Environmental management for concrete and concrete structures — Part 1: General principles

1 Scope This part of ISO 13315 provides a framework and basic rules on environmental management related to concrete and concrete structures. This includes the assessment of the environmental impacts and methods of implementing environmental improvement based on the assessment. This part of ISO 13315 is used when assessing the environmental impacts and implementing the environmental management of concrete and concrete structures for the environmental consideration in activities related to the production of concrete constituents, the production, recycling and disposal of concrete, and the design, execution, use and demolition of concrete structures. It is applied for their entire lifecycles, respective stages of the lifecycles, or certain ranges of the lifecycles. This part of ISO 13315 is relevant to newly produced concrete and newly constructed concrete structures, and also existing concrete and concrete structures. This part of ISO 13315 applies not only to single concretes but also to concrete families and not only to single concrete structures but also to concrete structure complexes. For materials other than concrete, the related ISO standards are applied where available. In the case where no ISO standard is available, such materials are appropriately dealt with referring to this part of ISO 13315 and the normative references. The environments covered by this part of ISO 13315 include global, regional and local environments. The indoor pollution of buildings and the environments for workers in concrete producing plants and on concrete structure construction sites are not specifically covered by this part of ISO 13315. This part of ISO 13315 does not directly deal with the environmental impacts resulting from the operation of equipment installed in concrete structures. However, the special properties of concrete and concrete structures affecting the operational efficiency of such equipment are considered in this part of ISO 13315. This part of ISO 13315 covers secondary effects of the production of concrete and execution of concrete structures. This part of ISO 13315 may also cover the economic and social effects of environmental consideration in the production of concrete and execution of concrete structures. NOTE 1 ISO 16814 is available for reference as a standard for the indoor pollution of buildings. NOTE 2 The working environments of plants and construction sites are generally prescribed by industrial safety and health laws. NOTE 3 In buildings, global warming substances are mainly emitted from energy consumption due to the operation of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning equipment. NOTE 4 The beneficial effects such as thermal mass and other functions of concrete and concrete structures may be taken into account. NOTE 5 The secondary effects of the production of concrete include the future possibility of leaching of heavy metals from concrete or the absorption of heavy metals from the environment, the effect of waste treatments on the environment, etc.

Management environnemental du béton et des structures en béton — Partie 1: Principes généraux

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Status
Published
Publication Date
12-Feb-2012
Current Stage
9092 - International Standard to be revised
Start Date
10-Oct-2017
Completion Date
19-Nov-2020
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 13315-1
First edition
2012-02-15
Environmental management for concrete
and concrete structures —
Part 1:
General principles
Management environnemental du béton et des structures en béton —
Partie 1: Principes généraux
Reference number
ISO 13315-1:2012(E)
ISO 2012
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 13315-1:2012(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2012

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s

member body in the country of the requester.
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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 13315-1:2012(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................................ v

1 Scope ...................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ......................................................................................................................................... 2

3 Terms and definitions ......................................................................................................................................... 2

4 General framework .............................................................................................................................................. 3

4.1 General ................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4.2 Phases in the lifecycle ....................................................................................................................................... 4

4.3 Environmental impact categories ................................................................................................................... 4

4.4 Analysis ................................................................................................................................................................. 5

4.5 Design phase ........................................................................................................................................................ 6

4.6 Production/execution phase ............................................................................................................................ 7

4.7 Use phase .............................................................................................................................................................. 7

4.8 End of life phase .................................................................................................................................................. 8

4.9 Labels and declaration ....................................................................................................................................... 9

Annex A (informative) Phases and environmental impact factors to be considered in lifecycle of

concrete and concrete structures .................................................................................................................10

Bibliography .....................................................................................................................................................................14

© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 13315-1:2012(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the International

Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 13315-1 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 71, Concrete, reinforced concrete and pre-stressed

concrete, Subcommittee SC 8, Environmental management for concrete and concrete structures.

ISO 13315 consists of the following parts, under the general title Environmental management for concrete and

concrete structures:
— Part 1: General principles
A Part 2 on system boundary and inventory data is under preparation.
iv © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 13315-1:2012(E)
Introduction

Environmental issues are now grave subjects for the human race. Fortunately, mankind has clearly recognized

the nature of the problem and created the concept of “sustainable development,” which can be regarded as an

environmental revolution. This concept means development that meets the needs of not only the present but

also future generations without endangering the natural systems that support life on Earth, the atmosphere,

the waters, the soils, and the living things, and at the same time acknowledging that global economic growth is

a basis for future global welfare. The incorporation of the concept of sustainability is required in every aspect

of social, economic, and cultural activities. The construction industry, which consumes enormous amounts of

resources and energy to provide the infrastructure for the diversified activities of mankind, has a strong impact

on the environment.

ISO has already published the ISO 14000 series on environmental management for goods and services as a

system for improving the impact on the environment. This series of International Standards provides general

rules for assessing the impact on the environment, as well as for environmental labels/declaration based

on such an assessment. Meanwhile, ISO 15686-6 and ISO 21930 were formulated to tailor this series to

structures. Whereas the former provides a basic framework for the procedures of environmental consideration

for buildings and constructed assets, the latter presents a framework for environmental declaration in regard

to building products.

Concrete is widely used as one of the key materials for constructing infrastructures such as buildings, bridges,

dams, tunnels, etc., with its consumption being the second largest on the planet after water. While construction

activities using concrete naturally entail adverse environmental impacts, they also provide environmental

beneficial impacts. Improved infrastructures alleviate traffic congestion and prevent natural disasters. Also,

the development of compact cities may control the expansion of adverse environmental impacts. Industrial

wastes and byproducts from other industries are used as materials, fuels, and supplementary materials

for producing cement. Accurate assessment of environmental impacts is therefore essential for minimizing

adverse environmental impacts derived from construction activities using concrete while maximizing beneficial

environmental impacts.

Concrete structures consume large amounts of aggregates, cement and steel, which emit large amounts

of CO in their production processes. Concrete utilizes industrial waste and byproducts, and uses different

aggregates in different regions. Concrete is delivered to the construction site in the form of partially finished

products. Concrete structures are built in a wide variety of forms with specific requirements, used in various

environments for a long time, and demolished, recycled and disposed of in various forms. The ISO 13315

series of standards is intended to provide the basic rules on environmental management for concrete and

concrete structures having such characteristics. It is also intended to contribute to continued improvement of

the environmental impacts resulting from the activities related to concrete and concrete structures. This series

ensures consistency with the existing environmental ISO 14000 series, as well as ISO 15686-6 and ISO 21930.

Figure 1 shows the relationship between the ISO 13315 series of standards, including those to be established

in the future, and other existing ISO standards. Figure 2 shows the basic framework of the ISO 13315 series

of standards.

The ISO 13315 series of standards covers all people involved in concrete and concrete structures: owners,

designers, concrete manufacturers, constructors, users, certification bodies, and those who develop

environmental standard specifications.
© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved v
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ISO 13315-1:2012(E)
ISO 14020: Environmental labels and declarations — General principles

ISO 14021: Environmental labels and declarations — Self-declared environmental claims (Type II environmental labelling)

ISO 14024: Environmental labels and declarations — Type I environmental labelling — Principles and procedures

ISO 14025: Environmental labels and declarations — Type III environmental declarations — Principles and procedures

ISO 14031: Environmental management — Environmental performance evaluation — Guidelines

ISO 14040: Environmental management — Life cycle assessment — Principles and framework

ISO 14044: Environment management — Life cycle assessment — Requirements and guidelines

ISO 14050: Environmental management — Vocabulary
Other related ISO 14000 series standards
ISO 15686-6: Buildings and constructed assets —
ISO 21930: Sustainability in building construction —
Service life planning — Part 6: Procedures for
Environmental declaration of building products
considering environmental impacts
ISO 21931-1: Sustainability in building construction —
Framework for methods of assessment of the
environmental performance of construction works —
Part 1: Buildings
ISO 13315-1: Environmental management for concrete and concrete structures
Part 1: General principles

Figure 1 — Relationship between the ISO 13315 series of standards and other existing ISO

environmental standards
General principles
(Part 1)
Design phase Production/Execution phase Use phase End of life phase
Constituents
Concrete production
Execution
Inspection
Verification
Analysis Labels and declaration
Figure 2 — Basic framework of the ISO 13315 series of standards
vi © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 13315-1:2012(E)
Environmental management for concrete and concrete
structures —
Part 1:
General principles
1 Scope

This part of ISO 13315 provides a framework and basic rules on environmental management related to

concrete and concrete structures. This includes the assessment of the environmental impacts and methods of

implementing environmental improvement based on the assessment.

This part of ISO 13315 is used when assessing the environmental impacts and implementing the environmental

management of concrete and concrete structures for the environmental consideration in activities related to

the production of concrete constituents, the production, recycling and disposal of concrete, and the design,

execution, use and demolition of concrete structures. It is applied for their entire lifecycles, respective stages of

the lifecycles, or certain ranges of the lifecycles. This part of ISO 13315 is relevant to newly produced concrete

and newly constructed concrete structures, and also existing concrete and concrete structures.

This part of ISO 13315 applies not only to single concretes but also to concrete families and not only to single

concrete structures but also to concrete structure complexes. For materials other than concrete, the related

ISO standards are applied where available. In the case where no ISO standard is available, such materials are

appropriately dealt with referring to this part of ISO 13315 and the normative references.

The environments covered by this part of ISO 13315 include global, regional and local environments. The

indoor pollution of buildings and the environments for workers in concrete producing plants and on concrete

structure construction sites are not specifically covered by this part of ISO 13315. This part of ISO 13315 does

not directly deal with the environmental impacts resulting from the operation of equipment installed in concrete

structures. However, the special properties of concrete and concrete structures affecting the operational

efficiency of such equipment are considered in this part of ISO 13315.

This part of ISO 13315 covers secondary effects of the production of concrete and execution of concrete structures.

This part of ISO 13315 may also cover the economic and social effects of environmental consideration in the

production of concrete and execution of concrete structures.

NOTE 1 ISO 16814 is available for reference as a standard for the indoor pollution of buildings.

NOTE 2 The working environments of plants and construction sites are generally prescribed by industrial safety

and health laws.

NOTE 3 In buildings, global warming substances are mainly emitted from energy consumption due to the operation of

heating, ventilating and air-conditioning equipment.

NOTE 4 The beneficial effects such as thermal mass and other functions of concrete and concrete structures may be

taken into account.

NOTE 5 The secondary effects of the production of concrete include the future possibility of leaching of heavy metals from

concrete or the absorption of heavy metals from the environment, the effect of waste treatments on the environment, etc.

© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 13315-1:2012(E)
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document

(including any amendments) applies.
ISO 14050, Environmental management — Vocabulary
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 14050 and the following apply.

3.1
byproduct
secondary substances produced by an industrial process
3.2
client’s brief

working document which specifies at any point in time the relevant needs and aims, resources of the client and

user, the context of the project and any appropriate design requirements
3.3
concrete demolition material
material generated in demolition of concrete structures
3.4
ecosystem
system of interrelations among nature, animals and human beings
3.5
environmental monetary cost
costs necessary to fulfill environmental requirements
3.6
environmental design
design of a structure in which environmental impacts are considered
3.7
environmental impact

any change, which may be adverse or beneficial, to the environment, wholly or partially resulting from concrete-

related activities
3.8
environmental performance

quantitative or qualitative results of environmental influence from activities related to concrete and concrete structures

3.9
execution

all activities carried out for the physical completion of the work, and the inspection and documentation thereof

EXAMPLE Procurement, scaffolding, formwork, reinforcing, concreting, curing, erection of precast elements, etc.

3.10
global environment

environment that is affected by global climate change, ozone depletion, changes in ecosystems, resource use

and other factors on a global scale
3.11
inspection

examination to determine whether environmental performance attained in a product or an activity satisfies

specified requirements
2 © ISO 2012 – All rights reserved
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ISO 13315-1:2012(E)
3.12
local environment

environment that is affected by noise, vibration, dust and other factors in a built environment

3.13
regional environment

environment that is affected by air pollution, soil contamination, or water pollution on an intermediate scale

EXAMPLE City, province and country.
3.14
sustainability

state in which components of the ecosystem and their functions are maintained for present and future generations

NOTE 1 Sustainability is the goal of sustainable development and can result from the application of the concept of

sustainable development.

NOTE 2 “Components of the ecosystem” includes plants and animals, as well as humans and their physical environment.

For humans, this includes a balancing of key elements of human needs: the economic, environmental, social and cultural

conditions for societies’ existence.
3.15
soil contamination
phenomenon in which soil is polluted by deleterious substances
3.16
verification

process to check whether environmental performances estimated in a product or an activity satisfy

specified requirements
3.17
waste

unusable substances emitted from activities related to concrete and concrete structures

3.18
water pollution
phenomenon in which water is polluted by deleterious substances
4 General framework
4.1 General

The concept of sustainability through environmental management shall be considered in various activities

related to the production of concrete and execution of concrete structures. In addition to the environmental

aspect, sustainability has economic and social aspects which influence one another. Consideration of the

environmental aspect may relate to the economic aspect such as environmental monetary cost. Consideration

of the environmental aspect may relate to the social aspect, which involves issues of intergenerational ethics,

such as securement of the quality of society and life, inheritance of tradition and culture, and consensus

building for preserving ecosystems. The economic and social aspects of environmental consideration should

therefore be clearly recognized in activities related to the production of concrete and execution of concrete

structures, and these aspects may be appropriately considered based on the required priorities.

Environmental management of concrete and concrete structures shall be implemented with the aim of

minimizing the adverse environmental impacts and maximizing the beneficial environmental impacts.

The objects of environmental management shall include the environmental impacts generated in the entire

lifecycle of concrete and concrete structures or its phases including design, production, execution, use and

end of life phase.

The basic flow of environmental management for concrete and concrete structures is shown in Figure 3.

Environmental management shall be carried out with the Plan-Do-Check-Act process at the respective phases

© ISO 2012 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 13315-1:2012(E)

of the concrete structures or through the lifecycle. This includes determining or confirming the types and values

of environmental performance requirements; analysing the environmental performance of concrete, concrete

structures and related activities, and verifying that the environmental performances satisfy or dissatisfy the

required values; inspecting actual environmental performance during the respective phases or after them; and

taking appropriate measures in the event of problems. The activities and their results shall be documented and

the documents shall be stored.
General principles
Use phase
Design phase Production/Execution phase End of life phase
- Operation
- Constituents - Demolition
- Maintenance
- Concrete production - Reuse
- Remedial activities
- Execution - Recycle
- Disposal
Verification
Inspection
Analysis
Labels and declaration
- System boundary
- Inventory data
- Category indicators

Figure 3 — Basic flow of environmental management for concrete and concrete structures

4.2 Phases in the lifecycle
The lifecycle of concrete and
...

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