Sludge recovery, recycling, treatment and disposal -- Guidance on thermal treatment of sludge

This document describes good practices for the incineration and other organic matter treatment by thermal processes of sludges. Thermal conditioning is excluded. This document applies to sludges specifically derived from: —   storm water handling; —   night soil; —   urban wastewater collecting systems; —   urban wastewater treatment plants; —   treating industrial wastewater similar to urban wastewater. It includes all sludge that may have similar environmental and/or health impacts but excludes hazardous sludge from industry and dredged sludge.

Valorisation, recyclage, traitement et élimination des boues -- Lignes directrices pour le traitement thermique des boues

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
25-Jul-2021
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Start Date
23-Jun-2021
Completion Date
23-Jun-2021
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TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 20736
First edition
2021-07
Sludge recovery, recycling, treatment
and disposal — Guidance on thermal
treatment of sludge
Valorisation, recyclage, traitement et élimination des boues — Lignes
directrices pour le traitement thermique des boues
Reference number
ISO/TR 20736:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TR 20736:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/TR 20736:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

Introduction ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................vii

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5 Sludge properties................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2 Physico-chemical characteristics ............................................................................................................................................ 4

5.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2.2 Dry matter ............................................................................................................................................................................. 4

5.2.3 Loss on ignition ................................................................................................................................................................. 4

5.2.4 Calorific value ..................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.2.5 Grease, scum and screening ................................................................................................................................... 5

5.2.6 Physical consistency and others ......................................................................................................................... 6

5.3 Chemical and microbiological characteristics ............................................................................................................. 6

5.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.3.2 Sulfur .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.3.3 Phosphorus ........................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.3.4 Nitrogen ................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.3.5 Chlorine and other halogens ................................................................................................................................. 7

5.3.6 Organic micro pollutants .......................................................................................................................................... 7

5.3.7 Trace elements................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.3.8 Pathogens ............................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6 Thermal processes fundamentals ...................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.2 Drying ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

6.3 Hydrolysis .................................................................................................................................................................................................10

6.4 Incineration ............................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.5 Pyrolysis.....................................................................................................................................................................................................12

6.6 Gasification ..............................................................................................................................................................................................13

6.7 Thermolysis ............................................................................................................................................................................................14

6.8 Carbonization ........................................................................................................................................................................................14

6.9 Wet oxidation ........................................................................................................................................................................................14

6.10 Melting ........................................................................................................................................................................................................15

6.11 Pasteurization .......................................................................................................................................................................................15

7 Technologies ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................16

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................16

7.2 Drying ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................16

7.2.1 Direct dryers .....................................................................................................................................................................16

7.2.2 Indirect dryers ................................................................................................................................................................20

7.2.3 Solar dryers .......................................................................................................................................................................22

7.3 Hydrolysis .................................................................................................................................................................................................23

7.4 Incineration ............................................................................................................................................................................................24

7.4.1 Fluidized bed furnace ...............................................................................................................................................24

7.4.2 Multiple hearth furnace (MHF) ........................................................................................................................28

7.4.3 Hybrid furnace ................................................................................................................................................................31

7.4.4 Others .....................................................................................................................................................................................32

7.5 Pyrolysis.....................................................................................................................................................................................................33

7.6 Gasification ..............................................................................................................................................................................................33

7.7 Thermolysis ............................................................................................................................................................................................35

7.8 Carbonization ........................................................................................................................................................................................36

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/TR 20736:2021(E)

7.9 Wet oxidation ........................................................................................................................................................................................36

7.10 Melting ........................................................................................................................................................................................................37

7.11 Pasteurization .......................................................................................................................................................................................39

7.12 Emerging technologies ..................................................................................................................................................................40

7.12.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................40

7.12.2 Oxidation technologies ............................................................................................................................................40

7.12.3 Enzymatic sludge hydrolysis ..............................................................................................................................41

7.12.4 Plasma gasification .....................................................................................................................................................41

7.12.5 Ultrasound pretreatment ......................................................................................................................................41

7.12.6 Microwave irradiation ..............................................................................................................................................41

7.12.7 Infrared radiation .......................................................................................................................................................42

7.13 Design aspects ......................................................................................................................................................................................42

7.14 Auxiliary equipment ........................................................................................................................................................................42

7.14.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................42

7.14.2 Transport, receiving area, storage and feeding systems ............................................................43

7.14.3 Heat supply and recovery .................. ....................................................................................................................43

7.14.4 Gas cleaning ......................................................................................................................................................................44

7.14.5 Ash and other residues handling ....................................................................................................................44

7.14.6 Wastewater treatment .............................................................................................................................................44

7.14.7 Process monitoring .....................................................................................................................................................44

7.14.8 Safety systems .................................................................................................................................................................45

8 Operational aspects ........................................................................................................................................................................................45

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................45

8.2 Drying ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................46

8.3 Hydrolysis .................................................................................................................................................................................................46

8.4 Incineration ............................................................................................................................................................................................46

8.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................46

8.4.2 Fluidized bed furnace ...............................................................................................................................................47

8.4.3 Multiple hearth furnace ..........................................................................................................................................48

8.5 Pyrolysis.....................................................................................................................................................................................................49

8.6 Gasification ..............................................................................................................................................................................................49

8.7 Thermolysis ............................................................................................................................................................................................49

8.8 Carbonization ........................................................................................................................................................................................49

8.9 Wet oxidation ........................................................................................................................................................................................49

8.10 Melting ........................................................................................................................................................................................................50

8.11 Pasteurization .......................................................................................................................................................................................50

8.12 Hazards .......................................................................................................................................................................................................50

9 Management of energy and secondary resources ..........................................................................................................50

9.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................50

9.2 Drying ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................51

9.3 Hydrolysis .................................................................................................................................................................................................51

9.4 Incineration ............................................................................................................................................................................................51

9.5 Pyrolysis.....................................................................................................................................................................................................52

9.6 Gasification ..............................................................................................................................................................................................53

9.7 Thermolysis ............................................................................................................................................................................................54

9.8 Carbonization ........................................................................................................................................................................................54

9.9 Wet oxidation ........................................................................................................................................................................................54

9.10 Melting ........................................................................................................................................................................................................54

9.11 Pasteurization .......................................................................................................................................................................................54

9.12 Thermal treatments and circular economy .................................................................................................................55

10 Management of residues ...........................................................................................................................................................................55

10.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................55

10.2 Flue gas .......................................................................................................................................................................................................55

10.2.1 Characteristics and parameters .......................................................................................................................55

10.2.2 Equipment ..........................................................................................................................................................................57

10.3 Ashes .............................................................................................................................................................................................................59

10.3.1 Composition/parameters ......................................................................................................................................59

iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/TR 20736:2021(E)

10.3.2 Processes and equipment .....................................................................................................................................60

10.4 Wastewater .............................................................................................................................................................................................61

11 Decommissioning of installations ...................................................................................................................................................61

11.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................61

11.2 Specific considerations .................................................................................................................................................................61

12 Co-management with other organic wastes ..........................................................................................................................62

12.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................62

12.2 Specific considerations .................................................................................................................................................................63

12.3 Additional storage and transport aspects ....................................................................................................................65

12.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................65

12.3.2 Storage ...................................................................................................................................................................................65

12.3.3 Transport .............................................................................................................................................................................66

13 Assessment of sustainability ................................................................................................................................................................66

13.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................66

13.2 Environmental aspects ..................................................................................................................................................................67

13.3 Economical aspects ..........................................................................................................................................................................67

13.4 Social aspects.........................................................................................................................................................................................67

Annex A (informative) Calorific values calculations .........................................................................................................................69

Annex B (informative) Various systems to input sludge into a household waste incineration

plant ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................70

Annex C (informative) Case studies ....................................................................................................................................................................72

Annex D (informative) Regulatory aspects .................................................................................................................................................86

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................89

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/TR 20736:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 275, Sludge recovery, recycling, treatment

and disposal.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
vi © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO/TR 20736:2021(E)
Introduction

Sludge treatment and management is globally a growing challenge for most countries:

— sludge is a by-product of water treatment process produced in large quantities as new wastewater

treatment facilities a
...

TECHNICAL ISO/TR
REPORT 20736
First edition
Sludge recovery, recycling, treatment
and disposal — Guidance on thermal
treatment of sludge
Valorisation, recyclage, traitement et élimination des boues — Lignes
directrices pour le traitement thermique des boues
PROOF/ÉPREUVE
Reference number
ISO/TR 20736:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TR 20736:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/TR 20736:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

Introduction ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................vii

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5 Sludge properties................................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2 Physico-chemical characteristics ............................................................................................................................................ 4

5.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2.2 Dry matter ............................................................................................................................................................................. 4

5.2.3 Loss on ignition ................................................................................................................................................................. 4

5.2.4 Calorific value ..................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.2.5 Grease, scum and screening ................................................................................................................................... 5

5.2.6 Physical consistency and others ......................................................................................................................... 6

5.3 Chemical and microbiological characteristics ............................................................................................................. 6

5.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.3.2 Sulfur .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.3.3 Phosphorus ........................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.3.4 Nitrogen ................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5.3.5 Chlorine and other halogens ................................................................................................................................. 7

5.3.6 Organic micro pollutants .......................................................................................................................................... 7

5.3.7 Trace elements................................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.3.8 Pathogens ............................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6 Thermal processes fundamentals ...................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.2 Drying ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

6.3 Hydrolysis .................................................................................................................................................................................................10

6.4 Incineration ............................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.5 Pyrolysis.....................................................................................................................................................................................................12

6.6 Gasification ..............................................................................................................................................................................................13

6.7 Thermolysis ............................................................................................................................................................................................14

6.8 Carbonization ........................................................................................................................................................................................14

6.9 Wet oxidation ........................................................................................................................................................................................14

6.10 Melting ........................................................................................................................................................................................................15

6.11 Pasteurization .......................................................................................................................................................................................15

7 Technologies ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................16

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................16

7.2 Drying ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................16

7.2.1 Direct dryers .....................................................................................................................................................................16

7.2.2 Indirect dryers ................................................................................................................................................................20

7.2.3 Solar dryers .......................................................................................................................................................................22

7.3 Hydrolysis .................................................................................................................................................................................................23

7.4 Incineration ............................................................................................................................................................................................24

7.4.1 Fluidized bed furnace ...............................................................................................................................................24

7.4.2 Multiple hearth furnace (MHF) ........................................................................................................................28

7.4.3 Hybrid furnace ................................................................................................................................................................31

7.4.4 Others .....................................................................................................................................................................................32

7.5 Pyrolysis.....................................................................................................................................................................................................33

7.6 Gasification ..............................................................................................................................................................................................33

7.7 Thermolysis ............................................................................................................................................................................................35

7.8 Carbonization ........................................................................................................................................................................................36

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/TR 20736:2021(E)

7.9 Wet oxidation ........................................................................................................................................................................................36

7.10 Melting ........................................................................................................................................................................................................37

7.11 Pasteurization .......................................................................................................................................................................................39

7.12 Emerging technologies ..................................................................................................................................................................40

7.12.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................40

7.12.2 Oxidation technologies ............................................................................................................................................40

7.12.3 Enzymatic sludge hydrolysis ..............................................................................................................................41

7.12.4 Plasma gasification .....................................................................................................................................................41

7.12.5 Ultrasound pretreatment ......................................................................................................................................41

7.12.6 Microwave irradiation ..............................................................................................................................................41

7.12.7 Infrared radiation .......................................................................................................................................................42

7.13 Design aspects ......................................................................................................................................................................................42

7.14 Auxiliary equipment ........................................................................................................................................................................42

7.14.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................42

7.14.2 Transport, receiving area, storage and feeding systems ............................................................43

7.14.3 Heat supply and recovery .................. ....................................................................................................................43

7.14.4 Gas cleaning ......................................................................................................................................................................44

7.14.5 Ash and other residues handling ....................................................................................................................44

7.14.6 Wastewater treatment .............................................................................................................................................44

7.14.7 Process monitoring .....................................................................................................................................................44

7.14.8 Safety systems .................................................................................................................................................................45

8 Operational aspects ........................................................................................................................................................................................45

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................45

8.2 Drying ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................46

8.3 Hydrolysis .................................................................................................................................................................................................46

8.4 Incineration ............................................................................................................................................................................................46

8.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................46

8.4.2 Fluidized bed furnace ...............................................................................................................................................47

8.4.3 Multiple hearth furnace ..........................................................................................................................................48

8.5 Pyrolysis.....................................................................................................................................................................................................49

8.6 Gasification ..............................................................................................................................................................................................49

8.7 Thermolysis ............................................................................................................................................................................................49

8.8 Carbonization ........................................................................................................................................................................................49

8.9 Wet oxidation ........................................................................................................................................................................................49

8.10 Melting ........................................................................................................................................................................................................50

8.11 Pasteurization .......................................................................................................................................................................................50

8.12 Hazards .......................................................................................................................................................................................................50

9 Management of energy and secondary resources ..........................................................................................................50

9.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................50

9.2 Drying ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................51

9.3 Hydrolysis .................................................................................................................................................................................................51

9.4 Incineration ............................................................................................................................................................................................51

9.5 Pyrolysis.....................................................................................................................................................................................................52

9.6 Gasification ..............................................................................................................................................................................................53

9.7 Thermolysis ............................................................................................................................................................................................54

9.8 Carbonization ........................................................................................................................................................................................54

9.9 Wet oxidation ........................................................................................................................................................................................54

9.10 Melting ........................................................................................................................................................................................................54

9.11 Pasteurization .......................................................................................................................................................................................54

9.12 Thermal treatments and circular economy .................................................................................................................55

10 Management of residues ...........................................................................................................................................................................55

10.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................55

10.2 Flue gas .......................................................................................................................................................................................................55

10.2.1 Characteristics and parameters .......................................................................................................................55

10.2.2 Equipment ..........................................................................................................................................................................57

10.3 Ashes .............................................................................................................................................................................................................59

10.3.1 Composition/parameters ......................................................................................................................................59

iv PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/TR 20736:2021(E)

10.3.2 Processes and equipment .....................................................................................................................................60

10.4 Wastewater .............................................................................................................................................................................................61

11 Decommissioning of installations ...................................................................................................................................................61

11.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................61

11.2 Specific considerations .................................................................................................................................................................61

12 Co-management with other organic wastes ..........................................................................................................................62

12.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................62

12.2 Specific considerations .................................................................................................................................................................63

12.3 Additional storage and transport aspects ....................................................................................................................65

12.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................65

12.3.2 Storage ...................................................................................................................................................................................65

12.3.3 Transport .............................................................................................................................................................................66

13 Assessment of sustainability ................................................................................................................................................................66

13.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................66

13.2 Environmental aspects ..................................................................................................................................................................67

13.3 Economical aspects ..........................................................................................................................................................................67

13.4 Social aspects.........................................................................................................................................................................................67

Annex A (informative) Calorific values calculations .........................................................................................................................69

Annex B (informative) Various systems to input sludge into a household waste incineration

plant ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................70

Annex C (informative) Case studies ....................................................................................................................................................................72

Annex D (informative) Regulatory aspects .................................................................................................................................................86

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................89

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO/TR 20736:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 275, Sludge recovery, recycling, treatment

and disposal.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
vi PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO/TR 20736:2021(E)
Introduction

Sludge treatment and management is globally a growing challenge for most countries:

— sludge is a by-product of water treatment process
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.