Information technology -- Data interchange on 12,7 mm, 384-track magnetic tape cartridges -- Ultrium-1 format

ISO/IEC 22050:2002 specifies the physical and magnetic characteristics of magnetic tape cartridges, using magnetic tape 12,65 mm wide so as to provide physical interchange of such cartridges between drives. It also specifies the quality of the recorded signals, the recording method and the recorded format, thereby allowing data interchange between drives by means of such cartridges. The linearly recorded format, called Ultrium-1, has 384 tracks. It uses a timing based servo for improved track following. The format supports variable length Logical Records, high speed search, and the use of a registered algorithm for data compression. ISO/IEC 22050:2002 specifies four types of cartridges depending on the length of tape contained in the case. These four types are referred to as Type A, Type B, Type C and Type D; their nominal uncompressed capacity is 100 Gbytes, 50 Gbytes, 30 Gbytes and 10 Gbytes, respectively. Together with a standard for volume and file structure this document provides for full data interchange between data processing systems.

Technologies de l'information -- Échange de données sur cartouches à bande magnétique 12,7 mm, 384 pistes -- Format Ultrium-1

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
16-Oct-2002
Current Stage
9093 - International Standard confirmed
Start Date
21-Aug-2020
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 22050
First edition
2002-10-01
Information technology — Data interchange
on 12,7 mm, 384-track magnetic tape
cartridges — Ultrium-1 format
Technologies de l'information — Échange de données sur cartouches à
bande magnétique 12,7 mm, 384 pistes — Format Ultrium-1
Reference number
ISO/IEC 22050:2002(E)
ISO/IEC 2002
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ISO/IEC 22050:2002(E)
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© ISO/IEC 2002 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 22050:2002(E)
Contents
Section 1 – General
1 Scope 1
2 Conformance 1
2.1 Magnetic tape cartridge 1
2.2 Generating system 1
2.3 Receiving system 1
3 Normative references 1
4 Terms and definitions 2
4.1 Access Point 2
4.2 algorithm 2
4.3 algorithmically processed data 2
4.4 a.c. erase 2
4.5 Average Signal Amplitude 2
4.6 back surface 2
4.7 Beginning of Tape (BOT) 2
4.8 Beginning of Wrap (BOW) 2
4.9 bit 2
4.10 bit cell 2
4.11 Broad Band Signal-to-Noise Ratio (BBSNR) 2
4.12 byte 2
4.13 cartridge 2
4.14 Channel bit 3
4.15 Codeword 3
4.16 Codeword Pair 3
4.17 Codeword Quad (CQ) 3
4.18 CQ Set 3
4.19 cyclic redundancy check (CRC) character 3
4.20 Data Set 3
4.21 Data Set Information Table (DSIT) 3
4.22 End of Data (EOD) 3
4.23 End of Tape (EOT) 3
4.24 End of Wrap (EOW) 3
4.25 Error Correcting Code (ECC) 3
4.26 File Mark 3
4.27 flux transition position 3
4.28 flux transition spacing 3
4.29 forward tape motion 3
4.30 header 3
4.31 Housekeeping Data Set 3
4.32 logical forword 4
4.34 Logical Point 4
4.35 magnetic tape 4
4.36 Master Standard Reference Tape (MSRT) 4
4.37 LTO Cartridge Memory (LTO CM) 4
4.38 Optimum Recording Current 4
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ISO/IEC 22050:2002(E)
4.39 physical end of tape 4
4.40 physical forward 4
4.41 physical reverse 4
4.42 pre-record condition 4
4.43 processed data 4
4.44 Processed Record 4
4.45 Processing (Compression) 4
4.46 Protected Record 4
4.47 Record 5
4.48 recorded element 5
4.50 Reprocessing (Decompression) 5
4.51 reverse tape motion 5
4.52 run length limited encoding (RLL) 5
4.53 Secondary Standard Reference Tape (SSRT) 5
4.54 servo acquisition region 5
4.55 Standard Reference Amplitude (SRA) 5
4.56 Symbol 5
4.57 Synchronised Codeword Quad (SCQ) 5
4.58 Test Recording Density (TRD) 5
4.59 wrap 5
4.60 write equalisation 5
4.61 (1,7) RLL code 5
5 Conventions and notations 6
5.1 Representation of numbers 6
5.2 Dimensions 6
5.3 Names 6
5.4 Alphanumeric string encoding 6
6 Acronyms 6
7 Environment and safety 6
7.1 Cartridge and tape testing environment 7
7.2 Cartridge operating environment 7
7.3 Cartridge storage environment 7
7.4 Tape tension 7
7.5 Safety 7
7.6 Flammability 7
7.7 Transportation 7
Section 2 - Requirements for the Cartridge 8
8 Dimensional and Mechanical Characteristics of the Cartridge 8
8.1 Elements of the cartridge 8
8.2 Reference Planes of the case 8
8.3 Dimensions of the case 8
8.3.1 Overall dimension 8
8.3.2 Reference points for reference planes 9
8.3.3 Positioning notches 10
8.3.4 Handling notches 10
8.3.5 Mis-insertion protection 11
8.3.6 Stacking features 11
8.3.7 Label area of the rear side 12
8.3.8 Central window 12
8.3.9 Sliding door 12
8.3.10 Case opening 12
8.4 Write-inhibit mechanism 13
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ISO/IEC 22050:2002(E)
8.5 Flexibility of the case 13
8.5.1 Requirements 13
8.5.2 Procedure 13
8.6 Tape reel 13
8.6.1 Locking mechanism 13
8.6.2 Axis of rotation of the reel 14
8.6.3 Reel flanges 14
8.6.4 Metallic insert 14
8.6.5 Toothed rim 15
8.6.6 Hub of the reel 15
8.6.7 Relative positions of hub and case 15
8.6.8 Characteristics of the toothed rim 15
8.7 Magnetic tape 16
8.7.1 Tape wind 16
8.7.2 Wind tension 16
8.7.3 Circumference of the tape reel 16
8.7.4 Moment of inertia 16
8.8 Leader pin assembly 17
8.8.1 Leader pin assembly dimensions 17
8.8.2 Leader tape attachment to leader pin assembly 17
8.8.3 Latching the leader pin assembly in the case 17
8.8.4 Mechanism and tape exit keepout area 18
8.9 LTO CM 18
8.10 Areas reserved for cartridge presence sensing 19
8.11 Handling grips and insertion indicator 19
8.11.1 Side grips 19
8.11.2 Insertion indicator 19
8.11.3 Top grip 19
8.11.4 Bottom grip 20
8.12 Pad Printing Areas 20
8.13 Opacity 20
Section 3 - Requirements for the Unrecorded Tape 35
9 Mechanical, physical and dimensional characteristics of the tape 35
9.1 Materials 35
9.2 Tape length 35
9.2.1 Length of magnetic tape 35
9.2.2 Length of leader tape 35
9.2.3 Length of splicing tape 35
9.3 Tape Width 35
9.3.1 Width of magnetic tape 35
9.3.2 Width of leader tape 35
9.3.3 Width of splicing tape 35
9.3.4 Procedure 36
9.4 Tape Thickness 36
9.4.1 Procedure 36
9.5 Longitudinal curvature 36
9.5.1 Procedure 36
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ISO/IEC 22050:2002(E)
9.6 Edge Quality 36
9.6.1 Edge deviation 36
9.7 Tape flatness 37
9.7.1 Cupping 37
9.7.2 Curl/Twist 38
9.8 Coating adhesion 38
9.8.1 Procedure 38
9.9 Layer-to-layer adhesion 38
9.9.1 Requirement 38
9.9.2 Procedure 39
9.10 Coefficient of friction 40
9.10.1 Requirement 40

9.10.2 Procedure for the measurement of the dynamic friction between the magnetic surface and the back surface 40

9.10.3 Procedure for the measurement of the dynamic friction between the back surface and SS-310 stainless steel 40

9.10.4 Procedure for the measurement of the dynamic friction between the magnetic surface and AlO /TiC ceramic 40

9.11 Surface quality 41
9.11.1 Surface roughness 41
9.12 Abrasivity 41
9.13 Tensile strength 41
9.13.1 Breaking strength 41
9.13.2 Offset yield strength 41
9.14 Longitudinal compliance 41
9.14.1 Procedure 42
9.15 Residual elongation 42
9.15.1 Requirement 42
9.15.2 Procedure 42
9.16 Flexural rigidity 42
9.16.1 Requirement 42
9.16.2 Procedure 42
9.17 Transverse dimensional stability 42
9.18 Electrical resistance of coated surfaces 42
9.18.1 Requirement 42
9.18.2 Procedure 42
10 Magnetic Recording Characteristics 43
10.1 General 43
10.2 Test conditions 43
10.3 Optimum Recording Current 44
10.4 Signal amplitude 44
10.5 Resolution 44
10.6 Overwrite 44
10.6.1 Requirement 44
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ISO/IEC 22050:2002(E)
10.7 Ease of erasure 44
10.8 Broad Band Signal-to-Noise Ratio 44
10.8.1 Requirement 44
10.9 Tape quality 44
10.9.1 Missing pulses 44
10.9.2 Missing pulse zone 45
Section 4 - Requirements for an Interchanged Tape 45
11 Method of recording servo bands 45
11.1 General 45
11.2 Servo bands 45
11.2.1 Servo stripes 46
11.2.2 Servo bursts 46
11.2.3 Servo frames 46
11.2.4 Servo signal amplitude 47
11.2.5 Servo signal polarity 47
11.2.6 Servo defects 48
11.3 Servo frame encoding 48
11.3.1 Method of encoding position and manufacturer's data 48
11.3.2 LPOS word construction 50
11.3.3 Tape manufacturer encoding 51
11.3.4 Cross tape identification 53
11.4 Servo band location 53
11.5 Servo band pitch 53
11.6 Nominal servo locations 53
11.7 Long-term average servo location 53
12 Method of recording data tracks 54
12.1 Physical recording density 54
12.2 Nominal bit cell length 54
12.3 Long-term average bit cell length 54
12.4 Short-term Average Bit Cell Length (STA) 54
12.5 Rate of change of the STA 54
12.6 Bit shift 54
12.7 Recording performance test conditions 54
12.8 Track sequence addressing 54
12.9 Location of data tracks 55
12.10 Track width 55
12.11 Adjacent track pitch 56
12.12 Azimuth 56
12.13 Total character skew 56
12.14 Channel Layout 56
13 Format 57
13.1 General 57
13.2 Protected Record 58
13.3 Processed Protected Record Sequence 59
13.3.1 Control Symbols 59
13.3.2 End Marker 60
13.3.3 Access Points 60
13.3.4 Alignment and append points 61
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ISO/IEC 22050:2002(E)
13.4 Data Set 61
13.4.1 Format Identification Data Set (FID) 61
13.4.2 User Data Set 62
13.4.3 EOD Data Set 62
13.4.4 Housekeeping Data Set 62
13.5 Data Set Information Table (DSIT) 62
13.5.1 Drive Manufacturer Use 63
13.5.2 Drive Manufacturer Use C1 63
13.5.3 Reserved 63
13.5.4 Drive Manufacturer's Identity 63
13.5.5 Data Set number 63
13.5.6 Valid Data Length 64
13.5.7 Access Point Offset 64
13.5.8 Total Records 64
13.5.9 Total File Marks 65
13.5.10 Record Count 65
13.5.11 File Mark Count 66
13.5.12 Thread Count 66
13.5.13 Data Set Type 66
13.5.14 Data Set Flags 67
13.5.15 Thread Write Pass 67
13.5.16 Tape Write Pass 67
13.6 ECC 67
13.6.1 Sub Data Set 68
13.6.2 C1 Sub Data Set 68
13.6.3 ECC Encoded Sub Data Set 69
13.6.4 Codeword Pair designation 70
13.7 Codeword Quads (CQ) 70
13.7.1 Codeword Pair Header 71
13.7.2 First Codeword Pair 72
13.7.3 Second Codeword Pair 72
13.8 Allocation of CQs to Logical Tracks 73
13.9 Data randomisation 74
13.10 RLL encoding 74
14 Recording of data on tape 75
14.1 Synchronised Data Set 75
14.1.1 Data Set Separator (DSS) 75
14.1.2 VFO Field 1 76
14.1.3 VFO Field 2 76
14.1.4 Synchronised Codeword Quad (SCQ) 76
14.2 Write equalisation bit encoding 77
14.3 Writing cells on tape 77
15 Regions on tape 77
15.1 Logical Points and regions 77
15.2 Calibration Region 79
15.3 User Data Region 79
15.4 Interrupted Data Sets 79
15.5 Repeated CQ Sets 80
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ISO/IEC 22050:2002(E)
15.6 Amble CQs 80
15.7 Beginning of Wrap (BOW) 81
15.8 End of Wrap (EOW) 81
15.9 Appending and Overwriting 81
15.10 Servo Tracking Faults 82
Annexes
A - Measurement of Bit Shift 83
B - Measurement of Broad Band Signal-to-Noise Ratio 84
C - Tape Abrasivity Measurement Procedure 86
D - LTO Cartridge Memory 88
E - Flexural Rigidity Procedure 107
F - LTO CM electrical interface 109
G - Recommendations for transportation 126
H - Inhibitor Tape 127
I - Vendor code lists 128
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ISO/IEC 22050:2002(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical Commission) form the

specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that are members of ISO or IEC participate in the

development of International Standards through technical committees established by the respective organization to deal with

particular fields of technical activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other

international organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the work. In the

field of information technology, ISO and IEC have established a joint technical committee, ISO/IEC JTC 1.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 3.

The main task of the joint technical committee is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards adopted by

the joint technical committee are circulated to national bodies for voting. Publication as an International Standard requires

approval by at least 75 % of the national bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this International Standard may be the subject of patent rights.

ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO/IEC 22050 was prepared by ECMA (as ECMA-319) and was adopted, under a special “fast-track procedure”, by Joint

Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology, in parallel with its approval by national bodies of ISO and IEC.

Annexes A to F form a normative part of this International Standard. Annexes G to I are for information only.

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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 22050:2002(E)
Information technology — Data interchange on 12,7 mm, 384-track
magnetic tape cartridges — Ultrium-1 format
Section 1 — General
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies the physical and magnetic characteristics of magnetic tape cartridges, using magnetic tape

12,65 mm wide so as to provide physical interchange of such cartridges between drives. It also specifies the quality of the

recorded signals, the recording method and the recorded format, thereby allowing data interchange between drives by means of

such cartridges. The format supports variable length Logical Records, high speed search, and the use of a registered algorithm

for data compression.

This International Standard specifies four types of cartridges depending on the length of tape contained in the case. These four

types are referred to as Type A, Type B, Type C and Type D; their nominal capacity is 100 Gbytes, 50 Gbytes, 30 Gbytes and

10 Gbytes, respectively.
NOTE - One Gbyte contains 1 000 000 000 bytes.

Information interchange between systems also requires, at a minimum, agreement between the interchange parties upon the

interchange code(s) and the specification of the structure and labeling of the information on the interchanged cartridge.

This International Standard shall be used only in conjunction with ISO/IEC 22091.

Together with a standard for volume and file structure, e.g. Standard ISO 1001, this document provides for full data

interchange between data processing systems.
2 Conformance
2.1 Magnetic tape cartridge

A tape cartridge shall be in conformance with this International Standard if it meets all the mandatory requirements specified

herein. The tape requirements shall be satisfied throughout the extent of the tape.

2.2 Generating system

A system generating a magnetic tape cartridge for interchange shall be in conformance with this International Standard if all the

recordings that it makes meet the mandatory requirements of this International Standard.

2.3 Receiving system

A system receiving a magnetic tape cartridge for interchange shall be in conformance with this International Standard if it is

able to handle any recording made on the tape according to this International Standard.

3 Normative references

The following normative documents contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of this

International Standard. For dated references, subsequent amendments to, or revisions of, any of these publications do not apply.

However, parties to agreements based on this International Standard are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying

the most recent editions of the normative documents indicated below. For undated references, the latest edition of the normative

document referred to applies. Members of ISO and IEC maintain registers of currently valid International Standards.

ISO 1001:1986 Information processing — File structure and labelling of magnetic tapes for information

interchange
ISO 527 (all parts) Plastics — Determination of tensile properties

ISO 3574:1999 Cold-reduced carbon steel sheet of commercial and drawing qualities

ISO 4287:1997 Geometrical product specification (GPS) — Surface texture: Profile method — Terms, definitions

and surface texture parameters

ISO/IEC 646:1991 Information technology — ISO 7-bit coded character set for information interchange

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ISO/IEC 22050:2002(E)

ISO/IEC 11576:1994 Information technology — Procedure for the registration of algorithms for the lossless compression

of data

ISO/IEC 14443-2:2001 Identification cards — Contactless integrated circuit(s) cards — Proximity cards — Part 2: Radio

frequency power and signal interface

ISO/IEC 22091:2002 Information technology — Streaming Lossless Data Compression algorithm (SLDC)

IEC 60950-1:2001 Information technology equipment — Safety — Part 1: General requirements

ASTM D4065-01:1995 Standard Practice for Plastics: Dynamic Mechanical Properties: Determination and Report of

Procedures
ASTM D4092-01:1996 Standard Terminology: Plastics: Dynamic Mechanical Properties
4 Terms and definitions

For the purpose of this International Standard the following terms and definitions apply.

4.1 Access Point

A point, at the start of a sequence of Processed Records, at which the presentation of Symbols to a reprocessing algorithm is

required to start at a known state to enable recovery, regardless of whether the data of interest in a retrieval operation starts at

that point or at a subsequent point.
4.2 algorithm
A set of rules for transforming the logical representation of data.
4.3 algorithmically processed data
Data that has been processed by a defined processing algorithm.
4.4 a.c. erase
A process of erasure utilising alternating fields of decaying level.
4.5 Average Signal Amplitude

The average peak-to-peak value of the output signal from the read head at the fundamental frequency of the specified physical

recording density over a minimum of 25,4 mm of track, exclusive of missing pulses.

4.6 back surface

The surface of the tape opposite to the magnetic coating which is used to record data.

4.7 Beginning of Tape (BOT)
The reference point on the tape nearest to the leader pin assembly.
4.8 Beginning of Wrap (BOW)

The Logical Point that indicates the beginning of a wrap: LP3 for forward wraps, LP4 for reverse wraps.

4.9 bit
A single digit in the binary number system, a ZERO or a ONE.
4.10 bit cell
A distance along the track between adjacent RLL encoded bits.
4.11 Broad Band Signal-to-Noise Ratio (BBSNR)

The average read signal power divided by the average integrated broad band (floor) RMS noise power and expressed in dB.

4.12 byte
An ordered set of eight bits (12 Channel bits) that are acted on as a unit.
4.13 cartridge

A case holding a single supply reel of magnetic tape and leader tape with an attached leader pin assembly at the BOT end.

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ISO/IEC 22050:2002(E)
4.14 Channel bit
A bit output from RLL channel encoding.
4.15 Codeword
A set of bytes containing data and the ECC bytes calculated on that data.
4.16 Codeword Pair
An interleaved pair of Codewords.
4.17 Codeword Quad (CQ)
A set of two Codeword Pairs.
4.18 CQ Set

A group of CQs that are written at the same time, i.e. one on each of the active tracks.

4.19 cyclic redundancy check (CRC) character

A mathematically computed code which yields check bytes used for the detection of errors.

4.20 Data Set

The smallest complete unit of information written to, or received from, the tape.

4.21 Data Set Information Table (DSIT)
A table within a Data Set which describes the content of the Data Set.
4.22 End of Data (EOD)
The point on the tape at the end of the last valid Data Set recorded on tape.
4.23 End of Tape (EOT)
The point on a track farthest from BOT up to which recording is allowed.
4.24 End of Wrap (EOW)

The Logical Point that indicates the end of a wrap: LP4 for forward wraps, LP3 for reverse wraps.

4.25 Error Correcting Code (ECC)

A mathematically computed code which yields check bytes used for the detection and correction of errors.

4.26 File Mark

A recorded element requested to be written (or read) by the host that is typically used to mark organisational boundaries in a

serial file structure, such as directory boundaries.
4.27 flux transition position

The point on the magnetic tape that exhibits the maximum free-space flux density normal to the tape surface.

4.28 flux transition spacing
The distance along a track between successive flux transitions.
4.29 forward tape motion

The tape is moving forward when it is leaving the reel in the cartridge and being wound onto the reel in the mechanism.

4.30 header
Data that is prefixed to a data entity to provide identification and checking.
4.31 Housekeeping Data Set

A Data Set which contains no user data and which is identified as such by the values in the data fields therein.

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ISO/IEC 22050:2002(E)
4.32 logical forward
The direction of tape motion toward End of Wrap.
4.33 logical reverse
The direction of tape motion away from End of Wrap.
4.34 Logical Point
Defined bound where regions of the tape begin or end.
4.35 magnetic tape

A tape that accepts and retains magnetic signals intended for input, output, and storage of data for information processing.

4.36 Master Standard Reference Tape (MSRT)

A tape selected as the standard for reference recording current, signal amplitude, resolution, BBSNR, overwrite ratio, servo

signal amplitude, and servo signal polarity.
NOTE - A Master Standard Reference Tape has been established at Ladas and Parry.
4.37 LTO Cartridge Memory (LTO CM)

A contactless storage device that is mounted in the case, and which can be used to hold information about that specific

cartridge, the tape in the cartridge, and the data on the tape.
4.38 Optimum Recording Current

1,15 times the minimum current which, when applied to a magnetic tape, will cause the average signal amplitude to equal 95 %

of the maximum average signal amplitude when recorded at density TRD1.
4.39 physical end of tape

Position of the tape farthest from the leader pin assembly at which the tape is cut and wrapped onto the hub during

manufacture.
4.40 physical forward

The direction of tape motion from BOT to EOT. This will be logical forward for even numbered wraps.

4.41 physical reverse

The direction of tape motion from EOT to BOT. This will be logical forward for odd numbered wraps.

4.42 pre-record condition

A tape cartridge that has been a.c. erased and subsequently servo-written in preparation for data recording is in a pre-record

condition.
4.43 processed data
A sequence of Symbols which results from the application of processing to data.
Data that has been processed by an algorithm.
4.44 Processed Record

A sequence of Symbols which results from the application of processing to a Protected Record.

4.45 Processing (Compression)
The use of an algorithm to transform host data into Symbols.
4.46 Protected Record

A Record with a 4-byte CRC added to the end. The CRC is checked during the deformatting process to ensure that the Record

is uncorrupted.
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ISO/IEC 22050:2002(E)
4.47 Record

A Record is the smallest distinct set of data bytes supplied, e.g. from a host, for processing and recording by a tape drive

system, and the smallest distinct set of data to be read from tape, reprocessed and made available, e.g. to a host, by a tape drive

system.
4.48 recorded element
A File Mark or Record.
4.49 Reference Recording Current
The Optimum Recording Current of the Master Standard Reference Tape.
4.50 Reprocessing (Decompression)
The use of an algorithm to transform Symbols into data as required by the host.
4.51 reverse tape motion

The tape is moving in reverse when it is leaving the reel in the mechanism and being wound onto the reel in the cartridge.

4.52 run length limited encoding (RLL)

An algorithmic process applied to an arbitrary input binary sequence that produces an output binary sequence that has a

specified minimum number of ZEROs between ONEs, and a specified maximum number of ZEROs between ONEs.

4.53 Secondary Standard Reference Tape (SSRT)

A tape, the performance of which is known and stated in relation to that of the Master Standard Reference Tape.

NOTE - Secondary Standard Reference Tapes can be ordered as "Ultrium Format Specification Generation 1 SSRT" from Ladas and Parry,

5670 Wilshire Blvd., 21st Floor, Los Angeles, CA 90036. In principle such tapes will be available for a period of 10 years from the

publication of the first edition of this International Standard. However, by agreement between ECMA and Ladas and Parry, this period may

be shortened or extended to take account of demands for such SSRTs.

It is intended that these SSRTs be used for calibrating tertiary reference tapes for use in routine calibration.

4.54 servo acquisition region
A region on tape that may be used by the servo circuitry.
4.55 Standard Reference Amplitude (SRA)

The average signal amplitude from the Master Standard Reference Tape when it is recorded with the Reference Recording

Current at density TRD1. Traceability to the Standard Reference Amplitude is provided by the calibration factors supplied with

each Secondary Standard Reference Tape.
4.56 Symbol

An associated string of bits generated by a processing (compression) algorithm, which represents a byte of data, a string of

bytes of data, or control information.
4.57 Synchronised Codeword Quad (SCQ)

A serial bit stream formed by inserting synchronisation patterns into an RLL encoded Codeword Quad.

4.58 Test Recording Density (TRD)

The recording density at which specific tests are performed. There are three test recording densities: TRD1, TRD2 and TRD3.

See 12.1.
4.59 wrap
A track group recorded in the physical forward or physical reverse direction.
4.60 write equalisation

An algorithmic process that linearly transforms an input binary sequence into another binary sequence.

4.61 (1,7) RLL code

A run length limited encoding scheme the output of which has no fewer than one ZERO between ONEs and no more than seven

ZEROs between ONEs.
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ISO/IEC 22050:2002(E)
5 Conventions and notations
5.1 Representation of numbers

The following conventions and notations apply in this International Standard unless otherwise stated.

− A measured value is rounded off to the least significant digit of the corresponding specified value. It implies that a

specified value of 1,26 with a positive tolerance +0,01, and a negative tolerance -0,02 allows a range of measured values

from 1,235 to 1,275.

− In each block and in each field the bytes shall be arranged with Byte 0, the most significant, first. Within each byte the bits

shall be arranged with Bit 7, the most significant, first and Bit 0, the least significant bit, last.

− Letters and digits in parentheses represent numbers in hexadecimal notation.
− The setting of bits is denoted by ZERO or ONE.

− Numbers in binary notation and bit patterns are represented by strings of digits 0 and 1 shown with the most significant bit

to the left. Within such strings, X may be used to indicate that the setting of a bit is not specified within the string.

5.2 Dimensions

Unless otherwise stated, all dimensions in the figures are in millimetres with a tolerance of ± 0,50 mm.

5.3 Names

The names of basic elements, e.g. specific fields, are written with a capital initial letter.

5.4 Alphanumeric string encoding

Unless otherwise stated, all alphanumeric strings shall be encoded using ISO/IEC 646.

6 Acronyms
ACN Absolute CQ Sequence Number
BOT Beginning of Tape
BBSNR Broad Band Signal-to-Noise Ratio
BOW Beginning of Wrap mark
CRC Cyclic Redundancy Check character
DSIT Data Set Information Table
ECC Error-Correcting Code
EOD End of Data
EOT End of Tape
EOW End of Wrap mark
FID Format Identification Data Set
LPn Logical Point, where n = 0 to 7
LPOS Longitudinal Position
lsb Least Signicant Bit
LSB Least Significant Byte
msb Most Significant Bit
MSB Most Significant Byte
MSRT Master Standard Reference Tape
RLL Run Length Limited
RWW Read-While-Write
SCQ Synchronised Codeword Quad
SNR Signal-to-Noise Ratio
SRA Standard Reference Amplitude
SSRT Secondary Standard Reference Tape
TRD Test Recording Density
7 Environment and safety

The conditions specified below refer to the ambient conditions immediately surrounding the cartridge.

© ISO/IEC 2002 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 22050:2002(E)
7.1 Cartridge and tape testing environment
Unless otherwise stated, tests and measurements made on the cart
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