Guidelines for treated wastewater use for irrigation projects

ISO 16075-4:2016 provides recommendations regarding: · monitoring the quality of treated wastewater (TWW) for irrigation; · monitoring irrigated plants; · monitoring the soil with regard to salinity; · monitoring natural water sources in neighbouring environments; · monitoring the quality of water in storage reservoirs. It puts emphasis on sampling methods and their frequency. Regarding the methods of analysis, ISO 16075-4:2016 refers to standard methods or, where not available, to other bibliographical references.

Lignes directrices pour l'utilisation des eaux usées traitées en irrigation

L'ISO 16075-4:2016 fournit des recommandations concernant: - la surveillance de la qualité des eaux usées traitées (abrégées en EUT) pour l'irrigation; - la surveillance des cultures irriguées; - la surveillance de la salinité du sol; - la surveillance des sources d'eau naturelle dans les environs; - la surveillance de la qualité de l'eau dans les réservoirs de stockage. L'ISO 16075-4:2016 met l'accent sur les méthodes et la fréquence d'échantillonnage. Concernant les méthodes d'analyse, il se réfčre ŕ des méthodes normalisées ou, lorsque celles-ci font défaut, ŕ d'autres références bibliographiques.

General Information

Status
Replaced
Publication Date
12-Dec-2016
Withdrawal Date
12-Dec-2016
Current Stage
9599 - Withdrawal of International Standard
Completion Date
13-Dec-2016
Ref Project

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 16075-4
First edition
2016-12-15
Guidelines for treated wastewater use
for irrigation projects —
Part 4:
Monitoring
Lignes directrices pour l’utilisation des eaux usées traitées pour
l’irrigation —
Partie 4: Surveillance
Reference number
ISO 16075-4:2016(E)
ISO 2016
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 16075-4:2016(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2016, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 16075-4:2016(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Use of treated wastewater (TWW) ........................................................................................................................................ 3

3.3 Wastewater quality ............................................................................................................................................................................. 4

3.4 Irrigation systems ................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

3.5 Wastewater system related components ......................................................................................................................... 7

3.6 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................... 8

4 Monitoring of the quality of TWW for irrigation ................................................................................................................ 9

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.2 Sampling procedure ........................................................................................................................................................................10

4.2.1 Sampling from an irrigation system .............................................................................................................11

4.2.2 Sampling from a storage reservoir ................................................................................................................12

4.2.3 Composite sample ...................................................................... ..................................................................................12

4.2.4 Sample handling ............................................................................................................................................................12

4.3 TWW monitoring plan ...................................................................................................................................................................12

4.4 Analytical methods for TWW ..................................................................................................................................................15

5 Monitoring of the irrigated crops ....................................................................................................................................................15

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................15

5.2 Frequency of monitoring .............................................................................................................................................................15

5.2.1 Field crops and vegetables ...................................................................................................................................15

5.2.2 Perennial crops...............................................................................................................................................................16

6 Monitoring of the soil with regard to salinity ......................................................................................................................16

6.1 Soil sampling ..........................................................................................................................................................................................16

6.2 Frequency of the soil sampling ..............................................................................................................................................16

6.3 Sampling procedure ........................................................................................................................................................................17

6.3.1 Drip irrigation .................................................................................................................................................................17

6.3.2 Sprinkler and micro-jet irrigation .................................................................................................................17

6.3.3 Sample preparation ....................................................................................................................................................17

6.4 Soil test methods ................................................................................................................................................................................17

7 Receiving environment monitoring ...............................................................................................................................................18

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................18

7.2 Monitoring program purpose .................................................................................................................................................18

7.3 Groundwater sampling .................................................................................................................................................................18

7.4 Surface water sampling ................................................................................................................................................................19

8 Quality assurance and quality control ........................................................................................................................................19

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................21

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 16075-4:2016(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity assessment,

as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the

Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: www.iso.org/iso/foreword.html.

The committee responsible for this document is Technical Committee ISO/TC 282, Water reuse,

Subcommittee SC 1, Treated wastewater reuse for irrigation.
A list of all parts in the ISO 16075 series can be found on the ISO website.
iv © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 16075-4:2016(E)
Introduction

The increasing water scarcity and water pollution control efforts in many countries have made treated

municipal and industrial wastewater a suitable economic means of augmenting the existing water

supply, especially when compared to expensive alternatives such as desalination or the development

of new water sources involving dams and reservoirs. Water reuse makes it possible to close the water

cycle at a point closer to cities by producing “new water” from municipal wastewater and reducing

wastewater discharge to the environment. The reuse of treated wastewater could be also a beneficial

solution to improve water body’s quality, such as for example avoiding wastewater treatment plants

discharge upstream sensitive areas (shellfish aquaculture area, swimming area).

An important new concept in water reuse is the “fit-to-purpose” approach, which entails the production

of reclaimed water quality that meets the needs of the intended end-users. In the situation of reclaimed

water for irrigation, the reclaimed water quality may induce an adaptation of the type of plant grown.

Thus, the intended water reuse applications should govern the degree of wastewater treatment

required, and inversely, the reliability of wastewater reclamation processes and operation.

Treated wastewater (TWW, also referred to as reclaimed water or recycled water) can be used for

various non-potable purposes. The dominant applications for the use of TWW include agricultural

irrigation, landscape irrigation, industrial reuse and groundwater recharge. More recent and rapidly

growing applications are for various urban uses, recreational and environmental uses and indirect and

direct potable reuse.

Agricultural irrigation was, is and will likely remain the largest TWW consumer with recognized

benefits and contribution to food security. Urban water recycling, in particular landscape irrigation,

is characterized by fast development and will play a crucial role for the sustainability of cities in the

future, including energy footprint reduction, human well-being and environmental restoration.

It is worth noting again, that the suitability of TWW for a given type of reuse depends on the

compatibility between the wastewater availability (volume) and water irrigation demand throughout

the year, as well as on the water quality and the specific use requirements. Water reuse for irrigation

can convey some risks for health and environment, depending on the water quality, the irrigation

water application method, the soil characteristics, the climate conditions and the agronomic practices.

Consequently, public health and potential agronomic and environmental adverse impacts need to be

considered as priority elements in the successful development of water reuse projects for irrigation. To

prevent such potential adverse impacts, the development and application of international guidelines for

the reuse of TWW is essential.

The main water quality factors that determine the suitability of TWW for irrigation are pathogen

content, salinity, sodicity, specific ion toxicity, other chemical elements and nutrients. Local health

authorities are responsible for establishing water quality threshold values depending on authorized

uses and they are also responsible for defining practices to ensure health and environmental protection

taking in account local specificities.

From an agronomic point of view, the main limitation in using TWW for irrigation arises from its

quality. Treated wastewater, unlike water supplied for domestic and industrial purposes contains

higher concentrations of inorganic suspended and dissolved materials (total soluble salts, sodium,

chloride, boron, heavy metals), which can damage the soil and irrigated crops. As dissolved salts are

not removed by conventional wastewater treatment technologies and appropriate good management,

agronomic and irrigation practices should be used to avoid or minimize potential negative impacts.

The presence of nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) may become an advantage due to

possible saving in fertilizers. However, the amount of nutrients provided by TWW along the irrigation

period is not necessarily synchronized with crop requirements, and the availability of nutrients

depends on the chemical forms.

This document provides guidance for healthy, hydrological, environmental and good operation,

monitoring and maintenance of water reuse projects for unrestricted and restricted irrigation of

agricultural crops, gardens and landscape areas using treated wastewater. The quality of supplied

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved v
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ISO 16075-4:2016(E)

TWW should reflect the possible uses according to crop sensitivity (health-wise and agronomy-wise),

water sources (the hydrologic sensitivity of the project area), the soil and climate conditions.

This document refers to factors involved in water reuse projects for irrigation regardless of size,

location and complexity. It is applicable to intended uses of TWW in a given project, even if such uses

will change during the project’s lifetime; as a result of changes in the project itself or in the applicable

legislation.

The key factors in assuring the health, environmental and safety of water reuse projects in irrigation are:

— meticulous monitoring of TWW quality to ensure the system functions as planned and designed;

— design and maintenance instructions of the irrigation systems to ensure their proper long-term

operation;

— compatibility between the TWW quality, the distribution method and the intended soil and crops to

ensure a viable use of the soil and undamaged crop growth;

— compatibility between the TWW quality and its use to prevent or minimize possible contamination

of groundwater or surface water sources.
vi © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 16075-4:2016(E)
Guidelines for treated wastewater use for irrigation
projects —
Part 4:
Monitoring
1 Scope
This document provides recommendations regarding:
— monitoring the quality of treated wastewater (TWW) for irrigation;
— monitoring irrigated plants;
— monitoring the soil with regard to salinity;
— monitoring natural water sources in neighbouring environments;
— monitoring the quality of water in storage reservoirs.

It puts emphasis on sampling methods and their frequency. Regarding the methods of analysis, this

document refers to standard methods or, where not available, to other bibliographical references.

NOTE In cases where a monitoring plan already exists, these recommendations can be integrated into this

plan. This is notably the case when a broader approach of risk management is implemented, such as the water

safety plans (serving as a model for sanitation safety plans) developed by WHO.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
3.1 General
3.1.1
aquifer

underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand or silt)

from which groundwater can be extracted
3.1.2
background water

freshwater (3.1.10) supplied for domestic, institutional, commercial and industrial use, from which

wastewater (3.1.22) is created
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 16075-4:2016(E)
3.1.3
barrier

any means including physical or process steps, that reduces or prevents the risk of human infection, by

preventing contact between the TWW and the ingested produce or other means that, for example, reduces

the concentration of microorganisms in the TWW or prevents their survival on the ingested produce

3.1.4
environment

surroundings in which an organization (3.1.13) operates, including air, water, land, natural resources,

flora, fauna, humans and their interrelation
3.1.5
environmental aspect

element of an organization’s (3.1.13) activities, projects or products (3.1.15) that can interact with the

environment (3.1.4)
3.1.6
environmental impact

any change to environmental quality, whether adverse or beneficial, wholly or partly resulting from an

organization’s (3.1.13) activities, projects or products (3.1.15)
3.1.7
environmental parameter
quantifiable attribute of an environmental aspect (3.1.5)
3.1.8
fodder crops

crops not for human consumption such as: pastures and forage, fibre, ornamental, seed, forest and

turf crops
3.1.9
food crops

crops which are intended for human consumption, often further classified as to whether the food crop

is to be cooked, processed or consumed raw
3.1.10
freshwater

naturally occurring water on the Earth’s surface (in ice, lakes, rivers and streams) and underground as

groundwater in aquifers (3.1.1)

Note 1 to entry: Freshwater includes desalinated seawater and desalinated brackish water, but excludes seawater

and brackish water.
3.1.11
irrigation project

design, development, construction, selection of equipment, operation and monitoring of works to

provide suitable TWW irrigation
3.1.12
non-potable water
NPW
water that is not of drinking water quality

Note 1 to entry: It generally refers to wastewater (3.1.22) or TWW, but can also include other waters of non-

drinking quality.
3.1.13
organization

group of people and facilities with an arrangement of responsibilities, authorities and relationships

2 © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16075-4:2016(E)
3.1.14
process

set of interrelated or interacting activities which transform inputs into outputs

Note 1 to entry: Inputs to a process are generally outputs of other processes.

Note 2 to entry: Processes in an organization (3.1.13) are generally planned and carried out under controlled

conditions to add value.
3.1.15
product
any goods or services

Note 1 to entry: This includes interconnected and/or interrelated goods or services.

3.1.16
public health aspect

element of an organization’s (3.1.13) activities, projects or products (3.1.15) that can interact with the

public health
3.1.17
public health impact

any change to public health, whether adverse or beneficial, wholly or partly resulting from an

organization’s (3.1.13) activities, projects or products (3.1.15)
3.1.18
public health parameter
quantifiable attribute of a public health aspect (3.1.16)
3.1.19
soil

layer of unconsolidated material consisting of weathered material particles, dead and living organic

matter, air space and the soil solution (3.1.20)
3.1.20
soil solution
liquid phase of the soil (3.1.19) and its solutes
3.1.21
stakeholder

individual, group or organization (3.1.13) that has an interest in an organization or activity

Note 1 to entry: Usually a stakeholder can affect or is affected by the organization or the activity.

3.1.22
wastewater

wastewater collected principally by municipalities, that may include spent or used water from domestic,

institutional, commercial or industrial sources, and can include storm water
3.1.23
water reuse

use of treated wastewater (3.1.22) for beneficial use; synonymous also to water reclamation and water

recycling
3.2 Use of treated wastewater (TWW)
3.2.1
agriculture

science or practice of farming, including cultivation of the soil (3.1.19) for the growing of crops and the

rearing of animals to provide food or other products (3.1.15)
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 16075-4:2016(E)
3.2.2
landscape

all the visible features of an area of land, often considered in terms of their aesthetic appeal such as

public and private gardens, parks, road vegetation including lawns and turfed recreational areas

3.2.3
restricted irrigation

use of TWW for non-potable applications in settings where public access is controlled or restricted by

physical or institutional barriers
3.2.4
restricted urban irrigation

irrigation of areas in which public access during irrigation can be controlled, such as some golf courses,

cemeteries, and highway medians
3.2.5
unrestricted irrigation

use of TWW for non-potable applications in settings where public access is not restricted

3.2.6
unrestricted urban irrigation

irrigation of areas in which public access during irrigation is not restricted, such as some gardens and

playgrounds
3.3 Wastewater quality
3.3.1
category A: very high quality TWW

raw wastewater (3.3.6) which has undergone physical and biological treatment, filtration (3.5.3) and

disinfection (3.5.2), and its quality is according to the description in ISO 16075-2:2015, Table 1

3.3.2
category B: high quality TWW

raw wastewater (3.3.6) which has undergone physical and biological treatment, filtration (3.5.3) and

disinfection (3.5.2), and its quality is according to the description in ISO 16075-2:2015, Table 1

3.3.3
category C: good quality TWW

raw wastewater (3.3.6) which has undergone physical and biological treatment, and its quality is

according to the description in ISO 16075-2:2015, Table 1
3.3.4
category D: medium quality TWW

raw wastewater (3.3.6) which has undergone physical and biological treatment, and its quality is

according to the description in ISO 16075-2:2015, Table 1
3.3.5
category E: extensively TWW

raw wastewater (3.3.6) which has undergone natural biological treatment process (3.1.14) with

long (minimum 10 to 15 days) retention time and its quality is according to the description in

ISO 16075-2:2015, Table 1
3.3.6
raw wastewater
wastewater (3.1.22) which has not undergone any treatment
4 © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16075-4:2016(E)
3.3.7
thermo-tolerant coliforms

group of bacteria whose presence in the environment (3.1.4) usually indicates faecal contamination

(previously called Faecal coliforms)

Note 1 to entry: In order to determine the quality of TWW, one can test for Escherichia coli (E. coli) or for Faecal

coliforms, since the difference in values is not significant.
3.4 Irrigation systems
3.4.1
boom sprinkler

mobile sprinkling machine (3.4.11) composed of two symmetrical pipes (booms), with sprinkler (3.4.24)

nozzles distributed in one of the pipes, with the sprinkler action complemented by a gun sprinkler

placed at each end of both pipes; the nozzles work through a reaction effect (similar to a hydraulic

tourniquet) which drives the boom rotation at a desired speed
3.4.2
centre-pivot and moving lateral irrigation machines

automated irrigation machine consisting of a number of self-propelled towers supporting a pipeline

rotating around a pivot point and through which water supplied at the pivot point flows radially

outward for distribution by sprayers or sprinklers (3.4.24) located along the pipeline

3.4.3
emitter
emitting pipe
dripper

device fitted to an irrigation lateral and intended to discharge water in the form of drops or continuous

flow at flow rates not exceeding 15 l/h except during flushing
3.4.4
gravity flow irrigation systems

irrigation systems (3.4.8), where water is applied directly to the soil (3.1.19) surface and is not under

pressure
3.4.5
in-line emitter

emitter (3.4.3) intended for installation between two lengths of pipe in an irrigation lateral

3.4.6
irrigation gun

large discharge device being either a part circle or full circle sprinkler (3.4.24)

3.4.7
irrigation sprayer

device which discharges water in the form of fine jets or in a fan shape without rotational movement of

its parts
3.4.8
irrigation system

assembly of pipes, components, and devices installed in the field for the purpose of irrigating a

specific area
3.4.9
micro-irrigation system

system capable of delivering water drops, tiny-streams or mini-spray to the plants

Note 1 to entry: Surface and sub-surface drip irrigation and micro-spray irrigation (3.4.10) are the main types of

this system.
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO 16075-4:2016(E)
3.4.10
micro-spray irrigation systems

characterized by water point sources similar to sprinkler’s (3.4.24) miniatures (micro-sprinklers),

which are placed along the laterals, with a flow rate between 30 l/h and 150 l/h at pressure heads of

15 m to 25 m, and the corresponding wetted area between 2 m and 6 m
3.4.11
mobile sprinkling machine

sprinkling unit which is automatically moved across the soil (3.1.19) surface during the water application

3.4.12
on-line emitter

emitter (3.4.3) intended for installation in the wall of an irrigation lateral, either directly or indirectly

by means such as tubing
3.4.13
perforating pipe system

emitting pipe [emitter (3.4.3)/emitting pipe] continuous pipe, hose or tubing, including collapsible hose,

with perforations, intended to discharge water in the form of drops or continuous flow at emission

rates not exceeding 15 l/h for each emitting unit
3.4.14
permanent system

stationary fixed-grid irrigation system (3.4.8) [sprinklers (3.4.24)] for which sprinkler set positions are

rigidly fixed by semi-permanent or permanently installed irrigation laterals, for example, portable

solid-set irrigation system, buried irrigation system
3.4.15
portable system
system for which all or part of the network elements can be removed
3.4.16
pressurized irrigation systems
piped network systems under pressure
3.4.17
rotating sprinkler

device which, by its rotating motion around its vertical axis, distributes water over a circular area or

part of a circular area
3.4.18
self-moved system

unit where a lateral is mounted through the centre of a series of wheels and is moved as a whole

Note 1 to entry: Rotating sprinklers (3.4.17)/sprayers are placed on the lateral (also called wheel move).

3.4.19
self-propelled gun traveller

gun sprinkler (3.4.24) on a cart or sled attached to the end of flexible pipe/hose

3.4.20
semi-permanent system

similar to the semi-portable system (3.4.21), but with portable laterals and permanent pumping plant,

main lines and sub-mains
3.4.21
semi-portable system

similar to the portable system (3.4.15), except that the water source and the pumping plant are fixed

6 © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16075-4:2016(E)
3.4.22
solid-set system

temporary fixed network, where the laterals are positioned in the field throughout the irrigation season

3.4.23
spray
release of water from a sprinkler (3.4.24)
3.4.24
sprinkler
water distribution device of a variety of sizes and types, for ex
...

DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
ISO/DIS 16075-4
ISO/TC 282/SC 1 Secretariat: SII
Voting begins on: Voting terminates on:
2015-09-23 2015-12-23
Guidelines for treated wastewater use for irrigation
projects —
Part 4:
Monitoring
Lignes directrices pour l’utilisation des eaux usées traitées pour l’irrigation
ICS: 13.060.01; 13.060.30
THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED
FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS
THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY
NOT BE REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL,
TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND
USER PURPOSES, DRAFT INTERNATIONAL
STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO
BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR
POTENTIAL TO BECOME STANDARDS TO
WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
Reference number
NATIONAL REGULATIONS.
ISO/DIS 16075-4:2015(E)
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED
TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS,
NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT
RIGHTS OF WHICH THEY ARE AWARE AND TO
PROVIDE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION. ISO 2015
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/DIS 16075-4:2015(E) ISO CD(2) 16075-4
Contents Page

1 Scope ...................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ............................................................................................................................ 1

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms .......................................................................................... 2

3.1 General ................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.2 Use of treated wastewater (TWW) ........................................................................................................ 4

3.3 Wastewater quality ................................................................................................................................ 5

3.4 Irrigation systems .................................................................................................................................. 5

3.5 Wastewater system related components ............................................................................................ 8

3.6 Abbreviated terms ................................................................................................................................. 8

4 Monitoring of the quality of TWW for irrigation.................................................................................. 9

4.1 General ................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.1.1 Sampling procedure ............................................................................................................................ 10

4.1.2 TWW monitoring plan ......................................................................................................................... 13

4.2 Test methods for TWW for irrigation ................................................................................................. 15

5 Monitoring of the irrigated crops ....................................................................................................... 15

6 Monitoring of the soil with regard to salinity.................................................................................... 16

6.1 Soil Sampling ....................................................................................................................................... 16

6.1.1 Frequency of the soil sampling ......................................................................................................... 16

6.1.2 Sampling procedure ............................................................................................................................ 16

6.2 Soil test methods ................................................................................................................................. 16

7 Receiving Environment Monitoring ................................................................................................... 17

7.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 17

7.2 Movement of water through soil ................................................................. .תרדגומ הניא הינמיסה !האיגש

7.3 Surface water movement ............................................................................. .תרדגומ הניא הינמיסה !האיגש

7.4 Monitoring program purpose ............................................................................................................. 17

7.5 Quality assurance and quality control ....................................................... .תרדגומ הניא הינמיסה !האיגש

7.6 Groundwater sampling ....................................................................................................................... 17

7.7 Sampling surface water……………………………………………………………………………………..18

Annex A (informative) Salinity Management (Underground and runoff) ............ .תרדגומ הניא הינמיסה !האיגש

Bibliography ...................................................................................................................................................... 20

COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2015, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2015 – All rights reserved
© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO CD(2) 16075-4
Contents Page

1 Scope ...................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ............................................................................................................................ 1

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms .......................................................................................... 2

3.1 General ................................................................................................................................................... 2

3.2 Use of treated wastewater (TWW) ........................................................................................................ 4

3.3 Wastewater quality ................................................................................................................................ 5

3.4 Irrigation systems .................................................................................................................................. 5

3.5 Wastewater system related components ............................................................................................ 8

3.6 Abbreviated terms ................................................................................................................................. 8

4 Monitoring of the quality of TWW for irrigation.................................................................................. 9

4.1 General ................................................................................................................................................... 9

4.1.1 Sampling procedure ............................................................................................................................ 10

4.1.2 TWW monitoring plan ......................................................................................................................... 13

4.2 Test methods for TWW for irrigation ................................................................................................. 15

5 Monitoring of the irrigated crops ....................................................................................................... 15

6 Monitoring of the soil with regard to salinity.................................................................................... 16

6.1 Soil Sampling ....................................................................................................................................... 16

6.1.1 Frequency of the soil sampling ......................................................................................................... 16

6.1.2 Sampling procedure ............................................................................................................................ 16

6.2 Soil test methods ................................................................................................................................. 16

7 Receiving Environment Monitoring ................................................................................................... 17

7.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 17

7.2 Movement of water through soil ................................................................. .תרדגומ הניא הינמיסה !האיגש

7.3 Surface water movement ............................................................................. .תרדגומ הניא הינמיסה !האיגש

7.4 Monitoring program purpose ............................................................................................................. 17

7.5 Quality assurance and quality control ....................................................... .תרדגומ הניא הינמיסה !האיגש

7.6 Groundwater sampling ....................................................................................................................... 17

7.7 Sampling surface water……………………………………………………………………………………..18

Annex A (informative) Salinity Management (Underground and runoff) ............ .תרדגומ הניא הינמיסה !האיגש

Bibliography ...................................................................................................................................................... 20

© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO CD(2) 16075-4
Foreword

 ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO

collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

 International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

 The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International

Standards adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting.

Publication as an International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting

a vote.

 Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO should not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

 ISO 16075-4 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 282, Water reuse, Subcommittee SC01,

Treated Wastewater Use for Irrigation.

 This second/third/... edition cancels and replaces the first/second/... edition (), [clause(s) / subclause(s) /

table(s) / figure(s) / annex(es)] of which [has / have] been technically revised.

 ISO 16075 consists of the following parts, under the general title Guidelines for Treated Wastewater Use

for Irrigation Projects:
 Part 1: The Basis of a Reuse Project for Irrigation
 Part 2: Development of the project
 Part 3: Components of a reuse project for irrigation
 Part 4: Monitoring
iv © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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ISO CD(2) 16075-4
Introduction

The increasing water scarcity and water pollution control efforts in many countries have made treated

municipal and industrial wastewater a suitable economic means of augmenting the existing water supply,

especially when compared to expensive alternatives such as desalination or the development of new water

sources involving dams and reservoirs. Water reuse makes it possible to close the water cycle at a point

closer to cities by producing “new water” from municipal wastewater and reducing wastewater discharge to the

environment.

An important new concept in water reuse is the “fit-to-purpose” approach, which entails the production of

reclaimed water quality that meets the needs of the intended end-users. In the situation of reclaimed water for

irrigation, the reclaimed water quality may induce an adaptation of the type of plant grown. Thus, the intended

water reuse applications should govern the degree of wastewater treatment required, and inversely, the

reliability of wastewater reclamation processes and operation.

Treated wastewater can be used for various non-potable purposes. The dominant applications for the use of

treated wastewater (also referred to as reclaimed water or recycled water) include agricultural irrigation,

landscape irrigation, industrial reuse and groundwater recharge. More recent and rapidly growing applications

are for various urban uses, recreational and environmental uses and indirect and direct potable reuse.

Agricultural irrigation was, is and will likely remain the largest TWW consumer with recognized benefits and

contribution to food security. Urban water recycling, in particular landscape irrigation, is characterized by fast

development and will play a crucial role for the sustainability of cities in the future, including energy footprint

reduction, human wellbeing and environmental restoration.

It is worth noting again, that the suitability of treated wastewater for a given type of reuse depends on the

compatibility between the wastewater availability (volume) and water irrigation demand throughout the year,

as well as on the water quality and the specific use requirements. Water reuse for irrigation can convey some

risks for health and environment, depending on the water quality, the irrigation water application method, the

soil characteristics, the climate conditions and the agronomic practices. Consequently, the public health and

potential agronomic and environmental adverse impacts must be considered as priority elements in the

successful development of water reuse projects for irrigation. To prevent such potential adverse impacts, the

development and application of international guidelines for the reuse of treated wastewater is essential.

The main water quality factors that determine the suitability of treated wastewater for irrigation are pathogen

content, salinity, sodicity, specific ion toxicity, other chemical elements and nutrients. Local health authorities

are responsible for establishing water quality threshold values depending on authorized uses and they are

also responsible for defining practices to ensure health and environmental protection taking in account local

specificities.

From an agronomic point of view, the main limitation in using treated wastewater for irrigation arises from its

quality. Treated wastewater, unlike water supplied for domestic and industrial purposes contains higher

concentrations of inorganic suspended and dissolved materials (total soluble salts, sodium, chloride, boron,

heavy metals), which can damage the soil and irrigated crops. Dissolved salts are not removed by

conventional wastewater treatment technologies and appropriate good management, agronomic and irrigation

practices should be used to avoid or minimize potential negative impacts.

The presence of nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium) may become an advantage due to possible

saving in fertilizers. However, the amount of nutrients provided by treated wastewater along the irrigation

period is not necessarily synchronized with crop requirements, and the availability of nutrients depends on the

chemical forms.

This Guideline provides guidance for healthy, hydrological, environmental and good operation, monitoring and

maintenance of water reuse projects for unrestricted and restricted irrigation of agricultural crops, gardens and

landscape areas using treated wastewater. The quality of supplied treated wastewater should reflect the

© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved v
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ISO CD(2) 16075-4

possible uses according to crop sensitivity (health-wise and agronomy-wise), water sources (the hydrologic

sensitivity of the project area), the soil and climate conditions.

This Guideline refers to factors involved in water reuse projects for irrigation regardless of size, location and

complexity. It is applicable to intended uses of treated wastewater in a given project, even if such uses will

change during the project’s lifetime; as a result of changes in the project itself or in the applicable legislation.

The key factors in assuring the health, environmental and safety of water reuse projects in irrigation are:

 Meticulous monitoring of treated wastewater quality to ensure the system functions as planned and

designed;

 Design and maintenance instructions of the irrigation systems to ensure their proper long-term operation;

 Compatibility between the treated wastewater quality, the distribution method and the intended soil and

crops to ensure a viable use of the soil and undamaged crop growth;

 Compatibility between the treated wastewater quality and its use to prevent or minimize possible

contamination of groundwater or surface water sources.
vi © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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ISO CD(2) 16075-4
Guidelines for Treated Wastewater Use for Irrigation Projects —
Part 4: Monitoring
1 Scope
This part of the international standard provides recommendations regarding:
 Monitoring the quality of treated wastewater (hereinafter TWW) for irrigation;
 Monitoring irrigated plants;
 Monitoring the soil with regard to salinity;
 Monitoring natural water sources in neighboring environment;
 Monitoring the quality of water in storage reservoirs.

It puts emphasis on sampling methods and on the frequency. Regarding the methods of analysis, the guide

refers to standard methods or, when not available, to other bibliographical references.

NOTE In cases where a monitoring plan already exists, these recommendations may be integrated into this plan.

This is notably the case when a broader approach of risk management is implemented, such as the Water Safety Plans

(serving as a model for sanitation safety plans) developed by WHO.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 5667-1, Water quality — Sampling — Part 1: Guidance on the design of sampling programmes and

sampling techniques

ISO 5667-4, Water quality — Sampling — Part 4: Guidance on sampling from lakes, natural and man-made

ISO 5667-6, Water quality — Sampling — Part 6: Guidance on sampling of rivers and streams

ISO 5667-10, Water quality — Sampling — Part 10: Guidance on sampling of waste waters

ISO 5667-11, Water quality — Sampling — Part 11: Guidance on sampling of groundwaters

ISO 5667-20:2008, Water quality — Sampling — Part 20: Guidance on the use of sampling data for decision

making — Compliance with thresholds and classification systems

ISO 5667-22:2010, Water quality — Sampling — Part 22: Guidance on the design and installation of

groundwater monitoring points

ISO 5667-23:2011, Water quality — Sampling — Part 23: Guidance on passive sampling in surface waters

ISO 15175:2004, Soil quality — Characterization of soil related to groundwater protection

© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 1
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3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1 General
3.1.1
aquifer

an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand or silt) from

which groundwater can be extracted
3.1.2
background water

the freshwater supplied for domestic, institutional, commercial and industrial use, from which wastewater is

created
3.1.3
barrier

any means including physical or process steps, that reduces or prevents the risk of human infection, by

preventing contact between the TWW and the ingested produce or other means that, for example, reduces the

concentration of microorganisms in the TWW or prevents their survival on the ingested produce

3.1.4
environment

surroundings in which an organization operates, including air, water, land, natural resources, flora, fauna,

humans and their interrelation
3.1.5
environmental aspect

element of an organization's activities, projects or products that can interact with the environment

3.1.6
environmental impact

any change to environmental quality, whether adverse or beneficial, wholly or partly resulting from an

organization's activities, projects or products
3.1.7
environmental parameter
quantifiable attribute of an environmental aspect
3.1.8
fodder crops

crops not for human consumption such as: pastures and forage, fiber, ornamental, seed, forest and turf crops

3.1.9
food crops

crops which are intended for human consumption, often further classified as to whether the food crop is to be

cooked, processed or consumed raw
3.1.10
freshwater

naturally occurring water on the Earth's surface (in ice, lakes, rivers and streams) and underground as

groundwater in aquifers

NOTE: freshwater includes desalinated seawater and desalinated brackish water, but excludes seawater and

brackish water
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ISO CD(2) 16075-4
3.1.11
irrigation project

design, development, construction, selection of equipment, operation and monitoring of works to provide

suitable TWW irrigation
3.1.12
non-potable water (NPW)

water that is not of drinking water quality. It generaly refers to wastewater or TWW, but can also include other

waters of non-drinking quality
3.1.13
organization

group of people and facilities with an arrangement of responsibilities, authorities and relationships

3.1.14
process

a set of interrelated or interacting activities which transform inputs into outputs

NOTE 1 inputs to a process are generally outputs of other processes.

NOTE 2 processes in an organization are generally planned and carried out under controlled conditions to

add value.
3.1.15
product
any goods or services
NOTE This includes interconnected and/or interrelated goods or services.
3.1.16
public health aspect

element of an organization's activities, projects or products that can interact with the public health

3.1.17
public health impact

any change to public health, whether adverse or beneficial, wholly or partly resulting from an organization's

activities, projects or products
3.1.18
public health parameter
quantifiable attribute of a public health aspect
3.1.19
soil

layer of unconsolidated material consisting of weathered material particles, dead and living organic matter, air

space and the soil solution
3.1.20
soil solution
liquid phase of the soil and its solutes
3.1.21
stakeholder

individual, group or organization that has an interest in an organization or activity

© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 3
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NOTE usually a stakeholder can affect or is affected by the organization or the activity

3.1.22
wastewater

wastewater collected principally by municipalities, that may include spent or used water from domestic,

institutional, commercial or industrial sources, and can include storm water
3.1.23
water reuse

the use of treated wastewater for beneficial use; synonymous also to water reclamation and water recycling

3.2 Use of treated wastewater (TWW)
3.2.1
agriculture

the science or practice of farming, including cultivation of the soil for the growing of crops and the rearing of

animals to provide food or other products
3.2.2
landscape

all the visible features of an area of land, often considered in terms of their aesthetic appeal such as public

and private gardens, parks, road vegetation including lawns and turfed recreational areas

3.2.3
restricted irrigation

the use of TWW for non-potable applications in settings where public access is controlled or restricted by

physical or institutional barriers
3.2.4
restricted urban irrigation

irrigation of areas in which public access during irrigation can be controlled, such as some golf courses,

cemeteries, and highway medians
3.2.5
unrestricted irrigation

the use of TWW for non-potable applications in settings where public access is not restricted

3.2.6
unrestricted urban irrigation

irrigation of areas in which public access during irrigation is not restricted, such as some gardens and

playgrounds
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ISO CD(2) 16075-4
3.3 Wastewater quality
3.3.1
category A: very high quality TWW

raw wastewater which has undergone physical and biological treatment, filtration and disinfection, and its

quality is according to the description in ISO 16075-2, Table 1
3.3.2
category B: high quality TWW

raw wastewater which has undergone physical and biological treatment, filtration and disinfection, and its

quality is according to the description in ISO 16075-2, Table 1
3.3.3
category C: good quality TWW

raw wastewater which has undergone physical and biological treatment, and its quality is according to the

description in ISO 16075-2, Table 1
3.3.4
category D: medium quality TWW

raw wastewater which has undergone physical and biological treatment, and its quality is according to the

description in ISO 16075-2, Table 13.3.5
3.3.5. category E: extensively TWW

raw wastewater which has undergone natural biological treatment process with long (minimum 10-15 days)

retention time and its quality is accordingly to the description in ISO 16075-2, Table 1

3.3.6
raw wastewater
wastewater which has not undergone any treatment
3.3.7
thermo-tolerant coliforms

group of bacteria whose presence in the environment usually indicates faecal contamination (previously called

faecal coliforms). In order to determine the quality of TWW, one can test for Escherichia coli (E. coli) or for

Faecal coliforms, since the difference in values is not significant
3.4 Irrigation systems
3.4.1
boom sprinkler

a mobile sprinkling machine composed by two symmetrical pipes (booms), with sprinkler nozzles distributed in

one of the pipes, with the sprinkler action complemented by a gun sprinkler placed at each end of both pipes;

the nozzles work through a reaction effect (similar to a hydraulic tourniquet) which drives the boom rotation at

a desired speed
3.4.2
center-pivot and moving lateral irrigation machines

automated irrigation machine consisting of a number of self-propelled towers supporting a pipeline rotating

around a pivot point and through which water supplied at the pivot point flows radially outward for distribution

by sprayers or sprinklers located along the pipeline
3.4.3
emitter (emitting pipe/dripper)

device fitted to an irrigation lateral and intended to discharge water in the form of drops or continuous flow at

flow rates not exceeding 15 l/h except during flushing
© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 5
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3.4.4
gravity flow irrigation systems

irrigation systems, where water is applied directly to the soil surface and is not under pressure

3.4.5
in-line emitter

emitter intended for installation between two lengths of pipe in an irrigation lateral

3.4.6
irrigation gun
large discharge device being either a part circle or full circle sprinkler
3.4.7
irrigation sprayer

device which discharges water in the form of fine jets or in a fan shape without rotational movement of its

parts
3.4.8
irrigation system

assembly of pipes, components, and devices installed in the field for the purpose of irrigating a specific area

3.4.9
micro-irrigation system

a system capable of delivering water drops, tiny-streams or minispray to the plants. Surface and sub-surface

drip irrigation (3.4.3) and micro-spray irrigation (3.4.10) are the main types of this system

3.4.10
micro-spray irrigation systems

this system is characterized by water point sources similar to sprinkler´s miniatures (micro-sprinklers), which

are placed along the laterals, with a flow rate between 30 and 150 L/h at pressure heads of 15-25 m, and the

corresponding wetted area between 2 and 6 m
3.4.11
mobile sprinkling machine

sprinkling unit which is automatically moved across the soil surface during the water applic

...

NORME ISO
INTERNATIONALE 16075-4
Première édition
2016-12-15
Lignes directrices pour l’utilisation
des eaux usées traitées en
irrigation —
Partie 4:
Surveillance
Guidelines for treated wastewater use for irrigation projects —
Part 4: Monitoring
Numéro de référence
ISO 16075-4:2016(F)
ISO 2016
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 16075-4:2016(F)
DOCUMENT PROTÉGÉ PAR COPYRIGHT
© ISO 2016, Publié en Suisse

Droits de reproduction réservés. Sauf indication contraire, aucune partie de cette publication ne peut être reproduite ni utilisée

sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun procédé, électronique ou mécanique, y compris la photocopie, l’affichage sur

l’internet ou sur un Intranet, sans autorisation écrite préalable. Les demandes d’autorisation peuvent être adressées à l’ISO à

l’adresse ci-après ou au comité membre de l’ISO dans le pays du demandeur.
ISO copyright office
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Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
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copyright@iso.org
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ii © ISO 2016 – Tous droits réservés
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 16075-4:2016(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Domaine d’application ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Références normatives ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Termes et définitions ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.1 Généralités .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

3.2 Utilisation des eaux usées traitées (EUT) ........................................................................................................................ 4

3.3 Qualité des eaux usées...................................................................................................................................................................... 4

3.4 Systèmes d’irrigation ......................................................................................................................................................................... 5

3.5 Éléments associés aux stations d’épuration des eaux usées ........................................................................... 7

3.6 Abréviations .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

4 Surveillance de la qualité des EUT destinées à l’irrigation ...................................................................................10

4.1 Généralités ...............................................................................................................................................................................................10

4.2 Mode opératoire d’échantillonnage ...................................................................................................................................10

4.2.1 Échantillonnage à partir d’un système d’irrigation ........................................................................12

4.2.2 Échantillonnage dans un réservoir de stockage ................................................................................13

4.2.3 Échantillon composite ........................................................................................................................................... ...13

4.2.4 Manipulation des échantillons ..........................................................................................................................14

4.3 Plan de surveillance des EUT ...................................................................................................................................................14

4.4 Méthodes d’analyse relatives aux EUT ............................................................................................................................16

5 Surveillance des cultures irriguées ...............................................................................................................................................16

5.1 Généralités ...............................................................................................................................................................................................16

5.2 Fréquence de surveillance .........................................................................................................................................................16

5.2.1 Cultures de plein champ et légumes ............................................................................................................16

5.2.2 Cultures pérennes ........................................................................................................................................................16

6 Surveillance de la salinité du sol .......................................................................................................................................................17

6.1 Échantillonnage du sol ..................................................................................................................................................................17

6.2 Fréquence d’échantillonnage du sol ..................................................................................................................................17

6.3 Mode opératoire d’échantillonnage ...................................................................................................................................18

6.3.1 Irrigation par goutte-à-goutte ...........................................................................................................................18

6.3.2 Irrigation par arrosage et par mini-diffuseurs ...................................................................................18

6.3.3 Préparation des échantillons .............................................................................................................................18

6.4 Méthodes d’analyse des sols ....................................................................................................................................................18

7 Surveillance du milieu récepteur .....................................................................................................................................................18

7.1 Généralités ...............................................................................................................................................................................................18

7.2 Objectif du programme de surveillance .........................................................................................................................19

7.3 Échantillonnage des eaux souterraines ..........................................................................................................................19

7.4 Échantillonnage des eaux de surface ................................................................................................................................20

8 Assurance qualité et contrôle qualité ..........................................................................................................................................20

Bibliographie ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................22

© ISO 2016 – Tous droits réservés iii
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ISO 16075-4:2016(F)
Avant-propos

L’ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d’organismes

nationaux de normalisation (comités membres de l’ISO). L’élaboration des Normes internationales est

en général confiée aux comités techniques de l’ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude

a le droit de faire partie du comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales,

gouvernementales et non gouvernementales, en liaison avec l’ISO participent également aux travaux.

L’ISO collabore étroitement avec la Commission électrotechnique internationale (IEC) en ce qui

concerne la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les procédures utilisées pour élaborer le présent document et celles destinées à sa mise à jour sont

décrites dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 1. Il convient, en particulier de prendre note des différents

critères d’approbation requis pour les différents types de documents ISO. Le présent document a été

rédigé conformément aux règles de rédaction données dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 2 (voir www.

iso.org/directives).

L’attention est appelée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l’objet de

droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L’ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable

de ne pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence. Les détails concernant

les références aux droits de propriété intellectuelle ou autres droits analogues identifiés lors de

l’élaboration du document sont indiqués dans l’Introduction et/ou dans la liste des déclarations de

brevets reçues par l’ISO (voir www.iso.org/brevets).

Les appellations commerciales éventuellement mentionnées dans le présent document sont données

pour information, par souci de commodité, à l’intention des utilisateurs et ne sauraient constituer un

engagement.

Pour une explication de la signification des termes et expressions spécifiques de l’ISO liés à l’évaluation

de la conformité, ou pour toute information au sujet de l’adhésion de l’ISO aux principes de l’Organisation

mondiale du commerce (OMC) concernant les obstacles techniques au commerce (OTC), voir le lien

suivant: www.iso.org/iso/fr/avant-propos.html

Le comité chargé de l’élaboration du présent document est le Comité technique ISO/TC 282, Recyclage

des eaux, sous-comité SC 1, Recyclage des eaux usées traitées à des fins d’irrigation.

Une liste de toutes les parties de la série ISO 16075 peut être consultée sur le site web de l’ISO.

iv © ISO 2016 – Tous droits réservés
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 16075-4:2016(F)
Introduction

Avec les efforts croissants déployés par de nombreux pays pour pallier la rareté et la pollution de

leurs ressources en eau, les eaux usées municipales et industrielles traitées sont devenues un moyen

économique judicieux pour augmenter les quantités disponibles, en particulier si on les compare à

des alternatives coûteuses telles que le dessalement ou le développement de nouvelles sources d’eau

impliquant la construction de barrages et de réservoirs. La réutilisation de l’eau permet de fermer le

cycle de l’eau plus près des villes, en produisant une «eau neuve» à partir des eaux usées municipales

et en réduisant les rejets d’eaux usées dans l’environnement. La réutilisation des eaux usées traitées

pourrait également être une solution avantageuse pour améliorer la qualité des masses d’eau, par

exemple en évitant les rejets des stations d’épuration des eaux usées en amont de zones sensibles (zones

d’aquaculture (fruits de mer), zones de natation).

Un nouveau concept, important, en matière de réutilisation des eaux usées est l’approche «adaptée

aux besoins», qui implique la production d’eau réutilisée d’une qualité répondant aux besoins des

utilisateurs finaux prévus. Dans le cas de l’eau réutilisée destinée à l’irrigation, la qualité de l’eau peut

conduire à adapter les types de végétaux cultivés. Il convient donc que les applications prévues de

réutilisation de l’eau dictent le degré de traitement requis pour les eaux usées, et réciproquement, de

même que la fiabilité des processus de réutilisation des eaux usées et de leur mise en œuvre.

Les eaux usées traitées (EUT, que l’on qualifie également d’eaux réutilisées ou d’eaux recyclées)

peuvent être utilisées à différentes fins comme eau non potable. Les principales applications utilisant

les eaux usées traitées comprennent l’irrigation des terres agricoles, l’irrigation des espaces verts, la

réutilisation industrielle et la recharge de nappe. Des applications plus récentes, qui se développent

rapidement, ciblent différents usages: urbain, récréatif, environnemental, ainsi que la réutilisation

directe et indirecte pour la production d’eau potable.

L’irrigation des terres agricoles a toujours été et restera probablement le secteur qui consomme le plus

d’eaux usées traitées, les avantages de cette pratique et sa contribution à la sécurité alimentaire étant

reconnus. Le recyclage de l’eau pour des applications urbaines, et notamment l’irrigation des espaces

verts, se caractérise par un essor rapide et jouera un rôle décisif pour le développement durable des

villes dans le futur, y compris du point de vue de la réduction de l’empreinte énergétique, du bien-être

de la population et de la restauration de l’environnement.

Il est utile de rappeler que l’adéquation des eaux usées traitées à un type de réutilisation donné

dépend de la correspondance entre la disponibilité des eaux usées (leur volume) et la demande en

eau d’irrigation tout au long de l’année, ainsi que de la qualité de l’eau et des exigences spécifiques

d’utilisation. La réutilisation de l’eau pour l’irrigation peut comporter certains risques pour la santé

et l’environnement, en fonction de la qualité de l’eau, de la méthode d’application de l’eau d’irrigation,

des caractéristiques du sol, des conditions climatiques et des pratiques agronomiques. Par conséquent,

la santé publique et les impacts négatifs potentiels sur l’agriculture et l’environnement doivent être

considérés comme des aspects prioritaires pour le développement de projets de réutilisation de l’eau

pour l’irrigation qui donnent des résultats probants. Pour prévenir de tels impacts négatifs potentiels,

l’élaboration et l’application de lignes directrices internationales pour la réutilisation des eaux usées

traitées sont essentielles.

Les principaux facteurs déterminant, sur le plan qualitatif, l’adéquation des eaux usées traitées pour

l’irrigation sont la teneur en agents pathogènes, la salinité, la sodicité, la toxicité d’ions spécifiques, les

autres éléments chimiques et les nutriments. Il incombe aux autorités sanitaires locales d’établir des

valeurs seuils de qualité de l’eau en fonction des utilisations autorisées et de définir des pratiques pour

garantir la protection sanitaire et environnementale en tenant compte des spécificités locales.

D’un point de vue agronomique, la principale limitation à l’utilisation des eaux usées traitées en irrigation

est liée à leur qualité. Les eaux usées traitées, contrairement à l’eau destinée à des usages domestiques

et industriels, contiennent de plus fortes concentrations de matières inorganiques en suspension et

dissoutes (sels totaux solubles, sodium, chlorures, bore, métaux lourds), qui peuvent nuire au sol et

aux cultures irriguées. Les sels dissous n’étant pas éliminés par les techniques conventionnelles de

traitement des eaux usées, il convient d’adopter de bonnes pratiques en matière de gestion, d’agronomie

et d’irrigation pour éviter ou réduire le plus possible les impacts négatifs potentiels.

© ISO 2016 – Tous droits réservés v
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ISO 16075-4:2016(F)

La présence de nutriments (azote, phosphore et potassium) peut s’avérer avantageuse du fait des

économies d’engrais qu’il est possible de réaliser. Cependant, la quantité de nutriments fournie par les

eaux usées traitées tout au long de la période d’irrigation ne coïncide pas forcément avec les besoins des

cultures et la disponibilité des nutriments dépend de leur forme chimique.

Le présent document fournit des préconisations pour assurer le déroulement, la surveillance et la

maintenance dans de bonnes conditions, sur les plans sanitaire, hydrologique et environnemental, des

projets de réutilisation de l’eau pour l’irrigation non restreinte et restreinte de cultures agricoles, de

jardins et d’espaces verts avec des eaux usées traitées. Il convient que la qualité des eaux usées traitées

fournies corresponde aux utilisations possibles en fonction de la sensibilité des cultures (sur le plan

sanitaire et sur le plan agronomique), des sources d’eau (sensibilité hydrologique de la zone concernée

par le projet), du sol et des conditions climatiques.

Le présent document concerne les facteurs entrant en ligne de compte dans les projets de réutilisation

de l’eau pour l’irrigation, indépendamment de leur taille, de leur complexité et de leur situation

géographique. Il est applicable aux utilisations des eaux usées traitées prévues dans un projet

donné, même si ces utilisations sont amenées à changer pendant la durée de vie du projet, du fait de

modifications apportées au projet lui-même ou à la législation en vigueur.

Les principaux facteurs entrant en jeu pour assurer la sécurité, en matière de santé et d’environnement,

des projets de réutilisation de l’eau en irrigation sont les suivants:

— une surveillance méticuleuse de la qualité des eaux usées traitées pour garantir le fonctionnement

du système conformément aux prévisions et à la conception;

— des instructions de conception et de maintenance des systèmes d’irrigation pour garantir leur bon

fonctionnement à long terme;

— la compatibilité entre la qualité des eaux usées traitées, la méthode de distribution et le type de sol

et de cultures à irriguer pour garantir une exploitation viable du sol et une croissance normale des

cultures;

— l’adéquation entre la qualité des eaux usées traitées et leur utilisation pour empêcher ou réduire au

minimum une éventuelle contamination des sources d’eaux souterraines ou d’eaux de surface.

vi © ISO 2016 – Tous droits réservés
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NORME INTERNATIONALE ISO 16075-4:2016(F)
Lignes directrices pour l’utilisation des eaux usées traitées
en irrigation —
Partie 4:
Surveillance
1 Domaine d’application
Le présent document fournit des recommandations concernant:

— la surveillance de la qualité des eaux usées traitées (abrégées en EUT) pour l’irrigation;

— la surveillance des cultures irriguées;
— la surveillance de la salinité du sol;
— la surveillance des sources d’eau naturelle dans les environs;
— la surveillance de la qualité de l’eau dans les réservoirs de stockage.

Le présent document met l’accent sur les méthodes et la fréquence d’échantillonnage. Concernant les

méthodes d’analyse, il se réfère à des méthodes normalisées ou, lorsque celles-ci font défaut, à d’autres

références bibliographiques.

NOTE Dans les cas où un plan de surveillance existe déjà, les présentes recommandations peuvent être

intégrées à ce plan. C’est le cas notamment lorsqu’une approche de gestion du risque de plus grande portée est

mise en œuvre, par exemple les plans de gestion de la sécurité sanitaire de l’eau (qui servent de modèle aux plans

de sécurité sanitaire de l’assainissement) élaborés par l’Organisation mondiale de la santé.

2 Références normatives
Le présent document ne contient aucune référence normative.
3 Termes et définitions

Pour les besoins du présent document, les termes et définitions suivants s’appliquent.

L’ISO et l’IEC tiennent à jour des bases de données terminologiques destinées à être utilisées en

normalisation, consultables aux adresses suivantes:
— ISO Online browsing platform: disponible à l’adresse http://www.iso.org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: disponible à l’adresse http://www.electropedia.org/
3.1 Généralités
3.1.1
aquifère

couche souterraine de roche perméable ou de matériaux non consolidés (gravier, sable ou limon)

contenant de l’eau, dont on peut extraire de l’eau souterraine
© ISO 2016 – Tous droits réservés 1
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ISO 16075-4:2016(F)
3.1.2
eau fraîche initiale

eau douce (3.1.10) à usages domestique, institutionnel, commercial et industriel, à partir de laquelle les

eaux usées (3.1.22) sont produites
3.1.3
barrière

tout moyen, y compris des dispositifs physiques ou des étapes d’un processus, réduisant ou prévenant

le risque d’infection humaine en empêchant le contact entre les EUT et les produits agricoles ingérés, ou

autre moyen réduisant par exemple la concentration de microorganismes dans les EUT ou empêchant

leur survie sur les produits ingérés
3.1.4
environnement

cadre de fonctionnement d’une organisation (3.1.13), incluant l’air, l’eau, la terre, les ressources

naturelles, la flore, la faune, les êtres humains et leurs relations
3.1.5
aspect environnemental

élément des activités, projets ou produits (3.1.15) d’une organisation (3.1.13) pouvant interagir avec

l’environnement (3.1.4)
3.1.6
impact environnemental

tout changement qualitatif, négatif ou positif, intervenant dans l’environnement, résultant en totalité

ou en partie des activités, projets ou produits (3.1.15) d’une organisation (3.1.13)

3.1.7
paramètre environnemental
attribut quantifiable d’un aspect environnemental (3.1.5)
3.1.8
cultures fourragères

cultures non destinées à la consommation humaine, telles que les cultures pastorales, ornementales,

forestières, les cultures pour la production de fourrage et de plantes à fibres, les cultures de semences

et de gazon
3.1.9
cultures vivrières

cultures destinées à la consommation humaine, souvent réparties en sous-catégories selon que les

produits sont destinés à être cuits, transformés ou consommés crus
3.1.10
eau douce

eau naturellement présente à la surface de la terre (dans la glace, les lacs, les rivières et les ruisseaux) et

sous terre sous forme d’eau souterraine dans les aquifères (3.1.1)

Note 1 à l’article: L’eau douce inclut l’eau de mer et l’eau saumâtre après leur dessalement, mais exclut l’eau de mer

et l’eau saumâtre.
3.1.11
projet d’irrigation

conception, développement, construction, sélection de matériels, exploitation et contrôle du

fonctionnement des installations pour fournir une irrigation appropriée par des EUT

2 © ISO 2016 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 16075-4:2016(F)
3.1.12
eau non potable
ENP
eau ne présentant pas la qualité d’une eau destinée à la consommation

Note 1 à l’article: Ce terme se réfère généralement à des eaux usées (3.1.22) ou des EUT, mais peut inclure

également d’autres eaux de qualité non potable.
3.1.13
organisation

groupe de personnes et d’installations où les responsabilités, les autorités et les relations sont

organisées
3.1.14
processus

ensemble d’activités interreliées ou présentant entre elles des interactions, qui transforment des

intrants en extrants

Note 1 à l’article: Les intrants d’un processus sont généralement les extrants d’autres processus.

Note 2 à l’article: Les processus d’une organisation (3.1.13) sont généralement planifiés et exécutés dans des

conditions contrôlées pour fournir une valeur ajoutée.
3.1.15
produit
n’importe quel type de bien ou de service

Note 1 à l’article: Ceci inclut les biens ou services interconnectés et/ou interreliés.

3.1.16
aspect lié à la santé publique

élément des activités, projets ou produits (3.1.15) d’une organisation (3.1.13) pouvant interagir avec la

santé publique
3.1.17
impact sur la santé publique

tout changement, négatif ou positif, intervenant dans le domaine de la santé publique, résultant en

totalité ou en partie des activités, projets ou produits (3.1.15) d’une organisation (3.1.13)

3.1.18
paramètre de santé publique
attribut quantifiable d’un aspect lié à la santé publique (3.1.16)
3.1.19
sol

couche de matériau non consolidé composée de particules de matériaux altérés, de matière organique

morte et vivante, d’interstices remplis d’air et de la solution du sol (3.1.20)
3.1.20
solution du sol
phase liquide du sol (3.1.19) avec ses éléments dissous
3.1.21
partie prenante

individu, groupe ou organisation (3.1.13) ayant un intérêt dans une organisation ou une activité

Note 1 à l’article: Habituellement, une partie prenante peut influencer ou être influencée par l’organisation ou

l’activité.
© ISO 2016 – Tous droits réservés 3
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ISO 16075-4:2016(F)
3.1.22
eaux usées

eaux collectées principalement par les municipalités; elles peuvent inclure des eaux résiduaires

d’origine domestique, institutionnelle, commerciale ou industrielle, ainsi que des eaux de pluie

3.1.23
réutilisation de l’eau

utilisation des eaux usées (3.1.22) traitées à des fins utiles; également synonyme de récupération de

l’eau et de recyclage de l’eau
3.2 Utilisation des eaux usées traitées (EUT)
3.2.1
agriculture

science ou pratique d’exploitation de la terre, incluant le travail du sol (3.1.19) pour la culture de produits

et l’élevage d’animaux afin de fournir de la nourriture ou d’autres produits (3.1.15)

3.2.2
espaces verts

tous les éléments visibles d’une parcelle de terrain, souvent considérés du point de vue de leur intérêt

esthétique, tels les jardins publics et privés, les parcs, la végétation des routes, y compris les pelouses et

aires récréatives gazonnées
3.2.3
irrigation restreinte

utilisation d’EUT pour des applications non potables dans des lieux dont l’accès au public est contrôlé ou

restreint par des barrières physiques ou institutionnelles
3.2.4
irrigation urbaine restreinte

irrigation d’aires dont l’accès au public pendant l’irrigation peut être contrôlé (par exemple, certains

terrains de golf, cimetières et terre-pleins centraux d’autoroutes)
3.2.5
irrigation non restreinte

utilisation d’EUT pour des applications non potables dans des lieux dont l’accès au public n’est pas

restreint
3.2.6
irrigation urbaine non restreinte

irrigation d’aires dont l’accès au public pendant l’irrigation n’est pas restreint (par exemple, certains

jardins et aires de jeux)
3.3 Qualité des eaux usées
3.3.1
classe A: EUT de très haute qualité

eaux usées brutes (3.3.6) ayant subi un traitement physique et biologique, une filtration (3.5.3) et une

désinfection (3.5.2), et dont la qualité répond à la description du Tableau 1 de l’ISO 16075-2:2015

3.3.2
classe B: EUT de haute qualité

eaux usées brutes (3.3.6) ayant subi un traitement physique et biologique, une filtration (3.5.3) et une

désinfection (3.5.2), et dont la qualité répond à la description du Tableau 1 de l’ISO 16075-2:2015

3.3.3
classe C: EUT de bonne qualité

eaux usées brutes (3.3.6) ayant subi un traitement physique et biologique, et dont la qualité répond à la

description du Tableau 1 de l’ISO 16075-2:2015
4 © ISO 2016 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO 16075-4:2016(F)
3.3.4
classe D: EUT de qualité moyenne

eaux usées brutes (3.3.6) ayant subi un traitement physique et biologique, et dont la qualité répond à la

description du Tableau 1 de l’ISO 16075-2:2015
3.3.5
classe E: eaux usées après traitement extensif

eaux usées brutes (3.3.6) ayant subi un processus (3.1.14) de traitement biologique naturel avec un long

temps de séjour (10 j à 15 j au minimum), et dont la qualité répond à la description du Tableau 1 de

l’ISO 16075-2:2015
3.3.6
eaux usées brutes
eaux usées (3.1.22) n’ayant été soumises à aucun traitement
3.3.7
coliformes thermotolérants

groupe de bactéries dont la présence dans l’environnement (3.1.4) indique généralement une

contamination fécale (auparavant nommés coliformes fécaux)

Note 1 à l’article: Pour déterminer la qualité des EUT, on peut rechercher Escherichia coli (E. coli) ou les coliformes

fécaux, car l’écart entre les valeurs n’est pas significatif.
3.4 Systèmes d’irrigation
3.4.1
rampe d’arrosage

machine d’arrosage mobile (3.4.11) composée de deux tuyaux (bras) symétriques et de buses

d’arroseur (3.4.24) réparties sur l’un des tuyaux, l’action d’arrosage étant complétée par un canon

d’arrosage placé à chaque extrémité des deux tuyaux; l’action des buses produit un effet de réaction

(similaire à un tourniquet hydraulique) qui entraîne la rotation des bras à une vitesse voulue

3.4.2
machine d’irrigation à pivot central et déplacement latéral

machine d’irrigation automatique constituée d’un certain nombre de tours automotrices supportant

un tuyau qui tourne autour d’un pivot et par le biais duquel de l’eau fournie au niveau du pivot s’écoule

radialement vers l’extérieur pour être distribuée par des asperseurs ou des arroseurs (3.4.24) situés le

long du tuyau
3.4.3
émetteur
tuyau émetteur
goutteur

dispositif monté sur une conduite latérale d’irrigation et destiné à distribuer l’eau par goutte-à-goutte

ou en flux continu à un débit ne dépassant pas 15 l/h, excepté pendant la purge
3.4.4
système d’irrigation à écoulement gravitaire

système d’irrigation (3.4.8) où l’eau est appliquée directement sur la surface du sol (3.1.19) et n’est pas

sous pression
3.4.5
émetteur intercalé
émetteur (3.4.3) destiné à être installé entre deux longu
...

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