Road vehicles -- Test devices for target vehicles, vulnerable road users and other objects, for assessment of active safety functions

This document specifies performance requirements for surrogate targets used to assess the system detection and activation performance of active safety systems. This document specifies the properties of pedestrian targets that represent an adult or a child in terms of size, shape, reflection properties, etc. for testing purposes. The document addresses the detection requirements for a pedestrian target in terms of sensing technologies commonly in use at the time of publication of this document, and where possible, anticipated future sensing technologies. It also addresses methodologies to verify the target response properties to these sensors, as well as some performance requirements for the target carrier. This document does not address the test procedures in terms of speeds, positions, or timing of events. Performance criteria for the active safety system being evaluated are also not addressed. A related test procedure using pedestrian targets according to this document can be found in ISO 19237.

Véhicules routiers - Dispositifs d'essai pour véhicules cibles, usagers de la route vulnérables et autres objets, pour l'évaluation de fonctions de sécurité active

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Status
Published
Publication Date
26-Nov-2018
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
26-Oct-2018
Completion Date
27-Nov-2018
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ISO 19206-2:2018 - Road vehicles -- Test devices for target vehicles, vulnerable road users and other objects, for assessment of active safety functions
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 19206-2
First edition
2018-12
Road vehicles — Test devices for
target vehicles, vulnerable road users
and other objects, for assessment of
active safety functions —
Part 2:
Requirements for pedestrian targets
Véhicules routiers - Dispositifs d'essai pour véhicules cibles, usagers de
la route vulnérables et autres objets, pour l'évaluation de fonctions de
sécurité active —
Partie 2: Exigences pour cibles de piétons
Reference number
ISO 19206-2:2018(E)
ISO 2018
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 19206-2:2018(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2018

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 19206-2:2018(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Pedestrian target specifications ........................................................................................................................................................... 2

5.1 Pedestrian size ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5.2 Dimensions of the targets .............................................................................................................................................................. 2

5.3 Safety considerations ........................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5.4 Repairability .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.5 Environmental conditions ............................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.6 Postures and articulation ............................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.6.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.6.2 Static posture ...................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.6.3 Articulation posture ...................................................................................................................................................... 4

6 Pedestrian target response to sensing technologies ...................................................................................................... 4

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.2 Optical requirements ......................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.2.2 Reference measurements ......................................................................................................................................... 4

6.2.3 Colours and clothing ..................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.3 Radar requirements ............................................................................................................................................................................ 4

6.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6.3.2 Reference measurements ......................................................................................................................................... 5

6.3.3 Radar cross section measurement of PT ..................................................................................................... 5

6.3.4 Micro-Doppler effect for articulated PT ....................................................................................................... 6

6.4 Thermal requirements for Far IR vision systems ..................................................................................................... 6

6.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6.4.2 Reference measurements ......................................................................................................................................... 6

6.4.3 Thermal characteristics ............................................................................................................................................. 6

6.5 Calibration and verification ......................................................................................................................................................... 7

7 Functional requirements for PT including target carrier system .....................................................................7

7.1 General requirements ....................................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.2 Longitudinal positioning ................................................................................................................................................................ 8

7.2.1 Speed range for operation ....................................................................................................................................... 8

7.2.2 Accelerations ....................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.3 Lateral positioning ............................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.3.2 Yaw angle ................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

7.3.3 Lateral position ................................................................................................................................................................. 8

7.4 Vertical positioning ............................................................................................................................................................................. 8

7.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

7.4.2 Pitch angle ............................................................................................................................................................................. 8

7.4.3 Vertical motions ................................................................................................................................................................ 8

Annex A (normative) Adult and child pedestrian target dimensions and postures ...........................................9

Annex B (normative) Sensor-specific recognition properties ................................................................................................11

Annex C (normative) Pedestrian target measurements and measurement equipment .............................18

Annex D (normative) Pedestrian target articulation properties .........................................................................................23

© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 19206-2:2018(E)

Annex E (informative) Field verification of pedestrian target properties .................................................................30

Annex F (informative) Interface between target carrier and pedestrian target body ...................................31

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................33

iv © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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ISO 19206-2:2018(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www .iso .org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 22, Road vehicles, Subcommittee SC 33,

Vehicle dynamics and chassis components.
A list of all parts in the ISO 19206 series can be found on the ISO website.
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved v
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ISO 19206-2:2018(E)
Introduction

ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance Systems) and Active Safety systems are designed to support

decision-making for the driver, extend the driver’s awareness of the traffic situation with advanced

warnings, improve the behaviour of the vehicle, and even take over vehicle control in an emergency

situation. The goal is to completely avoid an accident or at least reduce the severity of an accident.

Testing of active safety systems requires documentation of test materials, test environment, testing

procedures, and performance criteria. This document series addresses the specification of test target

objects for traffic scenarios representing vehicles, vulnerable road users and other objects in the

forward path of the subject vehicle.
This document addresses the specification of pedestrian test targets.

A pedestrian test target needs to resemble the characteristics of a human, yet provide safety for the

subject vehicle and test operators in the event that contact is made between the subject vehicle and the

pedestrian target. Crashworthiness and durability requirements for the pedestrian target require that

the material and construction of the pedestrian target are adapted to fit the purposes.

Pedestrian test targets may need to represent a range of pedestrian sizes to evaluate the performance

of an active safety system. Test cases may address both stationary and moving targets and, as such, the

physical construction of the target may accommodate a target carrier system capable of mimicking the

motions of a human. This document includes requirements on the target carrier system as applicable.

Targets described in this document series may be used for system development or applied in conjunction

with existing standards, or standards under development, for assessment of ADAS and active safety

functions of vehicles.
vi © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 19206-2:2018(E)
Road vehicles — Test devices for target vehicles,
vulnerable road users and other objects, for assessment of
active safety functions —
Part 2:
Requirements for pedestrian targets
1 Scope

This document specifies performance requirements for surrogate targets used to assess the system

detection and activation performance of active safety systems.

This document specifies the properties of pedestrian targets that represent an adult or a child in terms

of size, shape, reflection properties, etc. for testing purposes. The document addresses the detection

requirements for a pedestrian target in terms of sensing technologies commonly in use at the time

of publication of this document, and where possible, anticipated future sensing technologies. It also

addresses methodologies to verify the target response properties to these sensors, as well as some

performance requirements for the target carrier.

This document does not address the test procedures in terms of speeds, positions, or timing of events.

Performance criteria for the active safety system being evaluated are also not addressed.

A related test procedure using pedestrian targets according to this document can be found in ISO 19237.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 8855:2011, Road vehicles — Vehicle dynamics and road-holding ability — Vocabulary

ISO 8608, Mechanical vibration — Road surface profiles — Reporting of measured data

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 8855:2011 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
3.1
subject vehicle
vehicle with active safety system to be tested
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 19206-2:2018(E)
3.2
pedestrian target
test device representing a pedestrian used to test active safety systems
3.3
target body
physical structure that resembles a human used to activate sensor systems
3.4
target carrier
mechanical system used to move the target body according to a test protocol

Note 1 to entry: It may be a self-propelled platform or external devices connected with cables, beams, or similar

structures.
Note 2 to entry: Target body fixation is included in the target carrier.
3.5
measurement equipment

equipment used to record the position of the pedestrian target relative to the subject vehicle to ensure

that the test protocol is followed within prescribed tolerances and record data documenting the

function of the active safety system and allowing its performance to be assessed
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms
CCD Charge-Coupled Device
FIR Far Infrared
LIDAR Light Detection and Ranging
NIR Near Infrared
PMD Photonic Mixer Device
RCS Radar Cross Section
5 Pedestrian target specifications
5.1 Pedestrian size

The pedestrian targets specified in this document reflect both adults and children. Male and female

attributes are not explicitly defined as the systems being tested should not rely on the sex of the

pedestrian. References for subsequent requirements are based on sample measurements of different

demographics and compiled into categories. The following pedestrian sizes are relevant for this

document:
— Adult: 50 %-ile male (walking mode);
— Child: 6-7 year old (running mode).
5.2 Dimensions of the targets

Annex A and Table A.1 provides the dimensional requirements for walking postures of a 50 %-ile male

adult and running postures of a 6-7 year old child.
2 © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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ISO 19206-2:2018(E)
5.3 Safety considerations

Drivers of the subject vehicle shall not be exposed to any substantial risk of personal injury resulting

from impact of the PT by the SV. The pedestrian target and its components should not cause more than

cosmetic damage to the subject vehicle when struck at a relative velocity of 60 km/h. The conditions

specified by the test procedure application shall be taken into consideration.

NOTE Test procedures for specific applications typically indicate what measures are taken to reduce the

risk of injury and vehicle damage. These measures can include instructions to disable subject vehicle systems

such as supplementary occupant restraints, seatbelt pre-tensioners, vulnerable user protection systems, etc.

EXAMPLE The Euro NCAP AEB VRU test procedure specifies that if a vehicle is equipped with a deployable

pedestrian/VRU protection system, this system must be deactivated before the testing commences.

5.4 Repairability

The pedestrian target should be easily reassembled or repaired after contacts up to a relative speed of

60 km/h. Field repairs should be possible with hand tools. After repair, the target body and/or target

carrier system shall be checked according to 6.5.
NOTE This requirement does not apply to disposable targets.
5.5 Environmental conditions

The pedestrian target shall fulfil all requirements in a temperature range of −5 °C to +40 °C. The

pedestrian target shall not deteriorate under storage temperatures in the range of −20 °C to +80 °C

when properly stored.

NOTE The specified temperature range recognises that there could be substantial technical challenges

achieving a cost-effective target fulfilling the requirements at lower temperatures than −5 °C.

5.6 Postures and articulation
5.6.1 General

Pedestrian target postures can be of static (non-articulated) or articulated type. Articulated targets

equipped with moving legs, and optionally with moving arms, shall demonstrate that the motions are

consistent with standard gait phases (see Figure 1).

The posture of the adult PT shall show an inclination of about 5° from upright (85° from horizontal), see

Annex A, Table A.1 and Figure A.1 a).

The posture of a running child PT is approximately 12° from upright (78° from horizontal), see Annex A,

Table A.1 and Figure A.2 a).
Figure 1 — Gait phases
© ISO 2018 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 19206-2:2018(E)
5.6.2 Static posture

A static adult PT shall represent the walking phase MS. The lateral centre of mass of the target

structure shall lie in-between the feet. The static child PT shall represent an appropriate running phase

corresponding to LR.
5.6.3 Articulation posture

For articulated PTs, leg movement shall be realized in a manner that realistically represents that of a

real pedestrian. Articulation properties as described in Annex D shall be followed.

Since real pedestrians may or may not exhibit arm motion, such arm motion is optional for articulated

PTs. If implemented, they shall also be realized in a manner that realistically represents that of a real

pedestrian.
6 Pedestrian target response to sensing technologies
6.1 General

Requirements related to sensing technologies commonly in use at the time of publication of this

document are given in 6.2, 6.3 and 6.4.

A PT intended for use with a specific set of sensing technologies needs only to meet the requirements of

those technologies.
6.2 Optical requirements
6.2.1 General

Sensors operating on optical principles include CCD and CMOS camera sensors, stereo camera sensors,

Photonic Mixer Devices (PMD) and Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR). These systems cover

visible and near infrared (NIR) light frequency spectra. PMD and LIDAR are more reliant on infrared

reflectivity of the target surface.
6.2.2 Reference measurements

When technology specific measurements are required, information of the type of sensor used,

environmental conditions during measurements, and date of measurement shall be provided with the

description of the pedestrian target. The version of the pedestrian target and the target carrier shall

be traceable to manufacturing drawings or supplier specifications. For more information, see Annex C.

6.2.3 Colours and clothing

Skin surface parts shall be non-reflective and skin-coloured. Hair may be represented by a hairpiece or

integrated in the head design by other means.

For camera-based systems it is recommended to use a long-sleeved t-shirt and trousers in different,

non-reflective, colours. A black t-shirt and blue jeans are recommended. Clothing shall be loose fitting,

but fluttering shall be avoided. Features necessary for the optical recognition as specified in Annex B

shall be followed.
6.3 Radar requirements
6.3.1 General

At the time of publication of this document, automotive applications of radar are using 24 GHz and

76 GHz – 81 GHz.
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ISO 19206-2:2018(E)
6.3.2 Reference measurements

Annex C provides the required reference measurement setups for human subjects to be used for

verification.

When technology specific measurements are required, information of the type of sensor used,

environmental conditions during measurements, and date of measurement shall be provided with the

description of the reference subject(s). The version of the pedestrian target and the target carrier shall

be traceable to manufacturing drawings or supplier specifications.
6.3.3 Radar cross section measurement of PT

The radar reflective characteristics of the pedestrian targets, including the target carrier, should be

comparable to a real pedestrian of the same size. Recommendations on radar properties are given in

Annex B and Annex C.

For every radar frequency relevant for the pedestrian target, a set of RCS (radar cross section)

measurements shall be made. The main steps are as follows:
1) Measurement of pedestrian reference subjects or RCS standard targets;
2) Establishment of boundaries;

3) Verification that the pedestrian target RCS measurements are within the boundaries.

An example of the results of this process is illustrated in Figure 2.
The following scenario is described in C.3.3:

— Static PT approached by moving vehicle or moving fixture, to check for inconsistencies at different

distances and different PT orientation angles.
Key
1 min-max with clothes
2 mean value with clothes
3 min-max nearly without clothes
4 mean value nearly without clothes
X distance (m)
Y RCS (dBsm)

Figure 2 — Radar cross-section measurement, example for adult pedestrians at 76 GHz

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ISO 19206-2:2018(E)
6.3.4 Micro-Doppler effect for articulated PT

Articulation of the PT legs will result in a micro-Doppler effect on the radar reflective characteristics. The

micro-Doppler spread shall be comparable to that of a real pedestrian. In order to ensure a micro-Doppler

effect comparable to human beings the articulation of the legs shall provide the characteristics of D.2

Example of micro-Doppler effect is shown in Figure 3.
Key
X time (s)
Y relative velocity (m/s)

Figure 3 — Example of micro-Doppler effect with boundaries for a crossing pedestrian target

6.4 Thermal requirements for Far IR vision systems
6.4.1 General
Inclusion of passive thermal sensor requirements is optional.

Far Infrared (FIR) vision systems can provide information to active safety systems in conditions of low

light or otherwise limited visibility. A thermal camera detects FIR electromagnetic radiation with a

wavelength in the range of 8 to 14 μm. Imaging is provided by means of an appropriate camera.

6.4.2 Reference measurements

When technology specific measurements are required, information of the type of sensor used,

environmental conditions during measurements, and date of measurement shall be provided with

the description of the reference subject(s). The version of the pedestrian target and the target carrier

system shall be traceable to manufacturing drawings or supplier specifications.
6.4.3 Thermal characteristics

Pedestrian targets commonly in use at the time of publication of this document do not feature human-

specific FIR characteristics. Developers of pedestrian targets that incorporate such characteristics

should ensure that the characteristics of the pedestrian targets are comparable to a real pedestrian of

the same size.

Characterization of these properties should follow the same main steps as described in clause 6.3.3:

1) Measurement of pedestrian reference subjects;
2) Establishment of boundaries;

3) Verification that the pedestrian target FIR measurements are within the boundaries.

6 © ISO 2018 – All rights reserved
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ISO 19206-2:2018(E)
6.5 Calibration and verification

The pedestrian target manufacturer shall provide a certificate detailing which test information has

been used to verify the product performance and which sensor technologies it conforms to.

Calibration shall be based on representative characteristics of the applied detection technology as

described in 6.2, 6.3 and 6.4, and the related Annexes.
For field verification of PT functionality, see Annex E.
7 Functional requirements for PT including target carrier system
7.1 General requirements

The target carrier system shall be capable of positioning the target within tolerances required by the

different test procedures. Repeatable test performance requires that subject vehicle and pedestrian

target relative speed and position shall be consistent between test repetitions. Unless more stringent

requirements are needed by a specific test procedure, the positioning requirements outlined in this

clause are the minimum requirements for the pedestrian target. Recommendations for measurement

equipment are given in Annex C.

The following requirements and recommendations apply to the target carrier system:

— All visible parts of the target carrier system should be transparent or coloured to minimize the

contrast with background, e.g. grey, to approximate the test area road surface. In case of a uniform

background the colour shade of the background can be used;

— Visible parts of the target carrier system should be non-reflective to light sources, e.g. headlamps

during low natural light conditions;
...

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