Graphic technology -- Variable data exchange

ISO 16612-2:2010 defines the PDF/VT document format and methods to enable reliable document exchange for variable data and transactional (VT) printing. It uses the Portable Document Format (PDF) Version 1.6, as restricted by PDF/X-4 and PDF/X-5, for the representation of such documents. It allows the specification of document structure and layout, content data, and interaction of graphical objects in a graphics model that supports transparency and both device-dependent and device-independent colour spaces. All elements either are included or provision is made for unique identification of externally supplied graphical content or ICC profiles. PDF/VT is designed to enable variable data and transactional printing in a variety of environments from desktop printers to digital production presses. This includes hybrid workflows involving both conventional and digital printing. ISO 16612-2:2010 does not provide for the specification and encoding of production and device control information but is constructed to enable its use with the International Cooperation for the Integration of Processes in Prepress, Press, and Postpress Organization (CIP4) job document format (JDF) or similar job ticket formats.

Technologie graphique -- Échange de données d'impression variables

Grafična tehnologija - Izmenjava spremenljivih podatkov - 2. del: Uporaba PDF/X-4 in PDF/X-5 (PDF/VT-1 in PDF/VT-2)

Ta del ISO 16612 opredeljuje format dokumentov PDF/VT in metode, ki omogočajo zanesljivo izmenjavo dokumentov za tiskanje spremenljivih podatkov in transakcijsko (VT) tiskanje. Za predstavitev takih dokumentov uporablja različico formata 1.6 za prenosne dokumente (PDF), kot ga omejujeta PDF/X-4 in PDF/X-5. Omogoča specifikacijo strukture in postavitve, vsebinske podatke in interakcijo med grafičnimi objekti v grafičnem modelu, ki podpira prozornost ter barvne razmike, odvisne in neodvisne od naprave. Vsi elementi so bodisi vključeni bodisi se zagotovi edinstvena identifikacija grafične vsebine ali profilov ICC od zunaj. PDF/VT omogoča tiskanje spremenljivih podatkov in transakcijsko tiskanje v različnih okoljih, od namiznih tiskalnikov do digitalnih proizvodnih tiskarskih strojev. To vključuje hibridne delovne procese, ki zajemajo konvencionalno in digitalno tiskanje. Ta del ISO 16612 ne podaja specifikacije in kodiranja proizvodnih informacij in informacij za nadzor naprav, vendar pa omogoča uporabo formata za dokumente z opisom nalog (JDF) CIP4 ali podobnih formatov z opisom nalog tiskanja.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
29-Jul-2010
Current Stage
9093 - International Standard confirmed
Start Date
05-Mar-2021

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 16612-2
First edition
2010-08-15
Graphic technology — Variable data
exchange —
Part 2:
Using PDF/X-4 and PDF/X-5
(PDF/VT-1 and PDF/VT-2)
Technologie graphique — Échange de données d'impression
variables —
Partie 2: Utilisation de PDF/X-4 et PDF/X-5 (PDF/VT-1 et PDF/VT-2)
Reference number
ISO 16612-2:2010(E)
ISO 2010
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 16612-2:2010(E)
PDF disclaimer

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downloading this file, parties accept therein the responsibility of not infringing Adobe's licensing policy. The ISO Central Secretariat

accepts no liability in this area.
Adobe is a trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated.

Details of the software products used to create this PDF file can be found in the General Info relative to the file; the PDF-creation

parameters were optimized for printing. Every care has been taken to ensure that the file is suitable for use by ISO member bodies. In

the unlikely event that a problem relating to it is found, please inform the Central Secretariat at the address given below.

COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2010

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or

ISO's member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
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Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 16612-2:2010(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction.........................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope......................................................................................................................................................1

2 Normative references............................................................................................................................1

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms..........................................................................................2

3.1 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................2

3.2 Abbreviated terms .................................................................................................................................5

4 Notations ................................................................................................................................................5

5 Conforming files and equipment .........................................................................................................5

5.1 General ...................................................................................................................................................5

5.2 PDF/VT-1 conformance.........................................................................................................................6

5.3 PDF/VT-2 conformance.........................................................................................................................6

5.4 PDF/VT-2s conformance.......................................................................................................................6

5.5 All PDF/VT file conformance levels .....................................................................................................6

5.6 Validation of PDF/VT files.....................................................................................................................6

6 Technical requirements ........................................................................................................................7

6.1 General ...................................................................................................................................................7

6.2 PDF/VT file requirements......................................................................................................................7

6.3 PDF/VT-1 and PDF/VT-2 file identification ..........................................................................................7

6.4 Architecture ...........................................................................................................................................8

6.5 Document part hierarchy......................................................................................................................9

6.6 Document part metadata (DPM).........................................................................................................11

6.7 Recurring graphical object definitions..............................................................................................12

Annex A (normative) Use of multipart MIME for streamed generation of PDF/VT data.............................16

Annex B (informative) PDF/X conformance summary...................................................................................18

Annex C (informative) Example DPart structure............................................................................................19

Annex D (normative) XML representation of the document part hierarchy................................................26

Annex E (normative) Naming conventions for DPM keys ............................................................................31

Annex F (normative) Determining XObject equivalence...............................................................................32

Bibliography......................................................................................................................................................36

© ISO 2010 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 16612-2:2010(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 16612-2 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 130, Graphic technology.

ISO 16612 consists of the following parts, under the general title Graphic technology — Variable data

exchange:
⎯ Part 1: Using PPML 2.1 and PDF 1.4 (PPML/VDX-2005)
⎯ Part 2: Using PDF/X-4 and PDF/X-5 (PDF/VT-1 and PDF/VT-2)
iv © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 16612-2:2010(E)
Introduction

This part of ISO 16612 defines the PDF/VT document format which specifies methods for the use of the

Portable Document Format (PDF) for the definition and exchange of all content elements and supporting

metadata necessary for printing tasks involving variable or transactional document content. It allows the

specification of document structure, document layout, content data, and interaction of graphical elements in a

graphics model that supports transparency.

PDF/VT is designed to enable variable document printing (VDP) in a variety of environments from desktop

printers to digital production presses. This includes hybrid workflows involving both conventional and digital

printing.
This part of ISO 16612 defines three conformance levels as follows.

⎯ PDF/VT-1 for a complete single-file exchange. PDF/VT-1 requires all resources necessary for proper

interpretation of the PDF data to be included within the conforming PDF file.

⎯ PDF/VT-2 for multi-file exchange. PDF/VT-2 enables a conforming file to refer to an external ICC profile

file and additional content defined in external PDF/X conforming files for use as page content.

⎯ PDF/VT-2s for streamed delivery. PDF/VT-2s allows for processing (streaming) of multiple compound

entities representing graphical content before the entire PDF/VT instance has been generated. A

PDF/VT-2s stream is a MIME package that contains a sequence of one or more PDF/VT files and

supporting resources.

The present trend towards the separation of variable document content creation from the details of print

production workflow and printing device dependencies is evolving rapidly. The job definition format (JDF) job

ticket specification being developed by the International Cooperation for the Integration of Processes in

Prepress, Press, and Postpress Organization (CIP4) provides one means of specifying a print product and

corresponding production process in a way that is independent of any particular graphical content format.

PDF/VT is intended to be workflow-architecture-neutral. PDF/VT has no provision for encoding workflow or

device-specific control information. The aspects of device control, resource, and production management are

outside the scope of this part of ISO 16612. In a production environment, PDF/VT relies on the use of JDF, or

similar job ticket formats, to define a print product and the corresponding production requirements. The

primary focus of PDF/VT is on the exchange of content between businesses or within an integrated

environment that produces variable document printing.

Graphics design applications continue to evolve with greater capability and increased sophistication of the

graphical content and design effects based on a graphics model that supports transparency. This graphics

model is required to support features such as drop shadows and colour blending effects that are associated

with the interaction of transparent content objects. These capabilities are used in the creation of one-to-one

customer communication print applications including direct marketing documents, transactional documents,

and trans-promotional documents.

This part of ISO 16612, referred to as PDF/VT, includes support for the PDF 1.6 imaging model which

includes support for transparency. It builds on the PDF/X-4 and PDF/X-5 standards (defined in ISO 15930-7

and ISO 15930-8), which, in turn, reference PDF 1.6. Like ISO 16612-1, this part of ISO 16612 guarantees

portability of conforming VDP content and metadata across conforming digital printing systems. It is focused

on defining the content data and metadata necessary to support efficient workflow manipulation and

processing based on the use of JDF or similar job ticket formats. More specifically, the job ticket is expected to

define the production requirements and draw upon PDF/VT for its content and metadata resources.

© ISO 2010 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 16612-2:2010(E)

This approach supports the fundamental requirements of portability, device and workflow independence and

guaranteed communication of the intended colour reproduction. The native constructs within PDF allow

products to provide functionality equivalent to that of PPML workflows as used in ISO 16612-1. This part of

ISO 16612 uses a single homogeneous format while adding support for a graphics model that supports

transparency, including support for interacting transparent objects.

This part of ISO 16612 is based on PDF/X-4 and PDF/X-5 allowing users to continue to use, and solution

vendors to build on, existing PDF-based workflow tools and job-ticket-based VDP workflow architecture similar

to PPML/VDX, with the added capability of the full graphics model of PDF 1.6.

PDF/VT supports the use of graphical object definitions as a method of specifying graphical content data only

once in a PDF/VT file independent of the number of times it is referenced in the file. This approach serves to

reduce the file size of a PDF/VT instance and allows implementers of conforming readers to employ various

processing optimization strategies. Within the context of PDF/X-4, these graphical objects are specified as

image, form and transparency group XObjects. Use of PDF/X-5g and PDF/X-5pg allows for the use of

reference XObjects where the XObject's content stream is that of a page of a referenced PDF file.

While strongly recommended, there is nothing in this part of ISO 16612 that enforces the creation of PDF/VT

files that make efficient use of XObjects.

XObjects referenced multiple times from various content streams can be tagged with hint information that aids

the conforming reader in its determination of XObject reuse. These hints include an explicit lifetime scope to

indicate the context within which the XObject is known to be referenced multiple times, such as within the

current file, across multiple files of a PDF/VT instance or across PDF/VT instances. An XObject can also be

tagged with an identifier to assist a conforming reader in the identification and management of such recurring

definitions, such as in the case where it is known to occur across multiple PDF/VT files.

An XObject can also be identified as an encapsulated XObject if its definition has a limited and well-defined

interaction with the current graphic state when invoked. This explicit hint serves to assist a conforming reader

in its optimization strategy.

This part of ISO 16612 enables an exchange of content where no additional technical information is required

to be communicated between sender and receiver for the purpose of describing the appearance of page

content.

Application notes for this part of ISO 16612 are available to provide assistance to developers and users of

applications designed to conform to this part of ISO 16612 and can be found at
http://www.npes.org/Standards/toolspdfvt.html.

A reader conforming to this part of ISO 16612 is not required to support documents conforming to ISO 16612-1,

which is based on the use of PDF and PPML.
vi © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 16612-2:2010(E)
Graphic technology — Variable data exchange —
Part 2:
Using PDF/X-4 and PDF/X-5 (PDF/VT-1 and PDF/VT-2)
1 Scope

This part of ISO 16612 defines the PDF/VT document format and methods to enable reliable document

exchange for variable data and transactional (VT) printing. It uses the Portable Document Format (PDF)

Version 1.6, as restricted by PDF/X-4 and PDF/X-5, for the representation of such documents. It allows the

specification of document structure and layout, content data, and interaction of graphical objects in a graphics

model that supports transparency and both device-dependent and device-independent colour spaces. All

elements are either included or provision is made for unique identification of externally supplied graphical

content or ICC profiles.

PDF/VT is designed to enable variable data and transactional printing in a variety of environments from

desktop printers to digital production presses. This includes hybrid workflows involving both conventional and

digital printing.

This part of ISO 16612 does not provide for the specification and encoding of production and device control

information but is constructed to enable its use with the CIP4 Job Document Format (JDF) or similar job ticket

formats.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 15930-7, Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange using PDF — Part 7: Complete exchange

of printing data (PDF/X-4) and partial exchange of printing data with external profile reference (PDF/X-4p)

using PDF 1.6

ISO 15930-8, Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange using PDF — Part 8: Partial exchange of

printing data using PDF 1.6 (PDF/X-5)

Adobe PDF Reference, fifth edition, version 1.6., Adobe Systems Incorporated (ISBN 0-321-30474-8).

Available from

Errata for the PDF Reference, fifth edition, version 1.6 dated 4 October 2006, Adobe Systems Incorporated.

Available from

Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (Second Edition), 6 October 2000, World Wide Web Consortium,

Available from

PDF Blend Modes: Addendum, 23 January 2006, Adobe Systems Incorporated. Available from


© ISO 2010 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 16612-2:2010(E)

RFC 2045, Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format of Internet Message Bodies,

November 1996. Available from

RFC 2046, Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types, November 1996. Available

from

RFC 2047, MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) Part Three: Message Header Extensions for

Non-ASCII Text, November 1996. Available from

RFC 2183, Communicating Presentation Information in Internet Messages: The Content-Disposition Header

Field, August 1997. Available from

RFC 4122, A Universally Unique IDentifier (UUID) URN Namespace, July 2005. Available from


XML Path Language (XPath), version 1.0, WC3 Recommendation, 16 November 1999. Available from


3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1.1
compound entity

unit of work with all text, graphics and image elements prepared for final print reproduction and that might

represent a single page for printing, a portion of a page or a combination of pages

3.1.2
document
collection of related document parts
NOTE A document part can also be a document.
3.1.3
document part
set of related pages or related sets of pages, or both
EXAMPLE Chapter pages of a book or all sets of pages intended for a recipient.
3.1.4
document part hierarchy
hierarchical data structure that specifies the organization of document parts
3.1.5
document part metadata
DPM
metadata associated with a document part
3.1.6
editor
application that is both a reader and a writer capable of modifying a file
3.1.7
encapsulated XObject

XObject having a well-defined limited interaction with the current graphics state at the point of invocation

2 © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 16612-2:2010(E)
3.1.8
environment context
set of reusable content
3.1.9
graphical object

graphical content definition comprising text, vector graphics, image data or some combination thereof

3.1.10
ICC
International Color Consortium

industry association formed to develop standardized mechanisms for colour management

3.1.11
ICC profile
set of colorimetric transforms prepared in accordance with ICC.1 or ISO 15076-1
3.1.12
interactive reader

reader that requires or allows human interaction with the content and other objects contained in the document

during the software's processing phase

NOTE A file viewing tool is an example of an interactive reader; a raster image processor is an example of a reader

that is not interactive.
[ISO 19005-1:2005]
3.1.13
job definition

information that specifies the production requirements and workflow of a unit of work involving purposing

PDF/VT content to one or more messaging channels
3.1.14
job ticket

electronic specification of print product or process control for print production, or both

3.1.15
PDF
Portable Document Format
file format defined in the PDF Reference
3.1.16
PDF/VT

document format and methods to enable reliable document exchange for variable data and transactional

printing
3.1.17
PDF/VT chunk

conforming PDF/VT-1 file or PDF/VT-2 file set that is a member of a PDF/VT-2s stream

3.1.18
PDF/VT file
a conforming PDF/VT-1 or PDF/VT-2 file
3.1.19
PDF/VT file collection
one or more conforming PDF/VT-1 files or PDF/VT-2 file sets, or both

NOTE PDF/VT file collections can include files belonging to several PDF/VT instances.

© ISO 2010 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 16612-2:2010(E)
3.1.20
PDF/VT instance
PDF/VT-1 file, PDF/VT-2 file set or PDF/VT-2s stream
3.1.21
PDF/VT-2 file set

single conforming PDF/VT-2 file and all its referenced PDF files and external ICC profile files

3.1.22
PDF/X-4
conformance level defined in ISO 15930-7
3.1.23
PDF/X-4p
conformance level defined in ISO 15930-7
3.1.24
PDF/X-5
set of conformance levels defined in ISO 15930-8
3.1.25
PDF/X-5g
conformance level defined in ISO 15930-8
3.1.26
PDF/X-5pg
conformance level defined in ISO 15930-8
3.1.27
print element
element intended for final print reproduction
NOTE For more information, see ISO 15930-7.
3.1.28
print product
outcome of the processing of a document through a print manufacturing process.
EXAMPLE A perfect bound book or a postcard.
3.1.29
product part
part of a print product
EXAMPLE The cover part of a saddle-stitched booklet.
3.1.30
reader
software application that is able to read and appropriately process files
[ISO 15930-7]
3.1.31
recipient record
collection of information related to the pages intended for a single recipient
3.1.32
writer
software application that is able to write files
[ISO 15930-7]
4 © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 16612-2:2010(E)
3.2 Abbreviated terms

CIP4 International Cooperation for the Integration of Processes in Prepress, Press, and Postpress

Organization
DPM document part metadata
ICC International Color Consortium
JDF Job Definition Format as defined in the CIP4 JDF Specification
PDF Portable Document Format
4 Notations

PDF operators, PDF keywords, the names of keys in PDF dictionaries, and other predefined names are

written in a bold sans serif font; for example, the key Trapped.

Operands of PDF operators or values of dictionary keys are written in an italic sans serif font; for example, the

False value for the Trapped key.

The term “PDF/VT file” indicates requirements for files that comply with at least one of the conformance levels

defined in this part of ISO 16612.

References to the “PDF Reference” are to the Adobe PDF Reference, fifth edition, Version 1.6, as modified by

Errata for the PDF Reference, fifth edition, and by PDF Blend Modes: Addendum.

References to XML are to the Extensible Markup Language defined in Extensible Markup Language

(XML) 1.0 (Second Edition).
5 Conforming files and equipment
5.1 General

This part of ISO 16612 specifies the use of the PDF file format for the exchange of digital data representing

the compound entities of one or more components intended for printing.

This part of ISO 16612, is based on ISO 15930, and defines three conformance levels based on ISO PDF/X

standards as follows.

⎯ PDF/VT-1 requires all compound entities, metadata and resources used in representing graphical content

to be defined within the PDF/VT-1 file as specified in PDF/X-4.

⎯ PDF/VT-2 allows one or more compound entities representing graphical content or ICC profiles required

to render the file to be externally referenced according to the provisions specified in PDF/X-4p, PDF/X-5g

and PDF/X-5pg.

⎯ PDF/VT-2s allows for processing (streaming) of multiple compound entities representing graphical

content before the entire PDF/VT instance has been generated.

PDF/VT conformance is identified in a PDF/VT file by use of the pdfvtid:GTS_PDFVTVersion property as

specified in 6.3. Neither the version number in the header of a PDF file nor the value of the Version key in the

Catalog of a PDF file shall be used in determining whether a file is in accordance with this part of ISO 16612.

A PDF/VT file shall conform to all requirements set out in Clause 6.
© ISO 2010 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 16612-2:2010(E)
5.2 PDF/VT-1 conformance

A PDF/VT-1 conforming writer is a software application that is able to write PDF/VT-1 files in accordance with

the conformance requirements specified in Clause 6.

A PDF/VT-1 conforming reader is a software application or system that is able to read and appropriately

process all PDF/VT-1 files in accordance with the conformance requirements specified in Clause 6.

5.3 PDF/VT-2 conformance

A PDF/VT-2 conforming writer is a software application that is able to write PDF/VT-2 files in accordance with

the conformance requirements specified in Clause 6.

A PDF/VT-2 conforming reader is a software application or system that is able to read and appropriately

process all PDF/VT-2 file sets in accordance with the conformance requirements for PDF/X-4, PDF/X-4p,

PDF/X-5g and PDF/X-5pg as specified in Clause 6.
5.4 PDF/VT-2s conformance

A PDF/VT-2s conforming stream is a MIME package of type application/pdf-vt-stream containing one or more

PDF/VT chunks in which those features necessary for streaming exchange shall adhere to the conformance

requirements defined in Annex A.

A PDF/VT-2s conforming writer is a software application that is able to write PDF/VT-2s streams that are in

accordance with the conformance requirements defined in A.2.

A PDF/VT-2s conforming reader is a software application or system that is able to read and appropriately

process PDF/VT-2s streams in accordance with the conformance requirements defined in A.3.

5.5 All PDF/VT file conformance levels

All conforming interactive readers should present a user interface based on the tree structure of the document

part hierarchy defined in 6.5.

All conforming readers shall read and appropriately process the DPartRoot dictionary and its DPart

sub-dictionaries defined in 6.5.
A conforming editor shall be both a conforming reader and a conforming writer.

All conforming PDF/VT editors, when updating a PDF/VT file, shall write a new value for both the

pdfvtid:GTS_PDFVTModDate and the xmp:ModifyDate properties.

To the extent that ISO 15930-7 and ISO 15930-8 and this part of ISO 16612 permit more than one rendering

of a PDF/VT file, a conforming reader may use a job ticket or metadata information to further restrict the

rendering of the file.
Annex B gives a summary of the permitted PDF/X conformance levels.
5.6 Validation of PDF/VT files

A PDF/VT-1 file can be validated individually against the requirements of this part of ISO 16612.

A PDF/VT-2 file can be validated in isolation against the requirements of this part of ISO 16612. In addition, a

PDF/VT-2 file set can be validated. Successful validation of a PDF/VT-2 file in isolation should not be taken to

imply that the use of that file within a file set would necessarily lead to a conforming file set.

Only a complete PDF/VT-2 file set can be completely validated against the requirements of this part of

ISO 16612. Only a complete PDF/VT-2s stream including all of its referenced files can be completely validated

against the requirements of this part of ISO 16612.
Annex B gives a summary of the permitted PDF/X conformance levels.
6 © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO 16612-2:2010(E)
6 Technical requirements
6.1 General

The PDF features that shall be required, prohibited or restricted are specified in 6.2 to 6.7. These features

shall be used as prescribed in the PDF Reference and as further restricted by this part of ISO 16612.

6.2 PDF/VT file requirements
6.2.1 PDF/VT-1 file requirements

A PDF/VT-1 file shall conform to PDF/X-4 (but not PDF/X-4p) as defined in ISO 15930-7.

NOTE PDF/X-4p is not included because it permits a reference to an external ICC profile and the PDF/VT-1

conformance level is intended for single-file exchange only.
6.2.2 PDF/VT-2 file requirements
A PDF/VT-2 file shall conform to one of the following:
⎯ PDF/X-5g as defined in ISO 15930-8;
⎯ PDF/X-5pg as defined in ISO 15930-8;
⎯ PDF/X-4p as defined in ISO 15930-7.

NOTE 1 Although PDF/X-5n is a PDF/X-5 conformance level, it is not included in PDF/VT-2 conformance due to the

somewhat specialized nature of digital print workflows that make use of n
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 16612-2:2011
01-julij-2011

*UDILþQDWHKQRORJLMD,]PHQMDYDVSUHPHQOMLYLKSRGDWNRYGHO8SRUDED3');

LQ3'); 3')97LQ3')97
Graphic technology - Variable data exchange - Part 2: Using PDF/X-4 and PDF/X-5
(PDF/VT-1 and PDF/VT-2)
Technologie graphique - Échange de données d'impression variables - Partie 2:
Utilisation de PDF/X-4 et PDF/X-5 (PDF/VT-1 et PDF/VT-2)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 16612-2:2010
ICS:
35.240.30 Uporabniške rešitve IT v IT applications in information,
informatiki, dokumentiranju in documentation and
založništvu publishing
37.100.99 'UXJLVWDQGDUGLY]YH]L] Other standards related to
JUDILþQRWHKQRORJLMR graphic technology
SIST ISO 16612-2:2011 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ISO 16612-2:2011
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST ISO 16612-2:2011
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 16612-2
First edition
2010-08-15
Graphic technology — Variable data
exchange —
Part 2:
Using PDF/X-4 and PDF/X-5
(PDF/VT-1 and PDF/VT-2)
Technologie graphique — Échange de données d'impression
variables —
Partie 2: Utilisation de PDF/X-4 et PDF/X-5 (PDF/VT-1 et PDF/VT-2)
Reference number
ISO 16612-2:2010(E)
ISO 2010
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SIST ISO 16612-2:2011
ISO 16612-2:2010(E)
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ii © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved
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SIST ISO 16612-2:2011
ISO 16612-2:2010(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction.........................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope......................................................................................................................................................1

2 Normative references............................................................................................................................1

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms..........................................................................................2

3.1 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................2

3.2 Abbreviated terms .................................................................................................................................5

4 Notations ................................................................................................................................................5

5 Conforming files and equipment .........................................................................................................5

5.1 General ...................................................................................................................................................5

5.2 PDF/VT-1 conformance.........................................................................................................................6

5.3 PDF/VT-2 conformance.........................................................................................................................6

5.4 PDF/VT-2s conformance.......................................................................................................................6

5.5 All PDF/VT file conformance levels .....................................................................................................6

5.6 Validation of PDF/VT files.....................................................................................................................6

6 Technical requirements ........................................................................................................................7

6.1 General ...................................................................................................................................................7

6.2 PDF/VT file requirements......................................................................................................................7

6.3 PDF/VT-1 and PDF/VT-2 file identification ..........................................................................................7

6.4 Architecture ...........................................................................................................................................8

6.5 Document part hierarchy......................................................................................................................9

6.6 Document part metadata (DPM).........................................................................................................11

6.7 Recurring graphical object definitions..............................................................................................12

Annex A (normative) Use of multipart MIME for streamed generation of PDF/VT data.............................16

Annex B (informative) PDF/X conformance summary...................................................................................18

Annex C (informative) Example DPart structure............................................................................................19

Annex D (normative) XML representation of the document part hierarchy................................................26

Annex E (normative) Naming conventions for DPM keys ............................................................................31

Annex F (normative) Determining XObject equivalence...............................................................................32

Bibliography......................................................................................................................................................36

© ISO 2010 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST ISO 16612-2:2011
ISO 16612-2:2010(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 16612-2 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 130, Graphic technology.

ISO 16612 consists of the following parts, under the general title Graphic technology — Variable data

exchange:
⎯ Part 1: Using PPML 2.1 and PDF 1.4 (PPML/VDX-2005)
⎯ Part 2: Using PDF/X-4 and PDF/X-5 (PDF/VT-1 and PDF/VT-2)
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ISO 16612-2:2010(E)
Introduction

This part of ISO 16612 defines the PDF/VT document format which specifies methods for the use of the

Portable Document Format (PDF) for the definition and exchange of all content elements and supporting

metadata necessary for printing tasks involving variable or transactional document content. It allows the

specification of document structure, document layout, content data, and interaction of graphical elements in a

graphics model that supports transparency.

PDF/VT is designed to enable variable document printing (VDP) in a variety of environments from desktop

printers to digital production presses. This includes hybrid workflows involving both conventional and digital

printing.
This part of ISO 16612 defines three conformance levels as follows.

⎯ PDF/VT-1 for a complete single-file exchange. PDF/VT-1 requires all resources necessary for proper

interpretation of the PDF data to be included within the conforming PDF file.

⎯ PDF/VT-2 for multi-file exchange. PDF/VT-2 enables a conforming file to refer to an external ICC profile

file and additional content defined in external PDF/X conforming files for use as page content.

⎯ PDF/VT-2s for streamed delivery. PDF/VT-2s allows for processing (streaming) of multiple compound

entities representing graphical content before the entire PDF/VT instance has been generated. A

PDF/VT-2s stream is a MIME package that contains a sequence of one or more PDF/VT files and

supporting resources.

The present trend towards the separation of variable document content creation from the details of print

production workflow and printing device dependencies is evolving rapidly. The job definition format (JDF) job

ticket specification being developed by the International Cooperation for the Integration of Processes in

Prepress, Press, and Postpress Organization (CIP4) provides one means of specifying a print product and

corresponding production process in a way that is independent of any particular graphical content format.

PDF/VT is intended to be workflow-architecture-neutral. PDF/VT has no provision for encoding workflow or

device-specific control information. The aspects of device control, resource, and production management are

outside the scope of this part of ISO 16612. In a production environment, PDF/VT relies on the use of JDF, or

similar job ticket formats, to define a print product and the corresponding production requirements. The

primary focus of PDF/VT is on the exchange of content between businesses or within an integrated

environment that produces variable document printing.

Graphics design applications continue to evolve with greater capability and increased sophistication of the

graphical content and design effects based on a graphics model that supports transparency. This graphics

model is required to support features such as drop shadows and colour blending effects that are associated

with the interaction of transparent content objects. These capabilities are used in the creation of one-to-one

customer communication print applications including direct marketing documents, transactional documents,

and trans-promotional documents.

This part of ISO 16612, referred to as PDF/VT, includes support for the PDF 1.6 imaging model which

includes support for transparency. It builds on the PDF/X-4 and PDF/X-5 standards (defined in ISO 15930-7

and ISO 15930-8), which, in turn, reference PDF 1.6. Like ISO 16612-1, this part of ISO 16612 guarantees

portability of conforming VDP content and metadata across conforming digital printing systems. It is focused

on defining the content data and metadata necessary to support efficient workflow manipulation and

processing based on the use of JDF or similar job ticket formats. More specifically, the job ticket is expected to

define the production requirements and draw upon PDF/VT for its content and metadata resources.

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This approach supports the fundamental requirements of portability, device and workflow independence and

guaranteed communication of the intended colour reproduction. The native constructs within PDF allow

products to provide functionality equivalent to that of PPML workflows as used in ISO 16612-1. This part of

ISO 16612 uses a single homogeneous format while adding support for a graphics model that supports

transparency, including support for interacting transparent objects.

This part of ISO 16612 is based on PDF/X-4 and PDF/X-5 allowing users to continue to use, and solution

vendors to build on, existing PDF-based workflow tools and job-ticket-based VDP workflow architecture similar

to PPML/VDX, with the added capability of the full graphics model of PDF 1.6.

PDF/VT supports the use of graphical object definitions as a method of specifying graphical content data only

once in a PDF/VT file independent of the number of times it is referenced in the file. This approach serves to

reduce the file size of a PDF/VT instance and allows implementers of conforming readers to employ various

processing optimization strategies. Within the context of PDF/X-4, these graphical objects are specified as

image, form and transparency group XObjects. Use of PDF/X-5g and PDF/X-5pg allows for the use of

reference XObjects where the XObject's content stream is that of a page of a referenced PDF file.

While strongly recommended, there is nothing in this part of ISO 16612 that enforces the creation of PDF/VT

files that make efficient use of XObjects.

XObjects referenced multiple times from various content streams can be tagged with hint information that aids

the conforming reader in its determination of XObject reuse. These hints include an explicit lifetime scope to

indicate the context within which the XObject is known to be referenced multiple times, such as within the

current file, across multiple files of a PDF/VT instance or across PDF/VT instances. An XObject can also be

tagged with an identifier to assist a conforming reader in the identification and management of such recurring

definitions, such as in the case where it is known to occur across multiple PDF/VT files.

An XObject can also be identified as an encapsulated XObject if its definition has a limited and well-defined

interaction with the current graphic state when invoked. This explicit hint serves to assist a conforming reader

in its optimization strategy.

This part of ISO 16612 enables an exchange of content where no additional technical information is required

to be communicated between sender and receiver for the purpose of describing the appearance of page

content.

Application notes for this part of ISO 16612 are available to provide assistance to developers and users of

applications designed to conform to this part of ISO 16612 and can be found at
http://www.npes.org/Standards/toolspdfvt.html.

A reader conforming to this part of ISO 16612 is not required to support documents conforming to ISO 16612-1,

which is based on the use of PDF and PPML.
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SIST ISO 16612-2:2011
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 16612-2:2010(E)
Graphic technology — Variable data exchange —
Part 2:
Using PDF/X-4 and PDF/X-5 (PDF/VT-1 and PDF/VT-2)
1 Scope

This part of ISO 16612 defines the PDF/VT document format and methods to enable reliable document

exchange for variable data and transactional (VT) printing. It uses the Portable Document Format (PDF)

Version 1.6, as restricted by PDF/X-4 and PDF/X-5, for the representation of such documents. It allows the

specification of document structure and layout, content data, and interaction of graphical objects in a graphics

model that supports transparency and both device-dependent and device-independent colour spaces. All

elements are either included or provision is made for unique identification of externally supplied graphical

content or ICC profiles.

PDF/VT is designed to enable variable data and transactional printing in a variety of environments from

desktop printers to digital production presses. This includes hybrid workflows involving both conventional and

digital printing.

This part of ISO 16612 does not provide for the specification and encoding of production and device control

information but is constructed to enable its use with the CIP4 Job Document Format (JDF) or similar job ticket

formats.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 15930-7, Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange using PDF — Part 7: Complete exchange

of printing data (PDF/X-4) and partial exchange of printing data with external profile reference (PDF/X-4p)

using PDF 1.6

ISO 15930-8, Graphic technology — Prepress digital data exchange using PDF — Part 8: Partial exchange of

printing data using PDF 1.6 (PDF/X-5)

Adobe PDF Reference, fifth edition, version 1.6., Adobe Systems Incorporated (ISBN 0-321-30474-8).

Available from

Errata for the PDF Reference, fifth edition, version 1.6 dated 4 October 2006, Adobe Systems Incorporated.

Available from

Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (Second Edition), 6 October 2000, World Wide Web Consortium,

Available from

PDF Blend Modes: Addendum, 23 January 2006, Adobe Systems Incorporated. Available from


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RFC 2045, Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format of Internet Message Bodies,

November 1996. Available from

RFC 2046, Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types, November 1996. Available

from

RFC 2047, MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) Part Three: Message Header Extensions for

Non-ASCII Text, November 1996. Available from

RFC 2183, Communicating Presentation Information in Internet Messages: The Content-Disposition Header

Field, August 1997. Available from

RFC 4122, A Universally Unique IDentifier (UUID) URN Namespace, July 2005. Available from


XML Path Language (XPath), version 1.0, WC3 Recommendation, 16 November 1999. Available from


3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1.1
compound entity

unit of work with all text, graphics and image elements prepared for final print reproduction and that might

represent a single page for printing, a portion of a page or a combination of pages

3.1.2
document
collection of related document parts
NOTE A document part can also be a document.
3.1.3
document part
set of related pages or related sets of pages, or both
EXAMPLE Chapter pages of a book or all sets of pages intended for a recipient.
3.1.4
document part hierarchy
hierarchical data structure that specifies the organization of document parts
3.1.5
document part metadata
DPM
metadata associated with a document part
3.1.6
editor
application that is both a reader and a writer capable of modifying a file
3.1.7
encapsulated XObject

XObject having a well-defined limited interaction with the current graphics state at the point of invocation

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3.1.8
environment context
set of reusable content
3.1.9
graphical object

graphical content definition comprising text, vector graphics, image data or some combination thereof

3.1.10
ICC
International Color Consortium

industry association formed to develop standardized mechanisms for colour management

3.1.11
ICC profile
set of colorimetric transforms prepared in accordance with ICC.1 or ISO 15076-1
3.1.12
interactive reader

reader that requires or allows human interaction with the content and other objects contained in the document

during the software's processing phase

NOTE A file viewing tool is an example of an interactive reader; a raster image processor is an example of a reader

that is not interactive.
[ISO 19005-1:2005]
3.1.13
job definition

information that specifies the production requirements and workflow of a unit of work involving purposing

PDF/VT content to one or more messaging channels
3.1.14
job ticket

electronic specification of print product or process control for print production, or both

3.1.15
PDF
Portable Document Format
file format defined in the PDF Reference
3.1.16
PDF/VT

document format and methods to enable reliable document exchange for variable data and transactional

printing
3.1.17
PDF/VT chunk

conforming PDF/VT-1 file or PDF/VT-2 file set that is a member of a PDF/VT-2s stream

3.1.18
PDF/VT file
a conforming PDF/VT-1 or PDF/VT-2 file
3.1.19
PDF/VT file collection
one or more conforming PDF/VT-1 files or PDF/VT-2 file sets, or both

NOTE PDF/VT file collections can include files belonging to several PDF/VT instances.

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3.1.20
PDF/VT instance
PDF/VT-1 file, PDF/VT-2 file set or PDF/VT-2s stream
3.1.21
PDF/VT-2 file set

single conforming PDF/VT-2 file and all its referenced PDF files and external ICC profile files

3.1.22
PDF/X-4
conformance level defined in ISO 15930-7
3.1.23
PDF/X-4p
conformance level defined in ISO 15930-7
3.1.24
PDF/X-5
set of conformance levels defined in ISO 15930-8
3.1.25
PDF/X-5g
conformance level defined in ISO 15930-8
3.1.26
PDF/X-5pg
conformance level defined in ISO 15930-8
3.1.27
print element
element intended for final print reproduction
NOTE For more information, see ISO 15930-7.
3.1.28
print product
outcome of the processing of a document through a print manufacturing process.
EXAMPLE A perfect bound book or a postcard.
3.1.29
product part
part of a print product
EXAMPLE The cover part of a saddle-stitched booklet.
3.1.30
reader
software application that is able to read and appropriately process files
[ISO 15930-7]
3.1.31
recipient record
collection of information related to the pages intended for a single recipient
3.1.32
writer
software application that is able to write files
[ISO 15930-7]
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3.2 Abbreviated terms

CIP4 International Cooperation for the Integration of Processes in Prepress, Press, and Postpress

Organization
DPM document part metadata
ICC International Color Consortium
JDF Job Definition Format as defined in the CIP4 JDF Specification
PDF Portable Document Format
4 Notations

PDF operators, PDF keywords, the names of keys in PDF dictionaries, and other predefined names are

written in a bold sans serif font; for example, the key Trapped.

Operands of PDF operators or values of dictionary keys are written in an italic sans serif font; for example, the

False value for the Trapped key.

The term “PDF/VT file” indicates requirements for files that comply with at least one of the conformance levels

defined in this part of ISO 16612.

References to the “PDF Reference” are to the Adobe PDF Reference, fifth edition, Version 1.6, as modified by

Errata for the PDF Reference, fifth edition, and by PDF Blend Modes: Addendum.

References to XML are to the Extensible Markup Language defined in Extensible Markup Language

(XML) 1.0 (Second Edition).
5 Conforming files and equipment
5.1 General

This part of ISO 16612 specifies the use of the PDF file format for the exchange of digital data representing

the compound entities of one or more components intended for printing.

This part of ISO 16612, is based on ISO 15930, and defines three conformance levels based on ISO PDF/X

standards as follows.

⎯ PDF/VT-1 requires all compound entities, metadata and resources used in representing graphical content

to be defined within the PDF/VT-1 file as specified in PDF/X-4.

⎯ PDF/VT-2 allows one or more compound entities representing graphical content or ICC profiles required

to render the file to be externally referenced according to the provisions specified in PDF/X-4p, PDF/X-5g

and PDF/X-5pg.

⎯ PDF/VT-2s allows for processing (streaming) of multiple compound entities representing graphical

content before the entire PDF/VT instance has been generated.

PDF/VT conformance is identified in a PDF/VT file by use of the pdfvtid:GTS_PDFVTVersion property as

specified in 6.3. Neither the version number in the header of a PDF file nor the value of the Version key in the

Catalog of a PDF file shall be used in determining whether a file is in accordance with this part of ISO 16612.

A PDF/VT file shall conform to all requirements set out in Clause 6.
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5.2 PDF/VT-1 conformance

A PDF/VT-1 conforming writer is a software application that is able to write PDF/VT-1 files in accordance with

the conformance requirements specified in Clause 6.

A PDF/VT-1 conforming reader is a software application or system that is able to read and appropriately

process all PDF/VT-1 files in accordance with the conformance requirements specified in Clause 6.

5.3 PDF/VT-2 conformance

A PDF/VT-2 conforming writer is a software application that is able to write PDF/VT-2 files in accordance with

the conformance requirements specified in Clause 6.

A PDF/VT-2 conforming reader is a software application or system that is able to read and appropriately

process all PDF/VT-2 file sets in accordance with the conformance requirements for PDF/X-4, PDF/X-4p,

PDF/X-5g and PDF/X-5pg as specified in Clause 6.
5.4 PDF/VT-2s conformance

A PDF/VT-2s conforming stream is a MIME package of type application/pdf-vt-stream containing one or more

PDF/VT chunks in which those features necessary for streaming exchange shall adhere to the conformance

requirements defined in Annex A.

A PDF/VT-2s conforming writer is a software application that is able to write PDF/VT-2s streams that are in

accordance with the conformance requirements defined in A.2.

A PDF/VT-2s conforming reader is a software application or system that is able to read and appropriately

process PDF/VT-2s streams in accordance with the conformance requirements defined in A.3.

5.5 All PDF/VT file conformance levels

All conforming interactive readers should present a user interface based on the tree structure of the document

part hierarchy defined in 6.5.

All conforming readers shall read and appropriately process the DPartRoot dictionary and its DPart

sub-dictionaries defined in 6.5.
A conforming editor shall be both a conforming reader and a conforming writer.

All conforming PDF/VT editors, when updating a PDF/VT file, shall write a new value for both the

pdfvtid:GTS_PDFVTModDate and the xmp:ModifyDate properties.

To the extent that ISO 15930-7 and ISO 15930-8 and this part of ISO 16612 permit more than one rendering

of a PDF/VT file, a conforming reader may use a job ticket or metadata information to further restrict the

rendering of the file.
Annex B gives a summary of the permitted PDF/X conformance levels.
5.6 Validation of PDF/VT files

A PDF/VT-1 file can be validated individually against the requirements of this part of ISO 16612.

A PDF/VT-2 file can be validated in isolation against the requirements of this part of ISO 16612. In addition, a

PDF/VT-2 file set can be validated. Successful validation of a PDF/VT-2 file in isolation should not be taken to

imply that the use of that file within a file set would necessarily lead to a conforming file set.

Only a complete PDF/VT-2 file set can be completely validated against the requirements of this part of

ISO 16612. Only a complete PDF/VT-
...

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