Road vehicles -- Test devices for target vehicles, vulnerable road users and other objects, for assessment of active safety functions

This document specifies performance requirements for surrogate targets used to assess the system detection and performance of active safety systems. This document specifies the properties of an omni-directional multi-purpose vehicle target for assessment of interaction in a variety of traffic scenarios. This document specifies the properties of a vehicle target that will allow it to represent a passenger vehicle in terms of size, shape, reflection properties, etc. for testing purposes. This document addresses the detection requirements for a vehicle target in terms of sensing technologies commonly in use at the time of publication of this document, and where possible, anticipates future sensing technologies. It also addresses methodologies to verify the target response properties to these sensors, as well as performance requirements for the target carrier. The vehicle targets specified in this document reflect passenger cars and, in particular, the smaller and more common B and C segment cars. This document does not address the test procedures in terms of speeds, positions, or timing of events. Performance criteria for the active safety system are also not addressed.

Véhicules routiers -- Dispositifs d'essai pour véhicules cibles, usagers de la route vulnérables et autres objets, pour l'évaluation de fonctions de sécurité active

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
20-May-2021
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Start Date
14-Apr-2021
Completion Date
14-Apr-2021
Ref Project

Buy Standard

Standard
ISO 19206-3:2021 - Road vehicles -- Test devices for target vehicles, vulnerable road users and other objects, for assessment of active safety functions
English language
51 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview
Draft
ISO/PRF 19206-3:Version 27-mar-2021 - Road vehicles -- Test devices for target vehicles, vulnerable road users and other objects, for assessment of active safety functions
English language
49 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview

Standards Content (sample)

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 19206-3
First edition
2021-05
Road vehicles — Test devices for
target vehicles, vulnerable road users
and other objects, for assessment of
active safety functions —
Part 3:
Requirements for passenger vehicle
3D targets
Véhicules routiers — Dispositifs d'essai pour véhicules cibles, usagers
de la route vulnérables et autres objets, pour l'évaluation de fonctions
de sécurité active —
Partie 3: Exigences pour cibles de véhicules particuliers 3D
Reference number
ISO 19206-3:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 19206-3:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 19206-3:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5 Vehicle target specifications ..................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1 Vehicle classes and target applicability ............................................................................................................................. 4

5.2 Reference dimensional measurements .............................................................................................................................. 4

5.3 Safety considerations ........................................................................................................................................................................ 4

5.4 Repairability and robustness ...................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.5 Environmental conditions ............................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.6 Reference coordinate system...................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.7 Speed classes ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

6 Vehicle target response to sensing technologies ................................................................................................................ 6

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.2 Optical requirements ......................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.2.2 Reference measurements ......................................................................................................................................... 6

6.2.3 Stability of dimensions for optical recognition ..................................................................................... 6

6.2.4 Viewing angles ................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.2.5 Features related to optical requirements ................................................................................................... 7

6.3 Radar requirements ............................................................................................................................................................................ 7

6.3.1 Reference measurements of radar properties ....................................................................................... 7

6.3.2 Reference measurements ......................................................................................................................................... 7

6.3.3 Radar cross section, static measurements and requirements .................................................. 8

6.3.4 Radar recognition features of vehicle target ........................................................................................... 8

6.3.5 Stability of dimensions for radar recognition ......................................................................................... 8

6.4 Thermal requirements for Far Infrared vision systems ...................................................................................... 8

6.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.4.2 Reference measurements ......................................................................................................................................... 8

6.4.3 Thermal characteristics ............................................................................................................................................. 8

6.5 Calibration .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

6.6 Field verification .................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7 Motion and positioning during test for VT including target carrier system ..........................................9

7.1 General requirements ....................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.2 Longitudinal positioning ................................................................................................................................................................ 9

7.2.1 Speed range for operation ....................................................................................................................................... 9

7.2.2 Accelerations ....................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.3 Lateral positioning ............................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.3.2 Yaw rate ................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.3.3 Lateral position ..............................................................................................................................................................10

7.3.4 Lateral acceleration ....................................................................................................................................................10

7.3.5 Turning diameter .........................................................................................................................................................10

7.4 Vertical positioning ..........................................................................................................................................................................10

7.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................10

7.4.2 Pitch angle ..........................................................................................................................................................................10

7.4.3 Vertical motions .............................................................................................................................................................10

Annex A (informative) Vehicle classes and dimensions ................................................................................................................11

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 19206-3:2021(E)

Annex B (normative) Visual and near infrared sensor-specific recognition properties and

measurements .....................................................................................................................................................................................................16

Annex C (normative) Radar-specific recognition properties and measurements .............................................21

Annex D (informative) Measurement of position, speed and acceleration of the vehicle target ........49

Annex E (informative) Field verification of vehicle target properties ............................................................................50

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................51

iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 19206-3:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 22, Road vehicles, Subcommittee SC 33,

Vehicle dynamics and chassis components.
A list of all parts in the ISO 19206 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 19206-3:2021(E)
Introduction

ADAS (advanced driver assistance systems) and active safety systems are designed to support decision-

making for the driver, extend the driver’s awareness of the traffic situation with advanced warnings,

improve the behaviour of the vehicle, and even take over vehicle control in an emergency situation. The

goal is to completely avoid an accident or at least reduce the severity of an accident.

The surrogate target is an essential component in the evaluation of ADAS/active safety functions and

different levels of automated driving systems, in all situations where a collision with the target may

occur.

The characteristics of targets must be trustworthy and a vehicle target must be recognized as a real

vehicle by the various sensing technologies.
This document addresses the specification of vehicle 3D test targets.

It is important that a surrogate vehicle target represents a real vehicle in terms of detectability and

movement from all directions. It should also provide safety for the subject vehicle and test operators

if contact is made between the subject vehicle and the target. Crashworthiness and durability

requirements for the vehicle target require that the material and construction of the vehicle target are

adapted to fit the purposes.

Test cases usually address both stationary and moving targets and, as such, the physical construction

of the target accommodates a target carrier system capable of mimicking realistic motions. This

document includes requirements on the target carrier system as applicable.

Targets described in the ISO 19206 series can be used for system development or applied in conjunction

with existing standards, or standards under development, for assessment of ADAS and active safety

functions of vehicles.
vi © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 19206-3:2021(E)
Road vehicles — Test devices for target vehicles,
vulnerable road users and other objects, for assessment of
active safety functions —
Part 3:
Requirements for passenger vehicle 3D targets
1 Scope

This document specifies performance requirements for surrogate targets used to assess the system

detection and performance of active safety systems.

This document specifies the properties of an omni-directional multi-purpose vehicle target for

assessment of interaction in a variety of traffic scenarios.

This document specifies the properties of a vehicle target that will allow it to represent a passenger

vehicle in terms of size, shape, reflection properties, etc. for testing purposes. This document addresses

the detection requirements for a vehicle target in terms of sensing technologies commonly in use at

the time of publication of this document, and where possible, anticipates future sensing technologies.

It also addresses methodologies to verify the target response properties to these sensors, as well as

performance requirements for the target carrier.

The vehicle targets specified in this document reflect passenger cars and, in particular, the smaller and

more common B and C segment cars.

This document does not address the test procedures in terms of speeds, positions, or timing of events.

Performance criteria for the active safety system are also not addressed.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 8855, Road vehicles — Vehicle dynamics and road-holding ability — Vocabulary

ISO 8608, Mechanical vibration — Road surface profiles — Reporting of measured data

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 8855 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
subject vehicle
vehicle with active safety system to be tested
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 19206-3:2021(E)
3.2
vehicle target
test device representing a vehicle, whose purpose is to activate sensor systems

Note 1 to entry: Vehicle target consists of a target structure (3.2.1) and optionally a target carrier (3.2.2).

Note 2 to entry: This document addresses test devices representing a vehicle having the necessary features to be

recognised from any direction (3D vehicle target).
3.2.1
target structure

physical structure whose purpose is to maintain the shape and provide the relevant sensor signature

representing a vehicle
3.2.2
target carrier

mechanical or electro-mechanical system used to move and/or support the target structure (3.2.1)

according to a test protocol

Note 1 to entry: Target carrier may be self-contained within, or supporting the target structure or external

devices connected with cables, beams, or similar structures. It can also be a self-propelled carrier.

Note 2 to entry: Target structure and target carrier may be integrated.
Note 3 to entry: Target structure fixation is included in the target carrier.
3.3
target axis system

axis system fixed in the reference frame of the target, so that the X axis is substantially horizontal and

forward (with the target at rest), and is parallel to the target’s longitudinal plane of symmetry, and the

Y axis is perpendicular to the target's longitudinal plane of symmetry and points to the left with the Z

t t
axis pointing upward

Note 1 to entry: See Figure 2 for further explanation of the target axes X , Y , Z .

t t t
3.4
target coordinate system

coordinate system based on the target axis system (3.3) with the origin located at the target reference

point (3.5)

Note 1 to entry: The position of the vehicle in the target coordinate system is described by coordinates x , y , z .

t t t
3.5
target reference point

point whose location relative to the external dimensions of the target, in its initial condition, remains

constant
Note 1 to entry: to entry:

x = 0, y = 0 at the centroid of the area defined by a horizontal projection of the plan view of the target;

z = 0 at the ground plane.
3.6
measurement equipment

equipment used to record the position and motions of the vehicle target (3.2) relative to the subject

vehicle (3.1)

Note 1 to entry: The measurement equipment is used to ensure that the test protocol is followed within

prescribed tolerances and to record data documenting the function of the active safety system and allowing its

performance to be assessed.
2 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 19206-3:2021(E)
3.7
planned path
X, Y coordinates that define the desired trajectory of the target vehicle
3.8
lateral path deviation

position error of the target vehicle relative to the planned path (3.7) measured perpendicular from the

planned path direction
Note 1 to entry: See illustration in Figure 1.

Note 2 to entry: Y and X are the ground (fixed) coordinate axes in which the planned path is defined.

G G
Key
1 lateral path deviation
2 planned path
Figure 1 — Lateral path deviation
4 Abbreviated terms
CCD charge-coupled device
CMOS complementary metal oxide semiconductor
FIR far infrared
LIDAR light detection and ranging
NIR near infrared
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 19206-3:2021(E)
PMD photonic mixer device
RCS radar cross section
SV subject vehicle
VT vehicle target
5 Vehicle target specifications
5.1 Vehicle classes and target applicability

The vehicle targets specified in this document reflect passenger cars and in particular the smaller and

more common B and C segment cars. See Annex A for more information.

The test devices described in this document are intended for testing of systems designed to mitigate or

avoid collisions in which the subject vehicle approaches the target vehicle from any direction.

5.2 Reference dimensional measurements

Reference measurements for the vehicle target should come from a representative sample of vehicles

from the B/C segment that were manufactured within five years prior to the publication date of this

document.
General dimensions of the vehicle fleet are given in Annex A.
5.3 Safety considerations

Drivers of the subject vehicle shall not be exposed to any substantial risk of personal injury. The vehicle

target and its components should not cause more than cosmetic damage to the subject vehicle when

struck at a relative velocity of 60 km/h. The conditions specified by the test procedure application shall

be taken into consideration.

NOTE Test procedures for specific applications typically indicate what measures are taken to reduce the

risk of injury and vehicle damage. These measures can include instructions to disable subject vehicle systems

such as supplementary occupant restraints, seatbelt pre-tensioners, vulnerable user protection systems, etc.

5.4 Repairability and robustness

The vehicle target should be easily reassembled or repaired after contacts. Field repairs should be

possible to perform with standard hand tools. The sensor-specific characteristics shall be met also

after re-assembly and repair. The time for reassembly is affected by the handling efficiency of the users

and should be as short as possible. As a guideline the reassembly should be possible with two persons

and should take less than 15 minutes. The target requirements should be fulfilled after at least fifty

crashes with a relative velocity of 60 km/h with a vehicle of category M1.
NOTE 1 This requirement does not apply to disposable and single impact targets.

NOTE 2 Category M1: vehicles designed and constructed for the carriage of passengers and comprising no

more than eight seats in addition to the driver's seat. (Source: UN consolidated resolution R.E.3 and Directive

2007/46/EC).
4 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 19206-3:2021(E)
5.5 Environmental conditions

The vehicle target shall fulfil all requirements in an ambient temperature range of -5 °C to +40 °C. The

vehicle target shall not deteriorate under storage temperatures in the range of -40 °C to +80 °C when

properly stored.

NOTE The specified temperature range recognises that there are substantial technical challenges achieving

a cost-effective target fulfilling the requirements at lower temperatures than -5 °C.

5.6 Reference coordinate system

The reference coordinate system in this document essentially adopts the coordinate system given in

ISO 8855, adapting it to the purpose of the target vehicle movement. The target coordinate system,

which uses the target axis system located at the target reference point, is shown in Figure 2.

NOTE ψ is the rotation about the Z axis.
t t
Figure 2 — Reference coordinate system
5.7 Speed classes

The following speed classes are applicable according to this document, see Table 1.

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 19206-3:2021(E)
Table 1 — Speed classes
Speed class Description
SC50 Operational speed up to 50 km/h (13,9 m/s)
SC80 Operational speed up to 80 km/h (22,2 m/s)
SC80+ Operational speed up to and greater than 80 km/h (22,2 m/s)
6 Vehicle target response to sensing technologies
6.1 General

Requirements related to sensing technologies commonly in use at the time of publication of this

document are listed in 6.2, 6.3 and 6.4. A vehicle target intended for use with a specific set of sensing

technologies only needs to meet the requirements of those technologies.
6.2 Optical requirements
6.2.1 General

Sensors operating on optical principles include CCD and CMOS camera sensors, stereo camera sensors,

photonic mixer devices (PMD) and light detection and ranging (LIDAR). These systems cover visible

and near infrared light frequency spectra. PMD and LIDAR are more reliant on infrared reflectivity of

the target surface.
6.2.2 Reference measurements

When technology-specific measurements are required, information of the type of sensor used,

environmental conditions during measurements, and date of measurement shall be provided with

the description of the vehicle models. The version of the vehicle target and the target carrier shall be

traceable to manufacturing drawings or supplier specifications.
General dimensions of the vehicle fleet are given in Annex A.
6.2.3 Stability of dimensions for optical recognition

Target surface shall not flutter or vibrate unrealistically due to aerodynamic effects for the applicable

speed class and a side wind of up to 5 m/s. Local fluttering should not exceed 10 mm perpendicularly

from the reference surface. Distortion of the vehicle shape should not exceed 25 mm in any direction.

6.2.4 Viewing angles
Main angles for recognition are shown in Figure 3.
6 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO 19206-3:2021(E)
Key
1 target reference point
Figure 3 — Viewing angles
6.2.5 Features related to optical requirements

The visual difference between the VT and a passenger vehicle of the B/C segment size should be as

small as possible. The contours of the VT should be representative of a real middle-sized passenger car.

It should demonstrate a high level of symmetry about the x-z plane.

The wheels, consisting of tire and rim, shall be round and of realistic dimensions.

The windows (windscreen, side windows, rear window) should give the impression of being transparent.

The interior of a real car (seat, steering wheel, rear view mirror, driver) may be indicated.

Features representing the rear lights, reflectors, and registration plate are required.

[10]

NOTE General requirements for the size and position of these features are available in 407/2011/EC , UN-

[11] [12] [9]
ECE Regulation 3 , UN-ECE Regulation 48 and FMVSS 108 .

Lighter colours of vehicle targets shall be used. High contrast to background should be considered.

Features necessary for the optical recognition as specified in Annex B shall be followed.

6.3 Radar requirements
6.3.1 Reference measurements of radar properties

At the time of publication of this document, automotive applications of radar are using 24 GHz and

(76 – 81) GHz.
6.3.2 Reference measurements

Reference measurements for the vehicle target should come from a representative sample of vehicles

from the B/C segment that were manufactured within five years prior to the publication date of this

document.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 7
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
ISO 19206-3:2021(E)

When technology-specific measurements are required, information of the type of sensor used,

environmental conditions during measurements, and date of measurement shall be provided with

the description of the vehicle models. The version of the vehicle target and the target carrier shall be

traceable to manufacturing drawings or supplier specifications.
6.3.3 Radar cross section, static measurements and requirements
Measurement of radar cross section as described in Annex C shall be followed.
6.3.4 Radar recognition features of vehicle target

Features necessary for radar recognition as specified in Annex C shall be followed.

6.3.5 Stability of dimensions for radar recognition

Local fluttering due to aerodynamic effects should not cause radar signature to vary, including micro-

Doppler effects, for the applicable speed class and a side wind of up to 5 m/s.
6.4 Thermal requiremen
...

INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 19206-3
First edition
Road vehicles — Test devices for
target vehicles, vulnerable road users
and other objects, for assessment of
active safety functions —
Part 3:
Requirements for passenger vehicle
3D targets
Véhicules routiers — Dispositifs d'essai pour véhicules cibles, usagers
de la route vulnérables et autres objets, pour l'évaluation de fonctions
de sécurité active —
Partie 3: Exigences pour cibles de véhicules particuliers 3D
PROOF/ÉPREUVE
Reference number
ISO 19206-3:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 19206-3:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 19206-3:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5 Vehicle target specifications ..................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1 Vehicle classes and target applicability ............................................................................................................................. 4

5.2 Reference dimensional measurements .............................................................................................................................. 4

5.3 Safety considerations ........................................................................................................................................................................ 4

5.4 Repairability and robustness ...................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.5 Environmental conditions ............................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.6 Reference coordinate system...................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.7 Speed classes ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 5

6 Vehicle target response to sensing technologies ................................................................................................................ 6

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.2 Optical requirements ......................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.2.2 Reference measurements ......................................................................................................................................... 6

6.2.3 Stability of dimensions for optical recognition ..................................................................................... 6

6.2.4 Viewing angles ................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.2.5 Features related to optical requirements ................................................................................................... 7

6.3 Radar requirements ............................................................................................................................................................................ 7

6.3.1 Reference measurements of radar properties ....................................................................................... 7

6.3.2 Reference measurements ......................................................................................................................................... 7

6.3.3 Radar cross section, static measurements and requirements .................................................. 8

6.3.4 Radar recognition features of vehicle target ........................................................................................... 8

6.3.5 Stability of dimensions for radar recognition ......................................................................................... 8

6.4 Thermal requirements for Far Infrared vision systems ...................................................................................... 8

6.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.4.2 Reference measurements ......................................................................................................................................... 8

6.4.3 Thermal characteristics ............................................................................................................................................. 8

6.5 Calibration .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

6.6 Field verification .................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7 Motion and positioning during test for VT including target carrier system ..........................................9

7.1 General requirements ....................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.2 Longitudinal positioning ................................................................................................................................................................ 9

7.2.1 Speed range for operation ....................................................................................................................................... 9

7.2.2 Accelerations ....................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.3 Lateral positioning ............................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.3.2 Yaw rate ................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.3.3 Lateral position ..............................................................................................................................................................10

7.3.4 Lateral acceleration ....................................................................................................................................................10

7.3.5 Turning diameter .........................................................................................................................................................10

7.4 Vertical positioning ..........................................................................................................................................................................10

7.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................10

7.4.2 Pitch angle ..........................................................................................................................................................................10

7.4.3 Vertical motions .............................................................................................................................................................10

Annex A (informative) Vehicle classes and dimensions ................................................................................................................11

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 19206-3:2021(E)

Annex B (normative) Visual and near infrared sensor-specific recognition properties and

measurements .....................................................................................................................................................................................................16

Annex C (normative) Radar-specific recognition properties and measurements .............................................21

Annex D (informative) Measurement of position, speed and acceleration of the vehicle target ........47

Annex E (informative) Field verification of vehicle target properties ............................................................................48

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................49

iv PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 19206-3:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 22, Road vehicles, Subcommittee SC 33,

Vehicle dynamics and chassis components.
A list of all parts in the ISO 19206 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 19206-3:2021(E)
Introduction

ADAS (advanced driver assistance systems) and active safety systems are designed to support decision-

making for the driver, extend the driver’s awareness of the traffic situation with advanced warnings,

improve the behaviour of the vehicle, and even take over vehicle control in an emergency situation. The

goal is to completely avoid an accident or at least reduce the severity of an accident.

The surrogate target is an essential component in the evaluation of ADAS/active safety functions and

different levels of automated driving systems, in all situations where a collision with the target may occur.

The characteristics of targets must be trustworthy and a vehicle target must be recognized as a real

vehicle by the various sensing technologies.
This document addresses the specification of vehicle 3D test targets.

It is important that a surrogate vehicle target represents a real vehicle in terms of detectability and

movement from all directions. It should also provide safety for the subject vehicle and test operators

if contact is made between the subject vehicle and the target. Crashworthiness and durability

requirements for the vehicle target require that the material and construction of the vehicle target are

adapted to fit the purposes.

Test cases usually address both stationary and moving targets and, as such, the physical construction

of the target accommodates a target carrier system capable of mimicking realistic motions. This

document includes requirements on the target carrier system as applicable.

Targets described in the ISO 19206 series can be used for system development or applied in conjunction

with existing standards, or standards under development, for assessment of ADAS and active safety

functions of vehicles.
vi PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 19206-3:2021(E)
Road vehicles — Test devices for target vehicles,
vulnerable road users and other objects, for assessment of
active safety functions —
Part 3:
Requirements for passenger vehicle 3D targets
1 Scope

This document specifies performance requirements for surrogate targets used to assess the system

detection and performance of active safety systems.

This document specifies the properties of an omni-directional multi-purpose vehicle target for

assessment of interaction in a variety of traffic scenarios.

This document specifies the properties of a vehicle target that will allow it to represent a passenger

vehicle in terms of size, shape, reflection properties, etc. for testing purposes. This document addresses

the detection requirements for a vehicle target in terms of sensing technologies commonly in use at

the time of publication of this document, and where possible, anticipates future sensing technologies.

It also addresses methodologies to verify the target response properties to these sensors, as well as

performance requirements for the target carrier.

The vehicle targets specified in this document reflect passenger cars and, in particular, the smaller and

more common B and C segment cars.

This document does not address the test procedures in terms of speeds, positions, or timing of events.

Performance criteria for the active safety system are also not addressed.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 8855, Road vehicles — Vehicle dynamics and road-holding ability — Vocabulary

ISO 8608, Mechanical vibration — Road surface profiles — Reporting of measured data

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 8855 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
subject vehicle
vehicle with active safety system to be tested
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE 1
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 19206-3:2021(E)
3.2
vehicle target
test device representing a vehicle, whose purpose is to activate sensor systems

Note 1 to entry: Vehicle target consists of a target structure (3.2.1) and optionally a target carrier (3.2.2).

Note 2 to entry: This document addresses test devices representing a vehicle having the necessary features to be

recognised from any direction (3D vehicle target).
3.2.1
target structure

physical structure whose purpose is to maintain the shape and provide the relevant sensor signature

representing a vehicle
3.2.2
target carrier

mechanical or electro-mechanical system used to move and/or support the target structure (3.2.1)

according to a test protocol

Note 1 to entry: Target carrier may be self-contained within, or supporting the target structure or external

devices connected with cables, beams, or similar structures. It can also be a self-propelled carrier.

Note 2 to entry: Target structure and target carrier may be integrated.
Note 3 to entry: Target structure fixation is included in the target carrier.
3.3
target axis system

axis system fixed in the reference frame of the target, so that the X axis is substantially horizontal and

forward (with the target at rest), and is parallel to the target’s longitudinal plane of symmetry, and the

Y axis is perpendicular to the target's longitudinal plane of symmetry and points to the left with the Z

t t
axis pointing upward

Note 1 to entry: See Figure 2 for further explanation of the target axes X , Y , Z .

t t t
3.4
target coordinate system

coordinate system based on the target axis system (3.3) with the origin located at the target reference

point (3.5)

Note 1 to entry: The position of the vehicle in the target coordinate system is described by coordinates x , y , z .

t t t
3.5
target reference point

point whose location relative to the external dimensions of the target, in its initial condition, remains

constant
Note 1 to entry: to entry:

x = 0, y = 0 at the centroid of the area defined by a horizontal projection of the plan view of the target;

z = 0 at the ground plane.
3.6
measurement equipment

equipment used to record the position and motions of the vehicle target (3.2) relative to the subject

vehicle (3.1)

Note 1 to entry: The measurement equipment is used to ensure that the test protocol is followed within

prescribed tolerances and to record data documenting the function of the active safety system and allowing its

performance to be assessed.
2 PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 19206-3:2021(E)
3.7
planned path
X, Y coordinates that define the desired trajectory of the target vehicle
3.8
lateral path deviation

position error of the target vehicle relative to the planned path (3.7) measured perpendicular from the

planned path direction
Note 1 to entry: See illustration in Figure 1.

Note 2 to entry: Y and X are the ground (fixed) coordinate axes in which the planned path is defined.

G G
Key
1 lateral path deviation
2 planned path
Figure 1 — Lateral path deviation
4 Abbreviated terms
CCD charge-coupled device
CMOS complementary metal oxide semiconductor
FIR far infrared
LIDAR light detection and ranging
NIR near infrared
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE 3
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 19206-3:2021(E)
PMD photonic mixer device
RCS radar cross section
SV subject vehicle
VT vehicle target
5 Vehicle target specifications
5.1 Vehicle classes and target applicability

The vehicle targets specified in this document reflect passenger cars and in particular the smaller and

more common B and C segment cars. See Annex A for more information.

The test devices described in this document are intended for testing of systems designed to mitigate or

avoid collisions in which the subject vehicle approaches the target vehicle from any direction.

5.2 Reference dimensional measurements

Reference measurements for the vehicle target should come from a representative sample of vehicles

from the B/C segment that were manufactured within five years prior to the publication date of this

document.
General dimensions of the vehicle fleet are given in Annex A.
5.3 Safety considerations

Drivers of the subject vehicle shall not be exposed to any substantial risk of personal injury. The vehicle

target and its components should not cause more than cosmetic damage to the subject vehicle when

struck at a relative velocity of 60 km/h. The conditions specified by the test procedure application shall

be taken into consideration.

NOTE Test procedures for specific applications typically indicate what measures are taken to reduce the

risk of injury and vehicle damage. These measures can include instructions to disable subject vehicle systems

such as supplementary occupant restraints, seatbelt pre-tensioners, vulnerable user protection systems, etc.

5.4 Repairability and robustness

The vehicle target should be easily reassembled or repaired after contacts. Field repairs should be

possible to perform with standard hand tools. The sensor-specific characteristics shall be met also

after re-assembly and repair. The time for reassembly is affected by the handling efficiency of the users

and should be as short as possible. As a guideline the reassembly should be possible with two persons

and should take less than 15 minutes. The target requirements should be fulfilled after at least fifty

crashes with a relative velocity of 60 km/h with a vehicle of category M1.
NOTE 1 This requirement does not apply to disposable and single impact targets.

NOTE 2 Category M1: vehicles designed and constructed for the carriage of passengers and comprising no

more than eight seats in addition to the driver's seat. (Source: UN consolidated resolution R.E.3 and Directive

2007/46/EC).
4 PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 19206-3:2021(E)
5.5 Environmental conditions

The vehicle target shall fulfil all requirements in an ambient temperature range of -5 °C to +40 °C. The

vehicle target shall not deteriorate under storage temperatures in the range of -40 °C to +80 °C when

properly stored.

NOTE The specified temperature range recognises that there are substantial technical challenges achieving

a cost-effective target fulfilling the requirements at lower temperatures than -5 °C.

5.6 Reference coordinate system

The reference coordinate system in this document essentially adopts the coordinate system given in

ISO 8855, adapting it to the purpose of the target vehicle movement. The target coordinate system,

which uses the target axis system located at the target reference point, is shown in Figure 2.

NOTE ψ is the rotation about the Z axis.
t t
Figure 2 — Reference coordinate system
5.7 Speed classes

The following speed classes are applicable according to this document, see Table 1.

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE 5
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 19206-3:2021(E)
Table 1 — Speed classes
Speed class Description
SC50 Operational speed up to 50 km/h (13,9 m/s)
SC80 Operational speed up to 80 km/h (22,2 m/s)
SC80+ Operational speed up to and greater than 80 km/h (22,2 m/s)
6 Vehicle target response to sensing technologies
6.1 General

Requirements related to sensing technologies commonly in use at the time of publication of this

document are listed in 6.2, 6.3 and 6.4. A vehicle target intended for use with a specific set of sensing

technologies only needs to meet the requirements of those technologies.
6.2 Optical requirements
6.2.1 General

Sensors operating on optical principles include CCD and CMOS camera sensors, stereo camera sensors,

photonic mixer devices (PMD) and light detection and ranging (LIDAR). These systems cover visible

and near infrared light frequency spectra. PMD and LIDAR are more reliant on infrared reflectivity of

the target surface.
6.2.2 Reference measurements

When technology-specific measurements are required, information of the type of sensor used,

environmental conditions during measurements, and date of measurement shall be provided with

the description of the vehicle models. The version of the vehicle target and the target carrier shall be

traceable to manufacturing drawings or supplier specifications.
General dimensions of the vehicle fleet are given in Annex A.
6.2.3 Stability of dimensions for optical recognition

Target surface shall not flutter or vibrate unrealistically due to aerodynamic effects for the applicable

speed class and a side wind of up to 5 m/s. Local fluttering should not exceed 10 mm perpendicularly

from the reference surface. Distortion of the vehicle shape should not exceed 25 mm in any direction.

6.2.4 Viewing angles
Main angles for recognition are shown in Figure 3.
6 PROOF/ÉPREUVE © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO 19206-3:2021(E)
Key
1 target reference point
Figure 3 — Viewing angles
6.2.5 Features related to optical requirements

The visual difference between the VT and a passenger vehicle of the B/C segment size should be as

small as possible. The contours of the VT should be representative of a real middle-sized passenger car.

It should demonstrate a high level of symmetry about the x-z plane.

The wheels, consisting of tire and rim, shall be round and of realistic dimensions.

The windows (windscreen, side windows, rear window) should give the impression of being transparent.

The interior of a real car (seat, steering wheel, rear view mirror, driver) may be indicated.

Features representing the rear lights, reflectors, and registration plate are required.

[10]

NOTE General requirements for the size and position of these features are available in 407/2011/EC , UN-

[11] [12] [9]
ECE Regulation 3 , UN-ECE Regulation 48 and FMVSS 108 .

Lighter colours of vehicle targets shall be used. High contrast to background should be considered.

Features necessary for the optical recognition as specified in Annex B shall be followed.

6.3 Radar requirements
6.3.1 Reference measurements of radar properties

At the time of publication of this document, automotive applications of radar are using 24 GHz and

(76 – 81) GHz.
6.3.2 Reference measurements

Reference measurements for the vehicle target should come from a representative sample of vehicles

from the B/C segment that were manufactured within five years prior to the publication date of this

document.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved PROOF/ÉPREUVE 7
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
ISO 19206-3:2021(E)

When technology-specific measurements are required, information of the type of sensor used,

environmental conditions during measurements, and date of measurement shall be provided with

the description of the vehicle models. The version of the vehicle target and the target carrier shall be

traceable to manufacturing drawings or supplier specifications.
6.3.3 Radar cross section, static measurements and requirements
Measurement of radar cross section as described in Annex C shall be followed.
6.3.4 Radar recognition features of vehicle target

Features necessary for radar recognition as specified in Annex C shall be followed.

6.3.5 Stability of dimensions for radar recognition
Local fluttering due to aerodynamic effects
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.