Public information guidance systems

ISO 28564-2:2016 gives a range of guidelines for various stages of preparation, design, construction, inspection, updating and testing which comprise a location sign or a direction sign used in public places and working areas. ISO 28564-2:2016 is applicable to the design and use of location signs and direction signs used in all sorts of public places, such as shopping centres, stores, hospitals, bus and railway stations, airports, sporting, exhibition halls and entertainment complexes, urban areas, parks, gardens and countryside, public attractions, museums and commercial office buildings. The design and use of location signs and direction signs in working areas can also resort to the content for reference. It is not applicable to those sectors (for example, traffic signs on a public highway), which are subject to regulations or specified design principles. However, in a given public environment or within a wayfinding and signing design brief, public information sometimes needs to be associated with other messaging, so many of the principles contained in this part of ISO 28564 can be relevant in the planning of a coordinated scheme.

Systèmes de guidage destinés à l'information du public

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Status
Published
Publication Date
18-Aug-2016
Current Stage
9020 - International Standard under periodical review
Start Date
15-Jul-2021
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 28564-2
First edition
2016-09-01
Public information guidance
systems —
Part 2:
Guidelines for the design and use of
location signs and direction signs
Systèmes de guidage destinés à l’information du public —
Partie 2: Lignes directrices pour la conception et l’utilisation des
panneaux de direction et de localisation
Reference number
ISO 28564-2:2016(E)
ISO 2016
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 28564-2:2016(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2016, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 28564-2:2016(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 General ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 Preparation ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5.1 Need.................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5.2 Brief .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5.3 Information to be included in the brief.............................................................................................................................. 2

5.4 Gathering data ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.5 Positioning .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.6 Planning strategy .................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

6 Design principles, characteristics and layout of visual elements ...................................................................... 4

6.1 Design principles ................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.1.1 Legibility and conspicuity ........................................................................................................................................ 4

6.1.2 Consistency ........................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.1.3 Simplicity ................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

6.1.4 Prioritization of messages ....................................................................................................................................... 5

6.1.5 Use of languages ............................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.1.6 Use of jargon and abbreviations ......................................................................................................................... 5

6.1.7 Inclusivity (for all potential user groups) .................................................................................................. 5

6.1.8 Environmental sensitivity ........................................................................................................................................ 5

6.2 Characteristics ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.2.1 Graphical symbols .......................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.2.2 Arrows ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.2.3 Text and numerals .......................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2.4 Colour ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

6.2.5 Containing shape ............................................................................................................................................................. 8

6.3 Layout ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

6.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.3.2 Relationship of symbols, arrows and text .................................................................................................. 8

7 Sign carrier ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................13

7.1 Materials ....................................................................................................................................................................................................13

7.2 Glare and reflections .......................................................................................................................................................................13

7.3 Illumination ............................................................................................................................................................................................13

7.4 Sustainability .........................................................................................................................................................................................13

8 Inspection and updating ............................................................................................................................................................................14

9 Testing ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................14

Annex A (informative) Examples of location signs and direction signs in typical environments ......15

Annex B (informative) Performance tests for a way finding system of location signs and

direction signs ......................................................................................................................................................................................................20

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................27

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 28564-2:2016(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical

Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 145, Graphical symbols, Subcommittee SC 1,

Public information symbols.

ISO 28564 consists of the following parts, under the general title Public information guidance systems:

— Part 1: Design principles and element requirements for location plans, maps and diagrams

— Part 2: Guidelines for the design and use of location signs and direction signs

The following part is under preparation:
— Part 3: Guidelines for the design and use of information index signs
Additional parts will be developed in due course.
iv © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 28564-2:2016(E)
Introduction

Continued growth in travel and mobility within and between countries has generated a growing range

of wayfinding guidance systems and styles containing a wide variety of information. Such systems

serve various purposes, such as enabling users to
— understand the range of facilities and points of interest present,

— understand the physical relationship between these facilities and points of interest, and

— determine the best way to reach a required facility or point of interest given their mobility

circumstances.

This part of ISO 28564 is concerned with location signs and direction signs used to support wayfinding.

The purpose of this part of ISO 28564 is to provide guidance on the design and use of location signs

and direction signs to enable users to assimilate required information swiftly and accurately and act

upon the information shown safely and conveniently. It is not the intention to limit design freedom

unnecessarily, but to set guidelines and, where appropriate, specifications which reflect relevant

research and best practice.

Where appropriate, location signs and direction signs are used in association with fixed location plans,

maps and diagrams (see ISO 28564-1), information index signs (see ISO 28564-3 ), hand-held maps,

mobile electronic devices, as well as human assistance, as part of an integrated wayfinding system.

1) Under preparation.
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 28564-2:2016(E)
Public information guidance systems —
Part 2:
Guidelines for the design and use of location signs and
direction signs
1 Scope

This part of ISO 28564 gives a range of guidelines for various stages of preparation, design, construction,

inspection, updating and testing which comprise a location sign or a direction sign used in public places

and working areas.

This part of ISO 28564 is applicable to the design and use of location signs and direction signs used in

all sorts of public places, such as shopping centres, stores, hospitals, bus and railway stations, airports,

sporting, exhibition halls and entertainment complexes, urban areas, parks, gardens and countryside,

public attractions, museums and commercial office buildings. The design and use of location signs and

direction signs in working areas can also resort to the content for reference.

It is not applicable to those sectors (for example, traffic signs on a public highway), which are subject

to regulations or specified design principles. However, in a given public environment or within a

wayfinding and signing design brief, public information sometimes needs to be associated with other

messaging, so many of the principles contained in this part of ISO 28564 can be relevant in the planning

of a coordinated scheme.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 17724, Graphical symbols — Vocabulary
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 17724 and the following apply.

3.1
location sign
sign used to identify the location of a place, facility or function
3.2
direction sign
sign used to indicate the route to a place, facility or function
3.3
visual element

component used in a sign including graphical symbol, arrow, text, numeral, illustration, colour and shape

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 28564-2:2016(E)
4 General

For a specific destination, using only a few location signs can be effective. It might be necessary to

use numerous direction signs as part of a route. In either case, a design objective should be to use the

minimum number of signs necessary to provide effective guidance.
5 Preparation
5.1 Need

The need for a location sign or a direction sign (or both) can arise for various reasons, for example

a) known difficulties experienced by users in finding a place, facility or function, or

NOTE Sometimes the solution to an apparent problem is best resolved by the re-design of the facility

and fittings, the control of other environmental factors or the role, training and deployment of staff rather

than by the inclusion, amendment or removal of a sign.
b) changes in an environment or construction of a new environment.
5.2 Brief

Before design work is undertaken, the requirements and objectives should be clearly understood and

expressed in a brief. Even where a small number of signs, or even a single sign, is involved, a brief should

be prepared.
The brief is the responsibility of the client and should define the following:
a) the physical area to be covered;
b) its relationship to adjacent areas;

c) the information to be shown as determined by the tasks that expected users wish to accomplish;

d) any special requirements concerning presentation of information, the nature and constraints of

the site.

If relevant, the brief should also define the requirements for maps and locations plans (see ISO 28564-1),

information index signs (see ISO 28564-3 ), and requirements or methods for coordination with

location signs and direction signs.
5.3 Information to be included in the brief
The following information of the covered area should be included:
— the characteristics of the expected users;
— the types and positions of the facilities in the area;
— the routes and decision points relating to specific destinations;
— the possible setting position and the anticipated normal viewing distances;
— accessibility and other user requirements;
— additional information, if appropriate, e.g. travel time and distance;

— the proportion of the expected users for whom the use of the local languages can be insufficient;

2) Under preparation.
2 © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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ISO 28564-2:2016(E)
— any statutory or regulatory requirements.
5.4 Gathering data

When the facilities within the area to be covered are in the planning stage, information should be

obtained, as appropriate, from architects, designers, engineers and other professionals with knowledge

relevant to the task.
When the facility is already in use, additional information can be obtained by
a) observing users’ behaviour,
b) consulting with users,

c) consulting with local police, shopkeepers, reception, information desk staff and others who might

have experience of wayfinding issues within the area to be covered, and

d) reviewing any existing location signs and direction signs in the area to be covered and in

adjacent areas.

NOTE A site visit is normally needed to gain familiarity with the environment and, where possible, to

observe and document relevant behavioural patterns.
Once gathered, the data should be reconciled with the brief.
5.5 Positioning

Examples of the positioning of location signs and direction signs are shown in Annex A.

Location signs and direction signs are typically positioned as follows:
a) fixed to, applied on or projected from vertical surfaces (see Annex A);
b) suspended from ceilings, roofs or soffits (see Figure A.1);

c) projected from floors or attached to existing floor projections (see Annex A).

Location signs should be positioned above or immediately adjacent to the destination. Direction signs

should be placed at or prior to decision points (such as crossings, junctions) and elsewhere to give

reassurance or minimize confusion.

Placement height and angle should be carefully considered to take into account whether users are

standing or seated and their direction of approach to the sign.

In an existing environment, careful consideration should be given to how viewing of the signs can be

affected by
— existing signs and other features (for example, lighting, advertising),
— ambient and natural lighting, and
— physical obstructions.

In an environment yet to be designed or constructed, the building design and the plan for location signs

and direction signs should be coordinated, as far as practical to ensure the following:

— building structure, services and other facilities do not compromise the optimum location for and

visual perception and clarity of signs;

— building structure allows for the fixing and erection of signs in necessary locations;

— optimum ambient and natural lighting conditions for the reading and interpretation of signs.

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 28564-2:2016(E)
5.6 Planning strategy

Having gathered the necessary information, a strategy defining the content, number and placement of

signs required to address the brief should be prepared. Normally, the strategy takes the form of a plan

or elevation showing the physical position (and possibly the scale) of signs, together with an associated

schedule with specifications for the signs indicated on the plan or elevation. The strategy should also

identify other required changes (for example, the removal or alteration of existing signs).

NOTE For complex projects, or where the signs involved are large and costly, other techniques, such as 3D or

video modelling, are appropriate.
6 Design principles, characteristics and layout of visual elements
6.1 Design principles
6.1.1 Legibility and conspicuity

The visual elements should be clear, legible and conspicuous by ensuring, for example,

a) the use of highly legible fonts,
b) the use of standardized graphical symbols where available,

c) contrast with the background upon which the sign is placed and the environment within which it sits,

d) contrast with other environmental visual elements, including advertising or commercial signs and

decorative colour schemes, and
e) appropriate spacing and scaling.
6.1.2 Consistency

When a series of location signs and direction signs is required, an integrated design philosophy should

be followed with the same terminologies and graphical principles (for example, font style, size and

weight, colour and placement) throughout (see Annex A).

The design philosophy should be consistent with associated location plans, maps and diagrams (see

ISO 28564-1), with information index signs (see ISO 28564-3 ), and with hand-held maps and IT

applications.

NOTE Consistency is important to promote user familiarity and comprehension of the signs.

6.1.3 Simplicity

The design should be as simple as practicable. The following should be taken into account.

a) The display on an individual sign of only the number of messages which can be assimilated simply

and accurately by the intended users.

NOTE If more messages are required at a given location, it can be appropriate to use more than one sign.

b) Use of the simplest expression for each message to be conveyed.

c) Use of the minimum number of visual elements necessary for effective comprehension.

3) Under preparation.
4 © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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ISO 28564-2:2016(E)
6.1.4 Prioritization of messages

The relative importance of different messages should be conveyed using varied techniques, for example,

different fonts, size, weight, colour, separation rules, or sequential placement. In some cases, separate

signs for different information categories can be appropriate.
6.1.5 Use of languages

The use of the local languages may be sufficient when international travellers or clients are not a

concern. For situations that require international understanding, English should be used in addition to

the official local languages.
6.1.6 Use of jargon and abbreviations

Jargon should be avoided. Specialized terms and abbreviations should be used only where the intended

users are known to be familiar with them.

NOTE In environments with multiple user groups, a sign provided for a specific audience is also read by

others who could be confused by the use of unfamiliar or ambiguous terms and abbreviations.

6.1.7 Inclusivity (for all potential user groups)

The design of signs should optimize readability and legibility for all intended users, including those

with reduced vision or cognitive impairments. The use of tactile elements (for example, relief and

braille) should be considered where appropriate.
NOTE 1 Design requirements for partially sighted people are given in ISO 21542.

NOTE 2 In some countries, the requirements for signs to conform to the needs of those with disability are

prescribed in statutes or regulations.

Colour combinations should take into account the needs of those with colour-vision deficiency (see

also 6.2.4).
Where accessible routes are provided, these shall be indicated.
6.1.8 Environmental sensitivity

In many environments (for example, national parks and gardens, historic buildings and some modern

buildings), it can be appropriate to use structures, materials, colours and fonts sympathetic to that

environment (see Annex A).

The location of a facility can use a feature sign with distinctive architectural or design characteristics.

This is less likely for a sequence of direction signs. In all cases, the design should not compromise the

swift, accurate, and safe comprehension of the information.
6.2 Characteristics
6.2.1 Graphical symbols

Using graphical symbols can improve the understanding of a message expressed in text. If a language is

used that is unknown to the reader of the message, adding graphical symbols can help to overcome the

language barrier. When used alone, graphical symbols can allow a smaller sign size.

Graphical symbols should be taken from ISO 7001, ISO 7010 and ISO 20712-1. If a new graphical symbol

is required, ISO 22727 should be used to guide the design process. Consideration should be given to

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO 28564-2:2016(E)

comprehension testing in accordance with ISO 9186-1, perceptual quality testing in accordance with

ISO 9186-2 and to symbol referent association testing in accordance with ISO 9186-3.

NOTE 1 Graphical symbols in ISO 7001 and ISO 7010 are included in the ISO online browsing platform (www.

iso.org/obp).

NOTE 2 Information on procedures, criteria of acceptability and templates for public information symbols is

given on the website of ISO/TC 145/SC1 and ISO/TC 145/SC2 as http://www.iso.org/tc145/sc1 and http://www.

iso.org/tc145/sc2.
Images, icons and branding symbols can be used when

— they can be perceived, read and understood at the relevant viewing distances and conditions,

— they are likely to be readily recognizable by the intended users, and

— their use is not likely to compromise the effectiveness of the sign or the balance and priority of all

messages on the sign.
6.2.2 Arrows

Arrows in direction signs should be used in conjunction with symbols or text (or both) to indicate the

direction of movement a person should take to reach the indicated destination. The representation of

the arrow should be as defined in ISO 7001 and shown in Figure 1. Arrows should be organized on the

sign or the sign positioned so that the arrows unambiguously convey the intended route. The meanings

of different arrow orientations are shown in Table 1.
Figure 1 — Direction arrow (ISO 7001, PI PF 030)
6 © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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ISO 28564-2:2016(E)
Table 1 — Use of direction arrows
Arrow Meaning
Progress to the right
Progress to the left
Progress forward from here
Progress forward and through from here
Progress forward and up from here
Progress up to the right
Progress forward and across to the right
Progress down to the right
Progress up to the left
Progress forward and across to the left
Progress down to the left
Progress down from here
6.2.3 Text and numerals
Text may be used

a) to support graphical symbols when the information conveyed by the graphical symbols requires

qualification or expansion,
b) when no graphical symbol is available,
c) when the use of a graphical symbol is inappropriate, or

d) to ensure visual balance in signs with multiple messages or a sequence of signs.

When appropriate to the language used, an upper and lower case format for text is recommended.

Arabic numerals should be used. Numerals may also be provided in the local script but should normally

be supported by Arabic numerals.
6.2.4 Colour

Colour may be used to distinguish a sign from its background or the sign message from the sign face or

for both reasons. Colour may be used for message elements or for the sign background to differentiate

types of messages or component parts of the message.

In all cases, the selection of colours should ensure good contrast. Care should be exercised to avoid

excessive visual complexity. The selection of colours should also consider the need of users with colour

vision deficiency.

NOTE The perception of colour can be affected by ambient light sources and conditions (for example, street

lighting).
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 7
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO 28564-2:2016(E)

Colour-coded design features used within a location plan should be considered as an element within

the signage system. For example, if a colour is used to identify zones, facilities or points of interest, this

should be reflected within the wayfinding strategy to promote user familiarity.

The combination of safety colours and shapes specified in ISO 3864-1 and ISO 3864-3 should be avoided

to ensure no confusion w
...

DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
ISO/DIS 28564-2
ISO/TC 145/SC 1 Secretariat: BSI
Voting begins on: Voting terminates on:
2015-03-26 2015-06-26
Public information guidance systems —
Part 2:
Design principles and requirements for location signs and
direction signs
Systèmes de guidage destinés à l’information du public —

Partie 2: Principes de conception et exigences pour panneaux de direction et de localisation

ICS: 01.080.10
THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED
FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS
THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY
NOT BE REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL,
TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND
USER PURPOSES, DRAFT INTERNATIONAL
STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO
BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR
POTENTIAL TO BECOME STANDARDS TO
WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
Reference number
NATIONAL REGULATIONS.
ISO/DIS 28564-2:2015(E)
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED
TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS,
NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT
RIGHTS OF WHICH THEY ARE AWARE AND TO
PROVIDE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION. ISO 2015
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 28564-2:2015(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2015

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 28564-2:2015(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 General ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 Preparation ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5.1 Need.................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5.2 Brief .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

5.3 Gathering data ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.4 Information to be included in the brief.............................................................................................................................. 3

5.5 Positioning .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.6 Planning strategy .................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

6 Design principles, characteristics and layout of visual elements ...................................................................... 4

6.1 Design principles ................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.1.1 Legibility ................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

6.1.2 Consistency ........................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.1.3 Simplicity ................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

6.1.4 Prioritization of messages ....................................................................................................................................... 5

6.1.5 Use of languages ............................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.1.6 Use of jargon and abbreviations ......................................................................................................................... 5

6.1.7 Inclusivity (for all potential user groups) .................................................................................................. 5

6.1.8 Handling environmental sensitivity ................................................................................................................ 5

6.2 Characteristics ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.2.1 Graphical symbols .......................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.2.2 Arrows ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.2.3 Text and numerals .......................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2.4 Colour ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

6.2.5 Containing shape ............................................................................................................................................................. 8

6.3 Layout ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

6.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.3.2 Relationship of symbols, arrows and text .................................................................................................. 8

7 Sign carrier ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................13

7.1 Materials ....................................................................................................................................................................................................13

7.2 Glare and reflections .......................................................................................................................................................................13

7.3 Illumination ............................................................................................................................................................................................13

7.4 Sustainability .........................................................................................................................................................................................13

8 Inspection and updating ............................................................................................................................................................................13

9 Testing ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................13

Annex A (informative) Examples of location signs and direction signs in typical environments ......14

Annex B (informative) Performance tests for a wayfinding system of location signs and

direction signs ......................................................................................................................................................................................................18

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................25

© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 28564-2:2015(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International

Standards adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting.

Publication as an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies

casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 28564-2 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 145, Graphical symbols, Subcommittee SC 1,

Public information symbols.

ISO 28564 consists of the following parts, under the general title Public information guidance systems:

— Part 1: Design principles and element requirements for location plans, maps and diagrams;

— Part 2: Guidelines for the design and use of location signs and direction signs.

Additional parts will be developed in due course.
iv © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 28564-2:2015(E)
Introduction

Continued growth in travel and mobility within and between countries has generated a growing range

of wayfinding guidance systems and styles containing a wide variety of information. Such systems serve

various purposes, such as enabling users to:
− understand the range of facilities and points of interest present;

− understand the physical relationship between these facilities and points of interest; and

− determine the best way to reach a required facility or point of interest given their mobility

circumstances.

This part of ISO 28564 is concerned with location signs and direction signs used to support wayfinding.

The purpose of this part of ISO 28564 is to provide guidance on the design and use of location signs

and direction signs to enable users to assimilate required information swiftly and accurately, and act

upon the information shown safely and conveniently. It is not the intention to limit design freedom

unnecessarily, but to set guidelines and, where appropriate, specifications which reflect relevant

research and best practice.

Where appropriate, location signs and direction signs may be used in association with fixed location

plans, maps and diagrams (see ISO 28564-1), notices and instructions, hand-held maps, mobile electronic

devices as well as human assistance, as part of an integrated wayfinding system.
© ISO 2015 – All rights reserved v
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DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/DIS 28564-2:2015(E)
Public information guidance systems —
Part 2:
Design principles and requirements for location signs and
direction signs
1 Scope

This Part of ISO 28564 gives guidelines for the design and use of location signs and direction signs in

public areas and working places. It is relevant to such signs in, for example, shopping centres, stores,

hospitals, bus and train stations, airports, sporting and entertainment complexes, urban areas, parks,

gardens and countryside, public attractions, museums and office complexes.

It is not applicable to safety signs or to those sectors subject to regulations and/or different/specific

design principles (for example, traffic signs on a public highway). However, in a given public environment,

or within a wayfinding and signing design brief, public information may need to be associated with

other messaging, so many of the principles contained in this standard will be relevant in the planning

of a coordinated scheme.

NOTE Public information guidance systems can be used with safety way guidance systems (See ISO 16069).

2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 3864-1, Graphical symbols — Safety colours and safety signs — Part 1: Design principles for safety signs

and safety markings

ISO 3864-3, Graphical symbols — Safety colours and safety signs — Part 3: Design principles for graphical

symbols for use in safety signs
ISO 7001, Graphical symbols — Public information symbols

ISO 7010, Graphical symbols — Safety colours and safety signs — Registered safety signs

ISO 9186-1, Graphical symbols — Test methods — Part 1: Method for testing comprehensibility

ISO 9186-2, Graphical symbols — Test methods — Part 2: Method for testing perceptual quality

ISO 17724, Graphical symbols — Vocabulary

ISO 22727, Graphical symbols — Creation and design of public information symbols — Requirements

ISO 28564-1, Public information guidance systems — Part 1: Design principles and element requirements

for location plans, maps and diagrams
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 17724 and the following apply.

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3.1
location sign
sign used to identify the location of a place, facility or function
3.2
direction sign
sign used to indicate the route to a place, facility or function
3.3
visual element

component of a sign including, variously, graphical symbol(s), arrow(s), text, numeral(s), illustration(s),

colour or shape
4 General

For a specific destination, using only a few location signs can be effective. It might be necessary to

use numerous direction signs as part of a route. In either case, a design objective should be to use the

minimum number of signs necessary to provide effective guidance.
5 Preparation
5.1 Need

The need for a location sign and/or a direction sign can arise for various reasons, e.g.:

a) known difficulties experienced by users in finding a place, facility or function; or

NOTE Sometimes the solution to an apparent problem is best resolved by the re-design of the facility and

fittings, the control of other environmental factors or the role, training and deployment of staff rather than

by the inclusion, amendment or removal of a sign.
b) changes in an environment or construction of a new environment.
5.2 Brief

Before design work is undertaken, the requirements and objectives should be clearly understood and

expressed in a brief. Even where a small number of signs – or even a single sign – is involved, a brief

should be prepared.
The brief is the responsibility of the client and should define:
a) the physical area to be covered;
b) its relationship to adjacent areas;

c) the information to be shown as determined by the tasks that expected users wish to accomplish;

d) the anticipated normal viewing distances;

e) any special requirements concerning information presentation and/or the nature and

constraints of the site.

If relevant, the brief should also define the requirement for maps and/or location plans (see ISO 28564-1),

safety signs (see ISO 7010), advisory/information notices and the requirement and/or method for

coordination with location and direction signs.
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5.3 Gathering data

When the facilities within the area to be covered are in the planning stage, information should be

obtained, as appropriate, from architects, designers, engineers and other professionals with knowledge

relevant to the task.
When the facility is already in use, additional information may be obtained by:
a) observing users’ behaviour;
b) consulting with users;

c) consulting with local police, shopkeepers, reception/information desk staff and others who might

have experience of wayfinding issues within the area to be covered; and

d) reviewing any existing location signs and direction signs in the area to be covered and in adjacent areas.

NOTE A site visit is normally needed to gain familiarity with the environment and, where possible, to observe

and document relevant behavioural patterns.
Once gathered, the data should be reconciled with the brief.
5.4 Information to be included in the brief
The following information should be included:
− The characteristics of the expected users.
− The types and positions of the facilities in the area.
− The routes and decision points relating to specific destinations.
− Accessibility and other user requirements.
− Additional information, if appropriate, e.g. travel time and distance.

− The proportion of the expected users for whom the use of the official local languages might be

insufficient.
− Any statutory or regulatory requirements.
5.5 Positioning

Examples of the positioning of location signs and direction signs are shown in Annex A.

Location signs and direction signs are typically positioned as follows:
a) Fixed to, applied on or projected from vertical surfaces (see Annex A).
b) Suspended from ceilings, roofs or soffits (see Figure A.1).

c) Projected from floors or attached to existing floor projections (see Annex A).

Location signs should be positioned above or immediately adjacent to the destination. Direction signs

should be placed at or prior to decision points (such as crossings, junctions) and elsewhere to give

reassurance or minimize confusion.

Placement height and angle should be carefully considered to take into account whether users are

standing or seated, and their direction of approach to the sign.
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In an existing environment, careful consideration should be given to how viewing of the signs can

be affected by:
— existing signs and other features (e.g. lighting, advertising);
— ambient and natural lighting;
— physical obstructions.

In an environment yet to be designed/constructed, the building design and the plan for location signs

and direction signs should be coordinated, as far as practical to ensure:

— building structure, services and other facilities do not compromise the optimum location for and

visual perception and clarity of signs;

— building structure allows for the fixing and erection of signs in necessary locations;

— optimum ambient and natural lighting conditions for the reading and interpretation of signs.

5.6 Planning strategy

Having gathered the necessary information, a strategy defining the content, number and placement of

signs required to address the brief should be prepared. Normally the strategy takes the form of a plan

or elevation showing the physical position (and possibly the scale) of signs, together with an associated

schedule with specifications for the signs indicated on the plan or elevation. The strategy should also

identify other changes required, e.g. the removal or alteration of existing signs.

NOTE For complex projects, or where the signs involved are large and costly, other techniques such as 3D or

video modelling are appropriate.
6 Design principles, characteristics and layout of visual elements
6.1 Design principles
6.1.1 Legibility
The visual elements should be clear and legible by ensuring, for example:
a) the use of highly legible fonts;
b) the use of standardized graphical symbols where available;

c) contrast with the background upon which the sign is placed and the environment within which it sits;

d) contrast and compatibility with other environmental graphical elements (e.g. advertising) or with

potentially competing identities;
e) appropriate spacing and scaling.
6.1.2 Consistency

When a series of location signs and direction signs is required, an integrated design philosophy should

be followed with the same terminologies and graphical principles (e.g. font style, size and weight, colour

and placement) throughout. See Annex A.

It may also be appropriate to ensure similar consistency with associated location plans, maps and

diagrams (see ISO 28564-1), notices and instructions, hand-held maps and IT applications.

NOTE Consistency is important to promote user familiarity and comprehension of the signs.

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6.1.3 Simplicity

The design shall be as simple as possible. The following should be taken into account:

a) The display on an individual sign of only the number of messages which can be assimilated simply

and accurately by the intended users.

NOTE If more messages are required at a given location, the use of more than one sign is to be considered;

b) Use of the simplest expression for each message to be conveyed.

c) Use of the minimum number of visual elements necessary for effective comprehension.

6.1.4 Prioritization of messages

The relative importance of different messages should be conveyed using varied techniques e.g. different

fonts, size, weight, colour, separation rules or sequential placement. In some cases separate signs for

different information categories may be appropriate.
6.1.5 Use of languages

The use of the official local languages may be sufficient when international travellers or clients are not

a concern. For situations that require international understanding, English should be used in addition

to the official local languages.
6.1.6 Use of jargon and abbreviations

Jargon should be avoided. Specialized terms and abbreviations should be used only where the intended

users are known to be familiar with them.

NOTE In environments with multiple user groups, a sign provided for a specific audience is also read by

others who could be confused by the use of unfamiliar or ambiguous terms and abbreviations.

6.1.7 Inclusivity (for all potential user groups)

The design of signs should optimize readability and legibility for all intended users, including those with

reduced vision or cognitive impairments. The use of tactile elements e.g. Relief and/or Braille should be

considered where appropriate.
NOTE 1 Design requirements for partially sighted people are given in ISO 21542.

NOTE 2 In some countries the requirements for signs to conform to the needs of those with disability are

prescribed in statutes or regulations.

Colour combinations should take into account the needs of those with colour-vision deficiency (see also

6.2.4).
Where accessible routes are provided, these shall be indicated.
6.1.8 Handling environmental sensitivity

In many environments (e.g. national parks and gardens, historic buildings, and some modern

buildings), it can be appropriate to use structures, materials, colours, and fonts sympathetic to that

environment. See Annex A.

The location of a facility could require a feature sign with distinctive architectural or design

characteristics. This is less likely for a sequence of direction signs. In all cases the design should not

compromise the swift, accurate, and safe comprehension of the information.
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6.2 Characteristics
6.2.1 Graphical symbols

Using graphical symbols usually improves the understanding of a message expressed in text. When

used alone, graphical symbols can avoid the problem of using languages unknown to the reader of the

message and can allow a smaller sign size.

Graphical symbols should be taken from ISO 7001 and ISO 7010 when appropriate. If a new graphical

symbol is required, ISO 22727 or ISO 3864-3 shall be used to guide the design process. Consideration

shall be given to comprehension testing in accordance with ISO 9186-1 and to perceptual quality testing

in accordance with ISO 9186-2.

NOTE 1 Graphical symbols in ISO 7001 and ISO 7010 are included in the ISO online browsing platform (www.

iso.org/obp).

NOTE 2 Information on procedures, criteria of acceptability and templates for public information symbols is

given on the website of ISO/TC 145/SC1 and ISO/TC 145/SC2 as http://www.iso.org/tc145/sc1 and http://www.

iso.org/tc145/sc2.
Images, icons and branding symbols may be used when:

− they can be perceived, read and understood at the relevant viewing distances and conditions;

− they are likely to be readily recognizable by the intended users;

− their use is not likely to compromise the effectiveness of the sign or the balance and priority of all

messages on the sign.
6.2.2 Arrows

Arrows in direction signs shall be used in conjunction with symbols and/or text to indicate the direction

of movement a person should take to reach the indicated destination. The representation of the arrow

shall be as defined in ISO 7001 and shown in Figure 1. Arrows should be organized on the sign or the

sign positioned so that the arrows unambiguously convey the intended route. The meanings of different

arrow orientations are shown in Table 1.
Figure 1 — Direction arrow (ISO 7001, PI PF 030)
Table 1 — Use of direction arrows
Progress to the right
Progress to the left
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Table 1 (continued)
Progress forward from here
Progress forward and through from here
Progress forward and up from here
Progress up to the right
Progress forward and across to the right
Progress down to the right
Progress up to the left
Progress forward and across to the left
Progress down to the left
Progress down from here
6.2.3 Text and numerals
Text may be used:

a) to support graphical symbols when the information conveyed by the graphical symbols requires

qualification or expansion;
b) when no graphical symbol is available;
c) when the use of a graphical symbol is inappropriate; or

d) to ensure visual balance in signs with multiple messages or a sequence of signs.

When appropriate to the language used, an upper and lower case format for text is recommended.

Arabic numerals should be used. Numerals may also be provided in the local script but should normally

be supported by Arabic numerals.
6.2.4 Colour

Colour maybe used to distinguish a sign from its background, and/or the sign message from the sign face.

Colour may be used for message elements or for the sign background to differentiate types of messages

or component parts of the message.

In all cases, the selection of colours should ensure good contrast. Care should be exercised to avoid

excessive visual complexity.

Colour should not be used as the only means of communicating a message (to the exclusion of symbols,

text, etc.) because interpretation of colours can be difficult for users with colour vision deficiency.

NOTE The perception of colour can be affected by ambient light sources and conditions (e.g. street lighting).

Colour coded design features used within, for example, a location plan
...

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