Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange — Tag image file format for image technology (TIFF/IT)

ISO 12639:2004 specifies a media-independent means for prepress electronic data exchange using a tag image file format (TIFF). ISO 12639:2004 defines image file formats for encoding colour continuous-tone picture images, colour line-art images, high-resolution continuous-tone images, monochrome continuous-tone picture images, binary picture images, binary line-art images, screened data, and images of composite final pages.

Technologie graphique — Échange de données numériques de préimpression — Format de fichier d'image d'étiquette pour la technologie d'image

Grafična tehnologija - Izmenjava digitalnih podatkov v grafični pripravi - Slikovna tehnologija; slikovni format TIFF/IT

Ta mednarodni standard določa sredstva, neodvisna od medijev, za izmenjavo elektronskih podatkov v grafični pripravi z uporabo slikovnega formata. Ta mednarodni standard opredeljuje slikovni format za kodiranje slikovnih podob iz trajne barve, enobarvnih skic, visokoresolucijskih podob iz trajne barve, črno-belih slikovnih podob iz trajne barve, dvobarvnih slikovnih podob, dvobarvnih skic, presejanih podatkov in podob končnih sestavljenih strani.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
16-May-2004
Current Stage
9093 - International Standard confirmed
Start Date
07-Sep-2007
Completion Date
06-Dec-2017

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 12639
Second edition
2004-05-15
Graphic technology — Prepress digital
data exchange — Tag image file format
for image technology (TIFF/IT)
Technologie graphique — Échange de données numériques de
préimpression — Format de fichier d'image d'étiquette pour la
technologie d'image
Reference number
ISO 12639:2004(E)
ISO 2004
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 12639:2004(E)
PDF disclaimer

This PDF file may contain embedded typefaces. In accordance with Adobe's licensing policy, this file may be printed or viewed but

shall not be edited unless the typefaces which are embedded are licensed to and installed on the computer performing the editing. In

downloading this file, parties accept therein the responsibility of not infringing Adobe's licensing policy. The ISO Central Secretariat

accepts no liability in this area.
Adobe is a trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated.

Details of the software products used to create this PDF file can be found in the General Info relative to the file; the PDF-creation

parameters were optimized for printing. Every care has been taken to ensure that the file is suitable for use by ISO member bodies. In

the unlikely event that a problem relating to it is found, please inform the Central Secretariat at the address given below.

© ISO 2004

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or

ISO's member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 12639:2004(E)
Contents Page

Foreword............................................................................................................................................................. v

Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... vi

1 Scope...................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Compliance levels and identification.................................................................................................. 1

2.1 General................................................................................................................................................... 1

2.2 Image file type identification................................................................................................................ 1

2.3 TIFF/IT conformance............................................................................................................................. 2

2.4 TIFF/IT-P1 conformance....................................................................................................................... 2

2.5 TIFF/IT-P2 conformance....................................................................................................................... 2

2.6 Conformance identification.................................................................................................................. 2

3 Normative references........................................................................................................................... 2

4 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms.......................................................................................... 3

4.1 Terms and definitions........................................................................................................................... 3

4.2 Abbreviated terms................................................................................................................................. 5

5 Notations and field types ..................................................................................................................... 5

5.1 Notations................................................................................................................................................ 5

5.2 Field types.............................................................................................................................................. 6

6 Image data type description................................................................................................................. 7

6.1 Colour continuous-tone picture image (CT) data ..............................................................................7

6.2 Colour line-art (LW) image data........................................................................................................... 7

6.3 High-resolution continuous-tone (HC) image data............................................................................ 7

6.4 Monochrome and binary images......................................................................................................... 7

6.5 Final page (FP) data .............................................................................................................................. 8

7 Requirements for TIFF/IT, TIFF/IT-P1 and TIFF/IT-P2 image data files............................................ 8

7.1 Structure of TIFF/IT file......................................................................................................................... 8

7.2 General parameters............................................................................................................................ 10

7.3 Colour continuous-tone picture (CT) file.......................................................................................... 22

7.4 Colour line-art (LW) file ...................................................................................................................... 25

7.5 High-resolution continuous-tone (HC) file ....................................................................................... 32

7.6 Monochrome continuous-tone picture (MP) file .............................................................................. 35

7.7 Binary picture (BP) file ....................................................................................................................... 38

7.8 Binary line-art (BL) file........................................................................................................................ 40

7.9 Screened data image (SD) file............................................................................................................ 42

7.10 Final page (FP) file .............................................................................................................................. 44

Annex A (informative) Background of conformity levels ............................................................................. 50

Annex B (informative) Identification and determination procedures for TIFF/IT file type ........................ 52

Annex C (informative) Relationship between image types on a colour page ............................................ 54

Annex D (informative) Alphabetical list of TIFF/IT field names.................................................................... 55

Annex E (normative) Incorporating JPEG compressed data into TIFF/IT .................................................. 57

Annex F (normative) Incorporating Flate compressed data into TIFF/IT.................................................... 59

Annex G (normative) RGB colour-space data in TIFF/IT-CT........................................................................ 61

Annex H (normative) LAB colour space data in TIFF/IT CT ......................................................................... 65

Annex I (informative) Colour values ............................................................................................................... 68

© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 12639:2004(E)

Annex J (normative) ICC Profile tag in TIFF/IT image...................................................................................69

Annex K (informative) Monochrome continuous-tone picture colour-value calculation ..........................70

Bibliography......................................................................................................................................................74

iv © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 12639:2004(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 12639 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 130, Graphic technology.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 12639:1998), which has been technically

revised to add new capabilities, as well as a new constrained conformity level call Profile 2 (P2) to supplement

the previously defined Profile 1 (P1), which is unchanged.
New capabilities include the following:
 expanded LW palette to support up to 65 535 colours;
 support for up to 32 separations;
 new file format “SD” for copydot data with CCITT G4 compression;
 new compression schemes: Flate and JPEG;
 “FP” file format is now defined as normative.
© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved v
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ISO 12639:2004(E)
Introduction

The goal of ISO/TC 130 in developing the initial version of ISO 12639 was to enable the interchange of

various types of rasterized colour and monochrome image data among electronic digital systems used in

prepress image processing, graphic arts design and related document creation and production operations. It

was, and is, intended for use as a media-independent means for such interchange, and therefore is applicable

to facilitate interchange through a variety of mechanisms such as, but not limited to, network, magnetic and

optical media. Both ISO 12639:1998 and this second edition are based on the Adobe TIFF, Version 6.0 file

format, and both extend and restrict the technical features of that format.

This second edition of ISO 12639, though based on ISO 12639:1998, specifies new capabilities, as well as a

new constrained conformity level called Profile 2 (P2) to supplement the previously defined Profile 1 (P1),

which is unchanged. The key added capabilities include a normative final page (FP) format; a new SD file

format with optional G4 compression for copydot data; definitive ways to use RGB and CIELAB colour spaces

in CT, as well as 16-bit-per-channel data in CT; JPEG compression in CT and MP; Flate compression in all

formats except LW, HC and BL; spot colours (colours other than cyan, magenta, yellow and black) in LW, CT,

HC, MP, BP, BL, and SD; and support for up to 65 535 colours in LW colour palettes. The new P2 compliance

level incorporates all features of P1 and defines a constrained compliance level for these new capabilities.

All of the features of ISO 12639:1998, including the constrained level of conformity called Profile 1 (P1), have

been retained. It should be noted that the P1 formats for CT (Colour Picture), MP (Monochrome Picture), and

BP (Binary Picture) files are compatible with the popular TIFF 6.0 files for CMYK (Separated) Images,

Monochrome Images and Bilevel Images respectively. The P1 formats for HC (High-Resolution Continuous-

Tone), LW (Line-Art) and BL (Binary Line-Art), though not compatible with TIFF 6.0, are designed to be easier

to implement within desktop systems by limiting the range of options and selections. The Profile 1 and 2

formats allow for a broader usage of this International Standard by allowing conformance to simplified,

restricted subsets of functionality supported by many popular application software systems used in the

prepress, graphic arts document processing and computer graphics and imaging industries. A P2-compliant

reader will also read all P1-compliant files.

As a historical note, ISO 12639:1998 was based on the American National Standard ANSI IT8.8, Graphic

technology — Prepress digital data exchange — Tag image file format for image technology (TIFF/IT).

vi © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 12639:2004(E)
Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange — Tag
image file format for image technology (TIFF/IT)
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies a media-independent means for prepress electronic data exchange

using a tag image file format. This International Standard defines image file formats for encoding colour

continuous-tone picture images, colour line-art images, high-resolution continuous-tone images, monochrome

continuous-tone picture images, binary picture images, binary line-art images, screened data, and images of

composite final pages.
2 Compliance levels and identification
2.1 General

This International Standard has three levels of conformance: TIFF/IT (also referred to as full TIFF/IT),

TIFF/IT-P1 and TIFF/IT-P2. All conformance levels are intended to support a media-independent means for

the exchange of various images used in the prepress, printing, graphic arts, and information processing fields.

TIFF/IT-P1 conformance provides a minimized set of options to permit simpler implementation and

compatibility, where possible (for CT, BP, and MP files), with commonly available TIFF 6.0 readers and writers.

TIFF/IT-P1 is intended for use where the full set of TIFF/IT options is not required.

TIFF/IT-P2 is also a subset of the TIFF/IT specification. TIFF/IT-P2 incorporates all of the options defined for

TIFF/IT-P1 and, in addition, provides support for spot colours, a larger LW colour palette, the SD file format for

screened data, and additional compression methods.

Only those TIFF/IT fields defined in this International Standard are required to be written, recognized and

interpreted by conforming implementations. TIFF fields that are unclassified or not referred to in this

International Standard are not required to be supported for an implementation to conform to this International

Standard. If an unsupported field is read, processing of that field is at the discretion of the reader. The reader

shall follow the strategy described in TIFF and attempt to process the file while ignoring unsupported fields

(see Annex A).

This International Standard specifies the requirements for conforming TIFF/IT, TIFF/IT-P1 and/or TIFF/IT-P2

files for specific image data types. Files for each specific image data type that conform to the requirements of

this International Standard shall be considered conforming TIFF/IT, TIFF/IT-P1 and/or TIFF/IT-P2 files for the

specific image data type. Readers that accept and process these files shall be considered conforming TIFF/IT,

TIFF/IT-P1 or TIFF/IT-P2 readers for the specific image data types. Writers that generate and output these

files shall be considered conforming TIFF/IT, TIFF/IT-P1 or TIFF/IT-P2 writers for the specific image data

types. Where requirements of this International Standard and TIFF 6.0 are in conflict, this International

Standard shall take precedence.
2.2 Image file type identification

TIFF/IT provides the ability to represent the data structure of a wide range of printing and graphic arts images.

The identification of the individual image file types is as follows (see Annex B):

 TIFF/IT-CT colour continuous-tone picture image data;
 TIFF/IT-LW colour line-art image data;
© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 12639:2004(E)
 TIFF/IT-HC high-resolution continuous-tone image data;
 TIFF/IT-MP monochrome continuous-tone picture image data;
 TIFF/IT-BP binary picture image data;
 TIFF/IT-BL binary line-art image data;
 TIFF/IT-SD screened data image data;
 TIFF/IT-FP final page data.
2.3 TIFF/IT conformance

For conformance to this International Standard, all image file types do not have to be implemented. Each

image file type described in Clause 7 may be individually implemented. Files, readers or writers may be

identified as conforming for either all image file types or specifically identified image file types.

Conformance with TIFF/IT requires implementation of the requirements for all image file types as described in

Clause 7. Conformance with a specific image file type or types requires identification of the specific image file

type using the identification defined in 2.2 (e.g. TIFF/IT-CT).
2.4 TIFF/IT-P1 conformance

TIFF/IT-P1 conformance provides the ability to represent the data structure of various images in as simple and

straightforward a way as possible in order to support image-file exchange with prepress, printing, graphic arts,

and information processing systems and applications. TIFF/IT-P1 is a subset of TIFF/IT.

Conformance with TIFF/IT-P1 requires implementation of the requirements for all image file types as

described in Clause 7. Conformance with a specific image file type or types requires identification of the

specific image file type using the identification defined in 2.2 with the designation “/P1” appended (e.g.

TIFF/IT-CT/P1).
2.5 TIFF/IT-P2 conformance

TIFF/IT-P2 conformance provides the ability to represent the data structure of various images in as simple and

straightforward a way as possible in order to support image file exchange with prepress, printing, graphic arts,

and information processing systems and applications. TIFF/IT-P2 is a subset of TIFF/IT and forms an

intermediate conformance level between TIFF/IT and TIFF/IT-P1.

Conformance with TIFF/IT-P2 requires implementation of the requirements for all image file types as

described in Clause 7. Conformance with a specific image-file type or types requires identification of the

specific image file type using the identification defined in 2.2 with the designation “/P2” appended (e.g.

TIFF/IT-CT/P2).
2.6 Conformance identification

Conformance with the provisions of this International Standard shall be identified individually for files, readers,

and writers. The accepted terminology shall be the image-file type followed by the designation “file”, “reader”

or “writer” (e.g. TIFF/IT writer, TIFF/IT-CT/P1 reader, TIFF/IT-LW file).
3 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.
2 © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 12639:2004(E)

ISO 3166 (all parts), Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions

ISO 12641:1997, Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange — Colour targets for input scanner

calibration

ISO 12642:1996, Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange — Input data for characterization of

4-colour process printing

ISO 13655:1996, Graphic technology — Spectral measurement and colorimetric computation for graphic arts

images

ISO/IEC 646:1991, Information technology — ISO 7-bit coded character set for information interchange

ISO/IEC 10918-1:1994, Information Technology — Digital compression and coding of continuous-tone still

images: Requirements and guidelines.

IEC 61966-2-1:1999, Multimedia Systems and Equipment — Colour Measurement and Management —

Part 2-1: Colour management — Default RGB Colour Space — sRGB
ICC.1:2001-12, File Format for Color Profiles, International Color Consortium

TIFF, Revision 6.0 Final, Aldus Corporation (now Adobe Systems Incorporated), June 3, 1992

RFC:1950, ZLIB Compressed Data Format Specification version 3.3, RFC, 1950: DEUTSCH, P., and J-

L. GAILLY, Aladdin Enterprises, May 1996

RFC:1951, DEFLATE Compressed Data Format Specification version 1.3, RFC, 1951: DEUTSCH, P., Aladdin

Enterprises, May 1996
4 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
4.1 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following definitions apply.
4.1.1
big-endian

〈byte-ordering〉 method for arranging the sequence of the bytes within a SHORT or LONG from the most

significant to the least significant byte as the byte address increases
4.1.2
little-endian

〈byte-ordering〉 method for arranging the sequence of the bytes within a SHORT or LONG from the least

significant to the most significant byte as the byte address increases
4.1.3
offset
address within a TIFF/IT file relative to byte zero of the file
4.1.4
offset value
SHORT or LONG value containing the offset of a data element
4.1.5
pixel

picture element, or the smallest single building block of a picture containing colour identification and size

(when used to describe dimensions relating to the picture resolution, as in pixels per unit length)

© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 12639:2004(E)
4.1.6
printing dot value
printing tone value

·of a data set〉 number, recorded as data in the computer, corresponding to the percentage area on a printing

forme that is intended to accept ink for transfer to the final sheet

NOTE This corresponds to the tone value of a half-tone film. The light end of the final reproduction scale (highlights)

has values approaching 0 % (or often in computer files, 0) and the dark end of the scale (shadows) has values

approaching 100 % (or often in computer files, 255).
4.1.7
reader

application, system or subsystem that accepts a file as its input and performs a level of processing on that file

that, at the minimum, accepts or rejects the file based on predetermined criteria and, if accepted, passes the

file to the next stage of processing
4.1.8
run length encoding

data encoding method in which a sequence of data items, which may include many adjacent repetitions of the

same value, is represented by a sequence of ordered pairs, each consisting of a value and a repeat count

NOTE Run length encoding can result in data compression.
4.1.9
separations

individual planes of data that correspond to the colours to be used in the rendering process

NOTE For “process” colours these are cyan (C), magenta (M), yellow (Y), and black (K). Additional separations are

often required for spot or speciality colours or for image-wise finishing treatments such as varnish.

4.1.10
spot colour

single colorant, identified by name, whose printing tone values are specified independently from colour values

specified in a colour co-ordinate system
4.1.11
string
serial sequence of characters, bytes, integers, etc.
4.1.12
TIFF/IT field
TIFF field

one-dimensional array of values (though most are a single-entry array) having an associated count

NOTE An array is identified by a Field name, a Tag number, and a Field type.
4.1.13
TIFF/IT tag
unique numeric identifier for each entry in the TIFF/IT file
4.1.14
transparent colour
attribute that signifies that the underlying image (if any) shows through

NOTE A clear run is where no colour is present and the underlying image (if any) shows through. The colour “white”

signifies that no underlying image will show through, only the underlying substrate (paper). The “transparent” attribute can

be applied to any or all separations of a pixel run or a palette colour in a LW, HC, BL or BP file.

4 © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 12639:2004(E)
4.1.15
trapping

technique of modifying colour separations to account for dimensional variations in the printing process by

overprinting in selected colours at the boundaries between colours which otherwise might inadvertently be left

uncoloured by normal errors in printing press registration
4.1.16
word-aligned
sequence of bytes beginning at an even offset
4.1.17
writer

application, system or subsystem that generates a file based on predetermined criteria and prepares the file

for output
4.2 Abbreviated terms
BL Binary Line-art (or run length encoded bitmap) image or file
BP Binary Picture (or byte-packed bitmap) image or file
CEPS Colour Electronic Prepress System
CT colour Continuous-Tone picture image or file
DTP Desktop Publishing
FP Final Page file
HC High-resolution Continuous-tone (colour) image or file
IFD Image File Directory
LW colour line-art (or Line-Work) image or file
MP Monochrome continuous-tone Picture image or file
P1 Profile 1
P2 Profile 2
TIFF TIFF, Revision 6.0 Final: Aldus Corporation
SD Screened Data image or file
5 Notations and field types
5.1 Notations

All numeric values in this International Standard are expressed in decimal notation, unless otherwise indicated.

A letter “h” is suffixed to indicate a hexadecimal value. Literal strings are denoted by enclosing them in single

quotation marks.

For character strings, only character values 32 through 126 should be used and letters A through Z and a

through z, respectively, should have the same significance.

Preferred values in TIFF/IT fields are preceded by “=” and enclosed in parentheses, for example “(=5)”.

Preferred values are those values that are required to be accepted and recognized by a compliant application

© ISO 2004 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 12639:2004(E)

or reader. A compliant application or writer may write values other than preferred values but the reader is not

required to accept or recognize the value. It is left to the discretion of the reader.

Required values in TIFF/IT fields are preceded by “=” but not enclosed in parentheses, for example “=5”.

Required values are those values that are required to be written by a compliant application or writer and are

required to be accepted and recognized by a compliant application or reader.

Default values, if specified, are preceded by “Default =” or “d=”, for example “Default = 0,255”. In some tables,

default values are indicated in a “default value” column. The reader shall assume the default value if no value

is written by the writer in the default-specified field. Because the default values shown for all “TIFF” tag

numbers are those specified for TIFF files, they might not be valid for the particular TIFF/IT file type. In all

such cases, a mandatory field value or values is specified.

NOTE When an entry is made in a “default value” column, it might reference a TIFF 6.0 default value that is not a

valid value for the particular TIFF/IT file type. This is usually indicated by entry of a mandatory field value or values in the

tables.
Classification marks used in this International Standard are defined as follows:
 m Mandatory (absolute requirement) field

The writer is required to include mandatory fields. The reader is required to read and process the field.

The reader is allowed to reject those files where mandatory fields are omitted.
 opt Optional field

The writer may include or omit optional fields. The reader is not required to read or process optional fields.

 d Default field

The writer may include or omit default fields. The reader shall assume the default value for the field if the

field is omitted. The reader is required to read and process the field when it contains any required or

preferred values.

These classifications may vary by file type, and are discussed further in Clause 7.

Image File Directory (IFD) entries are identified by a field name of one or more words, written with initial

capital letters, and no internal spaces (e.g. “PageName”).
5.2 Field types
The field types used in this International Standard are as follows:

 ASCII a field type consisting of a byte containing a graphic character code from ISO/IEC 646;

the last character in an ASCII string shall be a “null” (character 0/0);
 BYTE a field type consisting of an 8-bit unsigned binary integer;
 LONG a field type consisting of a 32-bit unsigned binary integer;

 RATIONAL a field type consisting of two LONGs, the first representing the numerator of a fraction

and the second its denominator;
 SHORT a field type consisting of a 16-bit unsigned binary integer;
 UNDEFINED a field type consisting of an array of 8-bit unsigned binary data.
6 © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO 12639:2004(E)
6 I
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 12639:2004
01-december-2004

*UDILþQDWHKQRORJLMD,]PHQMDYDGLJLWDOQLKSRGDWNRYYJUDILþQLSULSUDYL6OLNRYQD

WHKQRORJLMDVOLNRYQLIRUPDW7,)),7

Graphic technology -- Prepress digital data exchange -- Tag image file format for image

technology (TIFF/IT)

Technologie graphique -- Échange de données numériques de préimpression -- Format

de fichier d'image d'étiquette pour la technologie d'image
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 12639:2004
ICS:
35.240.30 Uporabniške rešitve IT v IT applications in information,
informatiki, dokumentiranju in documentation and
založništvu publishing
37.100.99 'UXJLVWDQGDUGLY]YH]L] Other standards related to
JUDILþQRWHKQRORJLMR graphic technology
SIST ISO 12639:2004 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ISO 12639:2004
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST ISO 12639:2004
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 12639
Second edition
2004-05-15
Graphic technology — Prepress digital
data exchange — Tag image file format
for image technology (TIFF/IT)
Technologie graphique — Échange de données numériques de
préimpression — Format de fichier d'image d'étiquette pour la
technologie d'image
Reference number
ISO 12639:2004(E)
ISO 2004
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST ISO 12639:2004
ISO 12639:2004(E)
PDF disclaimer

This PDF file may contain embedded typefaces. In accordance with Adobe's licensing policy, this file may be printed or viewed but

shall not be edited unless the typefaces which are embedded are licensed to and installed on the computer performing the editing. In

downloading this file, parties accept therein the responsibility of not infringing Adobe's licensing policy. The ISO Central Secretariat

accepts no liability in this area.
Adobe is a trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated.

Details of the software products used to create this PDF file can be found in the General Info relative to the file; the PDF-creation

parameters were optimized for printing. Every care has been taken to ensure that the file is suitable for use by ISO member bodies. In

the unlikely event that a problem relating to it is found, please inform the Central Secretariat at the address given below.

© ISO 2004

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or

ISO's member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2004 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ISO 12639:2004
ISO 12639:2004(E)
Contents Page

Foreword............................................................................................................................................................. v

Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... vi

1 Scope...................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Compliance levels and identification.................................................................................................. 1

2.1 General................................................................................................................................................... 1

2.2 Image file type identification................................................................................................................ 1

2.3 TIFF/IT conformance............................................................................................................................. 2

2.4 TIFF/IT-P1 conformance....................................................................................................................... 2

2.5 TIFF/IT-P2 conformance....................................................................................................................... 2

2.6 Conformance identification.................................................................................................................. 2

3 Normative references........................................................................................................................... 2

4 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms.......................................................................................... 3

4.1 Terms and definitions........................................................................................................................... 3

4.2 Abbreviated terms................................................................................................................................. 5

5 Notations and field types ..................................................................................................................... 5

5.1 Notations................................................................................................................................................ 5

5.2 Field types.............................................................................................................................................. 6

6 Image data type description................................................................................................................. 7

6.1 Colour continuous-tone picture image (CT) data ..............................................................................7

6.2 Colour line-art (LW) image data........................................................................................................... 7

6.3 High-resolution continuous-tone (HC) image data............................................................................ 7

6.4 Monochrome and binary images......................................................................................................... 7

6.5 Final page (FP) data .............................................................................................................................. 8

7 Requirements for TIFF/IT, TIFF/IT-P1 and TIFF/IT-P2 image data files............................................ 8

7.1 Structure of TIFF/IT file......................................................................................................................... 8

7.2 General parameters............................................................................................................................ 10

7.3 Colour continuous-tone picture (CT) file.......................................................................................... 22

7.4 Colour line-art (LW) file ...................................................................................................................... 25

7.5 High-resolution continuous-tone (HC) file ....................................................................................... 32

7.6 Monochrome continuous-tone picture (MP) file .............................................................................. 35

7.7 Binary picture (BP) file ....................................................................................................................... 38

7.8 Binary line-art (BL) file........................................................................................................................ 40

7.9 Screened data image (SD) file............................................................................................................ 42

7.10 Final page (FP) file .............................................................................................................................. 44

Annex A (informative) Background of conformity levels ............................................................................. 50

Annex B (informative) Identification and determination procedures for TIFF/IT file type ........................ 52

Annex C (informative) Relationship between image types on a colour page ............................................ 54

Annex D (informative) Alphabetical list of TIFF/IT field names.................................................................... 55

Annex E (normative) Incorporating JPEG compressed data into TIFF/IT .................................................. 57

Annex F (normative) Incorporating Flate compressed data into TIFF/IT.................................................... 59

Annex G (normative) RGB colour-space data in TIFF/IT-CT........................................................................ 61

Annex H (normative) LAB colour space data in TIFF/IT CT ......................................................................... 65

Annex I (informative) Colour values ............................................................................................................... 68

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Annex J (normative) ICC Profile tag in TIFF/IT image...................................................................................69

Annex K (informative) Monochrome continuous-tone picture colour-value calculation ..........................70

Bibliography......................................................................................................................................................74

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Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 12639 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 130, Graphic technology.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 12639:1998), which has been technically

revised to add new capabilities, as well as a new constrained conformity level call Profile 2 (P2) to supplement

the previously defined Profile 1 (P1), which is unchanged.
New capabilities include the following:
 expanded LW palette to support up to 65 535 colours;
 support for up to 32 separations;
 new file format “SD” for copydot data with CCITT G4 compression;
 new compression schemes: Flate and JPEG;
 “FP” file format is now defined as normative.
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Introduction

The goal of ISO/TC 130 in developing the initial version of ISO 12639 was to enable the interchange of

various types of rasterized colour and monochrome image data among electronic digital systems used in

prepress image processing, graphic arts design and related document creation and production operations. It

was, and is, intended for use as a media-independent means for such interchange, and therefore is applicable

to facilitate interchange through a variety of mechanisms such as, but not limited to, network, magnetic and

optical media. Both ISO 12639:1998 and this second edition are based on the Adobe TIFF, Version 6.0 file

format, and both extend and restrict the technical features of that format.

This second edition of ISO 12639, though based on ISO 12639:1998, specifies new capabilities, as well as a

new constrained conformity level called Profile 2 (P2) to supplement the previously defined Profile 1 (P1),

which is unchanged. The key added capabilities include a normative final page (FP) format; a new SD file

format with optional G4 compression for copydot data; definitive ways to use RGB and CIELAB colour spaces

in CT, as well as 16-bit-per-channel data in CT; JPEG compression in CT and MP; Flate compression in all

formats except LW, HC and BL; spot colours (colours other than cyan, magenta, yellow and black) in LW, CT,

HC, MP, BP, BL, and SD; and support for up to 65 535 colours in LW colour palettes. The new P2 compliance

level incorporates all features of P1 and defines a constrained compliance level for these new capabilities.

All of the features of ISO 12639:1998, including the constrained level of conformity called Profile 1 (P1), have

been retained. It should be noted that the P1 formats for CT (Colour Picture), MP (Monochrome Picture), and

BP (Binary Picture) files are compatible with the popular TIFF 6.0 files for CMYK (Separated) Images,

Monochrome Images and Bilevel Images respectively. The P1 formats for HC (High-Resolution Continuous-

Tone), LW (Line-Art) and BL (Binary Line-Art), though not compatible with TIFF 6.0, are designed to be easier

to implement within desktop systems by limiting the range of options and selections. The Profile 1 and 2

formats allow for a broader usage of this International Standard by allowing conformance to simplified,

restricted subsets of functionality supported by many popular application software systems used in the

prepress, graphic arts document processing and computer graphics and imaging industries. A P2-compliant

reader will also read all P1-compliant files.

As a historical note, ISO 12639:1998 was based on the American National Standard ANSI IT8.8, Graphic

technology — Prepress digital data exchange — Tag image file format for image technology (TIFF/IT).

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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 12639:2004(E)
Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange — Tag
image file format for image technology (TIFF/IT)
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies a media-independent means for prepress electronic data exchange

using a tag image file format. This International Standard defines image file formats for encoding colour

continuous-tone picture images, colour line-art images, high-resolution continuous-tone images, monochrome

continuous-tone picture images, binary picture images, binary line-art images, screened data, and images of

composite final pages.
2 Compliance levels and identification
2.1 General

This International Standard has three levels of conformance: TIFF/IT (also referred to as full TIFF/IT),

TIFF/IT-P1 and TIFF/IT-P2. All conformance levels are intended to support a media-independent means for

the exchange of various images used in the prepress, printing, graphic arts, and information processing fields.

TIFF/IT-P1 conformance provides a minimized set of options to permit simpler implementation and

compatibility, where possible (for CT, BP, and MP files), with commonly available TIFF 6.0 readers and writers.

TIFF/IT-P1 is intended for use where the full set of TIFF/IT options is not required.

TIFF/IT-P2 is also a subset of the TIFF/IT specification. TIFF/IT-P2 incorporates all of the options defined for

TIFF/IT-P1 and, in addition, provides support for spot colours, a larger LW colour palette, the SD file format for

screened data, and additional compression methods.

Only those TIFF/IT fields defined in this International Standard are required to be written, recognized and

interpreted by conforming implementations. TIFF fields that are unclassified or not referred to in this

International Standard are not required to be supported for an implementation to conform to this International

Standard. If an unsupported field is read, processing of that field is at the discretion of the reader. The reader

shall follow the strategy described in TIFF and attempt to process the file while ignoring unsupported fields

(see Annex A).

This International Standard specifies the requirements for conforming TIFF/IT, TIFF/IT-P1 and/or TIFF/IT-P2

files for specific image data types. Files for each specific image data type that conform to the requirements of

this International Standard shall be considered conforming TIFF/IT, TIFF/IT-P1 and/or TIFF/IT-P2 files for the

specific image data type. Readers that accept and process these files shall be considered conforming TIFF/IT,

TIFF/IT-P1 or TIFF/IT-P2 readers for the specific image data types. Writers that generate and output these

files shall be considered conforming TIFF/IT, TIFF/IT-P1 or TIFF/IT-P2 writers for the specific image data

types. Where requirements of this International Standard and TIFF 6.0 are in conflict, this International

Standard shall take precedence.
2.2 Image file type identification

TIFF/IT provides the ability to represent the data structure of a wide range of printing and graphic arts images.

The identification of the individual image file types is as follows (see Annex B):

 TIFF/IT-CT colour continuous-tone picture image data;
 TIFF/IT-LW colour line-art image data;
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 TIFF/IT-HC high-resolution continuous-tone image data;
 TIFF/IT-MP monochrome continuous-tone picture image data;
 TIFF/IT-BP binary picture image data;
 TIFF/IT-BL binary line-art image data;
 TIFF/IT-SD screened data image data;
 TIFF/IT-FP final page data.
2.3 TIFF/IT conformance

For conformance to this International Standard, all image file types do not have to be implemented. Each

image file type described in Clause 7 may be individually implemented. Files, readers or writers may be

identified as conforming for either all image file types or specifically identified image file types.

Conformance with TIFF/IT requires implementation of the requirements for all image file types as described in

Clause 7. Conformance with a specific image file type or types requires identification of the specific image file

type using the identification defined in 2.2 (e.g. TIFF/IT-CT).
2.4 TIFF/IT-P1 conformance

TIFF/IT-P1 conformance provides the ability to represent the data structure of various images in as simple and

straightforward a way as possible in order to support image-file exchange with prepress, printing, graphic arts,

and information processing systems and applications. TIFF/IT-P1 is a subset of TIFF/IT.

Conformance with TIFF/IT-P1 requires implementation of the requirements for all image file types as

described in Clause 7. Conformance with a specific image file type or types requires identification of the

specific image file type using the identification defined in 2.2 with the designation “/P1” appended (e.g.

TIFF/IT-CT/P1).
2.5 TIFF/IT-P2 conformance

TIFF/IT-P2 conformance provides the ability to represent the data structure of various images in as simple and

straightforward a way as possible in order to support image file exchange with prepress, printing, graphic arts,

and information processing systems and applications. TIFF/IT-P2 is a subset of TIFF/IT and forms an

intermediate conformance level between TIFF/IT and TIFF/IT-P1.

Conformance with TIFF/IT-P2 requires implementation of the requirements for all image file types as

described in Clause 7. Conformance with a specific image-file type or types requires identification of the

specific image file type using the identification defined in 2.2 with the designation “/P2” appended (e.g.

TIFF/IT-CT/P2).
2.6 Conformance identification

Conformance with the provisions of this International Standard shall be identified individually for files, readers,

and writers. The accepted terminology shall be the image-file type followed by the designation “file”, “reader”

or “writer” (e.g. TIFF/IT writer, TIFF/IT-CT/P1 reader, TIFF/IT-LW file).
3 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.
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ISO 3166 (all parts), Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions

ISO 12641:1997, Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange — Colour targets for input scanner

calibration

ISO 12642:1996, Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange — Input data for characterization of

4-colour process printing

ISO 13655:1996, Graphic technology — Spectral measurement and colorimetric computation for graphic arts

images

ISO/IEC 646:1991, Information technology — ISO 7-bit coded character set for information interchange

ISO/IEC 10918-1:1994, Information Technology — Digital compression and coding of continuous-tone still

images: Requirements and guidelines.

IEC 61966-2-1:1999, Multimedia Systems and Equipment — Colour Measurement and Management —

Part 2-1: Colour management — Default RGB Colour Space — sRGB
ICC.1:2001-12, File Format for Color Profiles, International Color Consortium

TIFF, Revision 6.0 Final, Aldus Corporation (now Adobe Systems Incorporated), June 3, 1992

RFC:1950, ZLIB Compressed Data Format Specification version 3.3, RFC, 1950: DEUTSCH, P., and J-

L. GAILLY, Aladdin Enterprises, May 1996

RFC:1951, DEFLATE Compressed Data Format Specification version 1.3, RFC, 1951: DEUTSCH, P., Aladdin

Enterprises, May 1996
4 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
4.1 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following definitions apply.
4.1.1
big-endian

〈byte-ordering〉 method for arranging the sequence of the bytes within a SHORT or LONG from the most

significant to the least significant byte as the byte address increases
4.1.2
little-endian

〈byte-ordering〉 method for arranging the sequence of the bytes within a SHORT or LONG from the least

significant to the most significant byte as the byte address increases
4.1.3
offset
address within a TIFF/IT file relative to byte zero of the file
4.1.4
offset value
SHORT or LONG value containing the offset of a data element
4.1.5
pixel

picture element, or the smallest single building block of a picture containing colour identification and size

(when used to describe dimensions relating to the picture resolution, as in pixels per unit length)

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4.1.6
printing dot value
printing tone value

·of a data set〉 number, recorded as data in the computer, corresponding to the percentage area on a printing

forme that is intended to accept ink for transfer to the final sheet

NOTE This corresponds to the tone value of a half-tone film. The light end of the final reproduction scale (highlights)

has values approaching 0 % (or often in computer files, 0) and the dark end of the scale (shadows) has values

approaching 100 % (or often in computer files, 255).
4.1.7
reader

application, system or subsystem that accepts a file as its input and performs a level of processing on that file

that, at the minimum, accepts or rejects the file based on predetermined criteria and, if accepted, passes the

file to the next stage of processing
4.1.8
run length encoding

data encoding method in which a sequence of data items, which may include many adjacent repetitions of the

same value, is represented by a sequence of ordered pairs, each consisting of a value and a repeat count

NOTE Run length encoding can result in data compression.
4.1.9
separations

individual planes of data that correspond to the colours to be used in the rendering process

NOTE For “process” colours these are cyan (C), magenta (M), yellow (Y), and black (K). Additional separations are

often required for spot or speciality colours or for image-wise finishing treatments such as varnish.

4.1.10
spot colour

single colorant, identified by name, whose printing tone values are specified independently from colour values

specified in a colour co-ordinate system
4.1.11
string
serial sequence of characters, bytes, integers, etc.
4.1.12
TIFF/IT field
TIFF field

one-dimensional array of values (though most are a single-entry array) having an associated count

NOTE An array is identified by a Field name, a Tag number, and a Field type.
4.1.13
TIFF/IT tag
unique numeric identifier for each entry in the TIFF/IT file
4.1.14
transparent colour
attribute that signifies that the underlying image (if any) shows through

NOTE A clear run is where no colour is present and the underlying image (if any) shows through. The colour “white”

signifies that no underlying image will show through, only the underlying substrate (paper). The “transparent” attribute can

be applied to any or all separations of a pixel run or a palette colour in a LW, HC, BL or BP file.

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4.1.15
trapping

technique of modifying colour separations to account for dimensional variations in the printing process by

overprinting in selected colours at the boundaries between colours which otherwise might inadvertently be left

uncoloured by normal errors in printing press registration
4.1.16
word-aligned
sequence of bytes beginning at an even offset
4.1.17
writer

application, system or subsystem that generates a file based on predetermined criteria and prepares the file

for output
4.2 Abbreviated terms
BL Binary Line-art (or run length encoded bitmap) image or file
BP Binary Picture (or byte-packed bitmap) image or file
CEPS Colour Electronic Prepress System
CT colour Continuous-Tone picture image or file
DTP Desktop Publishing
FP Final Page file
HC High-resolution Continuous-tone (colour) image or file
IFD Image File Directory
LW colour line-art (or Line-Work) image or file
MP Monochrome continuous-tone Picture image or file
P1 Profile 1
P2 Profile 2
TIFF TIFF, Revision 6.0 Final: Aldus Corporation
SD Screened Data image or file
5 Notations and field types
5.1 Notations

All numeric values in this International Standard are expressed in decimal notation, unless otherwise indicated.

A letter “h” is suffixed to indicate a hexadecimal value. Literal strings are denoted by enclosing them in single

quotation marks.

For character strings, only character values 32 through 126 should be used and letters A through Z and a

through z, respectively, should have the same significance.

Preferred values in TIFF/IT fields are preceded by “=” and enclosed in parentheses, for example “(=5)”.

Preferred values are those values that are required to be accepted and recognized by a compliant application

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or reader. A compliant application or writer may write values other than preferred values but the reader is not

required to accept or recognize the value. It is left to the discretion of the reader.

Required values in TIFF/IT fields are preceded by “=” but not enclosed in parentheses, for example “=5”.

Required values are those values that are required to be written by a compliant application or writer and are

required to be accepted and recognized by a compliant application or reader.

Default values, if specified, are preceded by “Default =” or “d=”, for example “Default = 0,255”. In some tables,

default values are indicated in a “default value” column. The reader shall assume the default value if no value

is written by the writer in the default-specified field. Because the default values shown for all “TIFF” tag

numbers are those specified for TIFF files, they might not be valid for the particular TIFF/IT file type. In all

such cases, a mandatory field value or values is specified.

NOTE When an entry is made in a “default value” column, it might reference a TIFF 6.0 default value that is not a

valid value for the particular TIFF/IT file type. This is usually indicated by entry of a mandatory field value or values in the

tables.
Classification marks used in this International Standard are defined as follows:
 m Mandatory (absolute requirement) field

The writer is required to include mandatory fields. The reader is required to read and process the field.

The reader is allowed to reject those files where mandatory fields are omitted.
 opt Optional field

The writer may include or omit optional fields. The reader is not required to read or process optional fields.

 d Default field
The writer may
...

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