plastic; single or multiple glazing; with or without low emissivity coatings, and with spaces filled with air or other gases), b) with opaque panels, c) with various types of frames (wood, plastic, metallic with and without thermal barrier or any combination of materials), d) with various types of shading devices (blind, screen, film or any attachment with shading effects), e) with various types of active solar fenestration systems [building-integrated PV systems (BIPV) or building-integrated solar thermal collectors (BIST)]. ISO 19467:2017 does not include the following: a) shading effects of building elements (e.g. eaves, sleeve wall, etc.); b) heat transfer caused by air leakage between indoors and outdoors; c) ventilation of air spaces in double and coupled windows; d) thermal bridge effects at the rebate or joint between the window or door frame and the rest of the building envelope. ISO 19467:2017 does not apply to the following: a) non-vertical windows; b) curtain walls; c) industrial, commercial and garage doors.

Performance thermique des fenêtres et portes -- Détermination du coefficient de gain thermique solaire au moyen d'un simulateur solaire

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
26-Apr-2017
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
29-Dec-2016
Completion Date
27-Apr-2017
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 19467
First edition
2017-04
Thermal performance of windows and
doors — Determination of solar heat
gain coefficient using solar simulator
Performance thermique des fenêtres et portes — Détermination du
coefficient de gain thermique solaire au moyen d’un simulateur solaire
Reference number
ISO 19467:2017(E)
ISO 2017
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 19467:2017(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2017, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

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www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 19467:2017(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Symbols and subscripts ................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Measurement of heat flow rates with irradiance ...................................................................................................... 3

5.3 Determination of the net density of heat flow rate due to thermal transmission ........................ 5

5.4 Measurement of heat flow rates without irradiance .............................................................................................. 6

6 Test apparatus and specimens ............................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.1 Construction and summary of the test apparatus .................................................................................................... 8

6.1.1 Construction of the test apparatus ................................................................................................................... 8

6.1.2 Summary of the test apparatus ........................................................................................................................... 9

6.2 Solar simulator ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 9

6.3 Climatic chamber ...............................................................................................................................................................................10

6.4 Metering box ..........................................................................................................................................................................................10

6.5 Surround panels ..................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.6 Calibration panels..............................................................................................................................................................................11

6.7 Metering location of temperatures and irradiance...............................................................................................11

6.8 Test specimens .....................................................................................................................................................................................12

7 Measurement procedure ...........................................................................................................................................................................12

7.1 Measurement .........................................................................................................................................................................................12

7.2 Expression of results for reference conditions ........................................................................................................13

8 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................13

8.1 Report contents ...................................................................................................................................................................................13

8.2 Estimation of uncertainty ...........................................................................................................................................................14

Annex A (normative) Determination of surface coefficient of heat transfer ...........................................................15

Annex B (normative) Determination of night time U-value in case of small

temperature difference ..............................................................................................................................................................................17

Annex C (normative) Correction of measured solar heat gain coefficient to reference conditions 18

Annex D (informative) Examples of design of measuring apparatus ..............................................................................30

Annex E (informative) Example of temperature measurement ............................................................................................39

Annex F (informative) Measuring method and example of measurement of active solar

fenestration systems .....................................................................................................................................................................................42

Annex G (informative) Example of measurement and uncertainty analysis............................................................44

Annex H (informative) Spectral weighting procedures based on ISO 9050 and with

analogous solar simulator spectra .................................................................................................................................................47

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................52

© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 19467:2017(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: w w w . i s o .org/ iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 163, Thermal performance and energy use

in the built environment, Subcommittee SC 1, Test and measurement methods.
iv © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO 19467:2017(E)
Introduction

The terms solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC), total solar energy transmittance (TSET), solar factor

and g-value are all used to describe the same quantity. Small differences might be caused by different

reference conditions (e.g. differences in the reference solar spectrum). In this document, solar heat gain

coefficient is used.

This document is designed to provide solar heat gain coefficient values by standardized measurement

method and to enable a fair comparison of different products. It specifies standardized apparatus and

criteria. The solar heat gain coefficient measuring apparatus applied in this document includes solar

simulator, climatic chamber, and metering box. Solar heat gain coefficient values of windows and doors

with or without shading devices shall be determined more precisely by means of combination between

calculation and measurement.

This document does not deal with the centre of glazing solar heat gain coefficient measurement.

However, the centre of glazing solar heat gain coefficient can be measured by either this method or

cooled plate method (see Reference [12]).
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 19467:2017(E)
Thermal performance of windows and doors —
Determination of solar heat gain coefficient using solar
simulator
1 Scope

This document specifies a method to measure the solar heat gain coefficient of complete windows

and doors.
This document applies to windows and doors

a) with various types of glazing (glass or plastic; single or multiple glazing; with or without low

emissivity coatings, and with spaces filled with air or other gases),
b) with opaque panels,

c) with various types of frames (wood, plastic, metallic with and without thermal barrier or any

combination of materials),

d) with various types of shading devices (blind, screen, film or any attachment with shading effects),

e) with various types of active solar fenestration systems [building-integrated PV systems (BIPV) or

building-integrated solar thermal collectors (BIST)].
This document does not include the following:
a) shading effects of building elements (e.g. eaves, sleeve wall, etc.);
b) heat transfer caused by air leakage between indoors and outdoors;
c) ventilation of air spaces in double and coupled windows;

d) thermal bridge effects at the rebate or joint between the window or door frame and the rest of the

building envelope.
This document does not apply to the following:
a) non-vertical windows;
b) curtain walls;
c) industrial, commercial and garage doors.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 9050, Glass in building — Determination of light transmittance, solar direct transmittance, total solar

energy transmittance, ultraviolet transmittance and related glazing factors

ISO 9845-1, Solar energy — Reference solar spectral irradiance at the ground at different receiving

conditions — Part 1: Direct normal and hemispherical solar irradiance for air mass 1,5

ISO 12567-1, Thermal performance of windows and doors — Determination of thermal transmittance by

the hot-box method — Part 1: Complete windows and doors
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 19467:2017(E)

ISO 15099:2003, Thermal performance of windows, doors and shading devices — Detailed calculations

ISO 52022-3 , Energy performance of buildings — Thermal, solar and daylight properties of building

components and elements — Part 3: Detailed calculation method of the solar and daylight characteristics

for solar protection devices combined with glazing

IEC 60904-9, Photovoltaic devices — Part 9: Solar simulator performance requirements

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 7345, ISO 8990, ISO 9288,

ISO 9845-1, ISO 12567-1, ISO 15099 and IEC 60904-9 apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http:// www .iso .org/ obp
4 Symbols and subscripts
Symbol Quantity Unit
A Area m
Solar heat gain coefficient (also known as total solar energy
g —
transmittance, solar factor or g-value)
h Surface coefficient of heat transfer W/(m ·K)
H Height m
Irradiance, density of heat flow rate of incident radiation
I (energy per unit area per unit time resulting from incident W/m
radiation)
Density of heat flow rate (energy per unit area per unit time
q resulting from radiative and/or convective and/or conduc- W/m
tive heat transfer)
U Thermal transmittance W/(m ·K)
W Width m
θ Celsius temperature °C
Heat flow rate (energy per unit time resulting from radia-
Φ W
tive and/or convective and/or conductive heat transfer)
Subscripts Significance
Planes of peripheral wall of the me-
tering box
C Cooling device
ex External
F Internal fan
g Glazing
H Heating device
in Internal
m Measured
N Without irradiance
ne Environmental external
1) To be published.
2 © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO 19467:2017(E)
Subscripts Significance
ni Environmental internal
P Surround panel
r Reflection
Solar Incident radiation
sp Test specimen
st Standardized
5 Principle
5.1 General

The solar heat gain coefficient can be determined according to the same principle equations that are

described as in ISO 15099:2003, Formula (14) and ISO 52022-3. Therefore, the determination of the

solar heat gain coefficient of windows and doors involves two stages. The first stage is to measure

the density of heat flow rate through the test specimen with irradiance (solar heat gain + thermal

transmission). The second stage is to measure the density of heat flow rate through the test specimen

without irradiance (thermal transmission).

The net density of heat flow rate of incident radiation is determined by the radiometer in front of the

test specimen during the first stage.

The net density of heat flow rate of the solar heat gain is determined as the difference between the net

density of heat flow rate measured in the first stage and the net density of heat flow rate due to thermal

transmission, which is evaluated using the thermal transmittance measured in the second stage.

Since the measured solar heat gain coefficient, g , of windows and doors is the ratio of the net density

of heat flow rate of the solar heat gain to the net density of heat flow rate of incident radiation, it shall be

calculated using Formula (1) with or without shading devices:
qq−=q 0
in in Solar
g = (1)
Solar
where
q is the net density of heat flow rate of incident radiation, in W/m ;
Solar

q is the net density of heat flow rate through the test specimen with irradiance,

in W/m ;

q (q = 0) is the net density of heat flow rate through the test specimen due to thermal

in Solar
transmission without irradiance when the temperature difference between inter-
nal side and external side is (θ – θ ), in W/m .
ne ni

All of the effects such as changes in the surface coefficient of heat transfer caused by the irradiance

shall be included in the solar heat gain coefficient.
5.2 Measurement of heat flow rates with irradiance
The heat flow rates with irradiance are shown in Figure 1.
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 19467:2017(E)
Key

1 external side baffle (optional) Φ heat flow rate through the planes of peripheral wall of the metering

box with irradiance

2 internal side baffle (optional) Φ heat flow rate removed by the cooling device with irradiance

3 heat flow measuring device Φ heat flow rate supplied by the one or more internal fans with

irradiance (optional)
4 cooling device Φ heat flow rate supplied by the heating device with irradiance
(optional)

5 heating device (optional) Φ net heat flow rate through the test specimen with irradiance

6 one or more internal fans (optional)Φ (q = 0) net heat flow rate through the test specimen due to thermal

in Solar
transmission without irradiance when the temperature
difference between internal side and external side is
(θ – θ )
ne ni
7 test specimen Φ heat flow rate through the surround panel with irradiance
Φ net heat flow rate of incident radiation
Solar

NOTE This figure shows the case of a condition when the environmental external temperature is higher

than the environmental internal temperature. In the case of a reverse condition, the directions of the heat flow

through the test specimen and the surround panel due to thermal transmission will be reversed.

Figure 1 — Heat flow rates with irradiance

The net density of heat flow rate of the incident radiation, q , shall be calculated using Formula (2):

Solar
IA×− IA×
Solarspr g
Solar
q == (2)
Solar
A A
sp sp
where
4 © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO 19467:2017(E)
Φ is the net heat flow rate of incident radiation, in watts;
Solar
I is the density of heat flow rate of the incident radiation, in W/m ;
Solar
A is the projected area of the test specimen, in m ;

I is the density of heat flow rate of the incident radiation that is transmitted to the exter-

nal side of the metering box after being reflected in the internal side of the metering box,

in W/m ;
A is the glazing area of the test specimen, in m .

If I is proved to be negligible (I approximately 0), the net density of heat flow rate of the incident

r r

radiation, q , shall be calculated using Formula (3) which results in the second term on the right side

Solar
of Formula (2) to become 0.
Solar
q == I (3)
Solar Solar

Whether I is negligible or not, it shall be evaluated by means of 7.2 and Annex C. In the case of ripped

cooling devices with multi reflection between the cooling lamella, I can be neglected if the coating of

the cooling lamella has a solar reflectance of 0,05 or lower.

The net density of heat flow rate through the test specimen with irradiance, q , shall be calculated

using Formula (4):
Φ ΦΦ−−ΦΦ−−Φ
in CB FH P
q == (4)
sp sp
where
Φ is the net heat flow rate through the test specimen with irradiance, in watts;
Φ is the heat flow rate removed by the cooling device with irradiance, in watts;

Φ is the heat flow rate through the planes of peripheral wall of the metering box with irradiance,

in watts;

Φ is the heat flow rate supplied by the one or more internal fans with irradiance (optional),

in watts;

Φ is the heat flow rate supplied by the heating device with irradiance (optional), in watts;

Φ is the heat flow rate through the surround panel with irradiance, in watts.

5.3 Determination of the net density of heat flow rate due to thermal transmission

The net density of heat flow rate through the test specimen due to thermal transmission without

irradiance, q (q = 0), shall be calculated using Formula (5):
in Solar
Φ q = 0
in Solar
qq = 0 = =×U θθ− (5)
() ()
in Solar Nneni
where
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO 19467:2017(E)

Φ (q = 0) is the net heat flow rate through the test specimen due to thermal transmission

in Solar
without irradiance when the temperature difference between internal side and
external side is (θ – θ ), in watts;
ne ni

U is the thermal transmittance of the test specimen without irradiance, in W/(m ·K);

θ is the environmental external temperature with irradiance, in °C;
θ is the environmental internal temperature with irradiance, in °C.
5.4 Measurement of heat flow rates without irradiance

The thermal transmittance of the test specimen without irradiance, U , shall be calculated using

Formula (6):
qq =
in Solar
U = (6)
θθ−
ne ni
where

q′ (q = 0) is the net density of heat flow rate through the test specimen due to thermal trans-

in Solar
mission without irradiance when the temperature difference between internal side
and external side is (θ′ – θ′ ), in W/m ;
ne ni
θ′ is the environmental external temperature without irradiance, in °C;
θ′ is the environmental internal temperature without irradiance, in °C.

In the case when (θ′ – θ′ ) is too small, U shall be estimated by means of Annex B.

ne ni N
The heat flow rates without irradiance are shown in Figure 2.
6 © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO 19467:2017(E)
Key

1 external side baffle (optional) Φ′ heat flow rate through the planes of peripheral wall of the metering box

without irradiance

2 internal side baffle (optional) Φ′ heat flow rate removed by the cooling device without irradiance

3 heat flow measuring device Φ′ heat flow rate supplied by the one or more internal fans without irradiance

(optional)

4 cooling device Φ′ heat flow rate supplied by the heating device without irradiance (optional)

5 heating device (optional) Φ′ (q = 0) net heat flow rate through the test specimen due to thermal

in Solar
transmission without irradiance when the temperature
difference between internal side and external side is (θ′ – θ′ )
ne ni

6 one or more internal fans (optional) Φ′ heat flow rate through the surround panel without irradiance

7 test specimen

NOTE This figure shows the case of a condition when the environmental external temperature is higher

than the environmental internal temperature. In the case of a reverse condition, the directions of the heat flow

through the test specimen and the surround panel due to thermal transmission will be reversed.

Figure 2 — Heat flow rates without irradiance

The net density of heat flow rate through the test specimen due to thermal transmission without

irradiance, q’ (q = 0), shall be calculated using Formula (7):
in Solar
′′ ′′ ′
Φ q = 0
ΦΦ−−ΦΦ−−Φ
in Solar
CB FH P
qq = 0 = = (7)
in Solar
sp sp
where
© ISO 2017 – All rights reserved 7
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ISO 19467:2017(E)

Φ′ (q = 0) is the net heat flow rate through the test specimen due to thermal transmission

in Solar
without irradiance when the temperature difference between internal side and
external side is (θ′ – θ′ ), in watts;
ne ni

Φ′ is the heat flow rate removed by the cooling device without irradiance, in watts;

Φ′ is the heat flow rate through the planes of peripheral wall of the metering box with-

out irradiance, in watts;

Φ′ is the heat flow rate supplied by the one or more internal fans without irradiance

(optional), in watts;

Φ′ is the heat flow rate supplied by the heating device without irradiance (optional),

in watts;

Φ′ is the heat flow rate through the surround panel without irradiance, in watts.

6 Test apparatus and specimens
6.1 Construction and summary of the test apparatus
6.1.1 Construction of the test apparatus

The measuring apparatus consists of a solar simulator, a climatic chamber, and a metering box. The

overall construction of the measuring apparatus is shown in Figure 3.
Key
1 solar simulator 8 test specimen
2 climatic chamber 9 internal side baffle (optional)
3 metering box 10 one or more internal fans (optional)
4 transparent aperture 11 heating device (optional)
5 external side baffle (optional) 12 heat flow measuring device
6 external airflow generator 13 cooling device
7 surround panel 14 peripheral wall of the metering box
Figure 3 — Construction of the test apparatus
8 © ISO 2017 – All rights reserved
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ISO 19467:2017(E)
6.1.2 Summary of the test apparatus
The measuring apparatus can be summarized as follows.

a) Light emitted by the solar simulator passes through the transparent aperture and is then

directed towards the test specimen. The light passing through the test specimen is absorbed by

the cooling device.

b) The transparent aperture is installed in the climatic chamber in order to allow the light from the

solar simulator to pass through to the test specimen.

c) The external airflow generator and the external side baffle with transparency may be installed

in the climatic chamber in order to adjust the external surface coefficient of heat transfer and

environmental external temperature.

d) The cooling device is installed opposite the test specimen in the metering box in order to remove

the solar heat gain and the thermal transmission that has entered the metering box.

e) The heating device and the internal side baffle with transparency may be installed in the metering

box in order to adjust the internal surface coefficient of heat transfer and environmental internal

temperature.

f) One or more internal fans may be installed in the metering box in order to stir the internal air to

obtain a uniform temperature distribution and/or to adjust the internal surface coefficient of heat

transfer.

g) All of the heat flow rates passing through the metering box are measured by the heat flow

measuring device in order to determine the net heat flow rate through the test specimen.

h) All the walls and the floor shall be covered with the coating of solar reflectance of 0,05 or lower in

order to avoid stray light.
6.2 Solar simulator

A steady-state solar simulator shall be used, which meets with the following requirements.

a) Spectral match of the irradiance: The spectral match of the irradiance on the test plane is defined

by the deviation from the global reference solar spectral irradiance for air mass 1,5 in accordance

with ISO 9845-1. For nine wavelength ranges, the percentage of total irradiance is specified in

Table 1. The spectral match to all wavelength ranges specified in Table 1 shall be measured in

accordance with IEC 60904-9 and shall be within 0,55 to 1,45. Examples of spectral match of solar

simulator are shown in Table D.1.

Table 1 — Global reference solar spectral irradiance distribution given in ISO 9845-1

Wavelength range Percentage of total irradiance in the
No.
nm wavelength range 300 nm to 2 500 nm
1 300 to 400 4,6 %
2 400 to 500 14,1 %
3 500 to 600 15,4 %
4 600 to 700 14,0 %
5 700 to 800 11,3 %
6 800 to 900 9,4 %
7 900 to 1 100 12,2 %
8 1 100 to 1 700 14,1 %
9 1 700 to 2 500 4,8 %
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ISO 19467:2017(E)

b) Non-uniformity of the irradiance: The non-uniformity of the irradiance on the test plane shall be

measured in accordance with IEC 60904-9 and shall be within 5 %. However, the designated test

area shall be divided into at least 16 points, alternatively.

c) Temporal instability of the irradiance: Temporal instability of the irradiance on the test plane shall

be measured by the procedure for long term instability (LTI) in accordance with IEC 60904-9 and

shall be within 5 %.

d) Maximum angle of irradiance: The maximum angle of irradiance to the test specimen shall be

within 10°.

e) Area of effective irradiance: The width and height of the area of effective irradiance shal

...

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