Environmental management for concrete and concrete structures

This document provides the principles and procedures of environmental management for maintenance/remedial activities of concrete structures, and environmental management during the operation of concrete structures. When the environmental design of a concrete structure is to be carried out based on ISO 13315‑4, this document provides detailed information on the design for its use stage.

Management environnemental du béton et des structures en béton

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Status
Published
Publication Date
05-Sep-2019
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
16-Aug-2019
Completion Date
06-Sep-2019
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ISO 13315-6:2019 - Environmental management for concrete and concrete structures
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 13315-6
First edition
2019-09
Environmental management for
concrete and concrete structures —
Part 6:
Use of concrete structures
Reference number
ISO 13315-6:2019(E)
ISO 2019
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ISO 13315-6:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 13315-6:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Principles and procedures for environmental management related to

maintenance/remedial activities of concrete structures .......................................................................................... 3

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Maintenance of concrete structures ..................................................................................................................................... 3

5.3 Remedial activities for concrete structures ................................................................................................................... 3

5.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.3.2 Client briefing ..................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.3.3 Setting of environmental performance requirements .................................................................... 6

5.3.4 Design ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

5.3.5 Estimation.............................................................................................................................................................................. 7

5.3.6 Verification ............................................................................................................................................................................ 7

5.3.7 Execution and related works ................................................................................................................................. 8

5.3.8 Inspection .............................................................................................................................................................................. 8

5.3.9 Documentation .................................................................................................................................................................. 8

6 Principles and procedures for environmental management during operation of

concrete structures ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.2 Client briefing .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.3 Setting of environmental performance requirements .......................................................................................10

6.3.1 Selection of impact categories...........................................................................................................................10

6.3.2 Setting of indicators ...................................................................................................................................................10

6.3.3 Setting of environmental performance requirements for indicators ..............................10

6.4 Design ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.4.1 New concrete structures ........................................................................................................................................11

6.4.2 Existing concrete structures ...............................................................................................................................11

6.5 Estimation ................................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.5.1 New concrete structures ........................................................................................................................................11

6.5.2 Existing concrete structures ...............................................................................................................................11

6.6 Verification ..............................................................................................................................................................................................12

6.7 Execution and related works ...................................................................................................................................................12

6.8 Inspection .................................................................................................................................................................................................12

6.9 Documentation ....................................................................................................................................................................................12

Annex A (informative) Example of indicators for the environmental management .......................................13

Annex B (informative) Examples of environmental consideration during operation ...................................17

Annex C (informative) Example of environmental design of concrete structures during

operation (Use of void slabs) ................................................................................................................................................................18

Annex D (informative) Example of environmental retrofitting using concrete masonry unit ..............21

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................26

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 13315-6:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso

.org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 71, Concrete, reinforced concrete and pre-

stressed concrete, Subcommittee SC 8, Environmental management for concrete and concrete structures.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
A list of all parts in the ISO 13315 series can be found on the ISO website.
iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 13315-6:2019(E)
Introduction

With their extremely long period of use and large size compared with other industrial products,

concrete structures undergo damage and deterioration during this period due to a variety of mechanical

and environmental actions. Maintenance/remedial activities are therefore carried out during this

period of use to maintain their functions and performances. Remedial activities can also be carried out

to enhance their functions and performances to adapt to changes in the social circumstances. These

activities cause environmental impacts, such as input of resources including repair materials and fuels,

greenhouse gas emissions including CO , and waste disposal including construction wastewater and

concrete rubble. Therefore, environmental management related to maintenance/remedial activities

during the period of use of concrete structures is necessary.

For a concrete building, the energy consumed during the period of its use is known to be greater than

the energy consumed for activities such as the production of raw materials, production/transportation

of concrete, and construction/demolition of the building. Energy consumption for air conditioning,

lighting, etc., and the concomitant emission of greenhouse gas are particularly enormous. Though the

ISO 13315 series does not directly cover energy efficiency of air conditioning and lighting equipment,

it covers the case where reduction in the environmental impacts, such as reduction of energy

consumption, is achieved by utilizing the properties of concrete. This include, for instance, mitigation

of room temperature changes by the thermal mass property of concrete. It also includes the use of

pervious concrete to suppress the heat island phenomenon, which reduces the energy consumption

for air conditioning, with the concomitant reduction in the emission of greenhouse gas. On the other

hand, hazardous substances can leach or radiate from concrete during the period of use of concrete

structures. Therefore, appropriate management of such various environmental influences generated

during the period of use of concrete structures is also necessary.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 13315-6:2019(E)
Environmental management for concrete and concrete
structures —
Part 6:
Use of concrete structures
1 Scope

This document provides the principles and procedures of environmental management for maintenance/

remedial activities of concrete structures, and environmental management during the operation of

concrete structures.

When the environmental design of a concrete structure is to be carried out based on ISO 13315-4, this

document provides detailed information on the design for its use stage.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 13315-1, Environmental management for concrete and concrete structures — Part 1: General principles

ISO 13315-2, Environmental management for concrete and concrete structures — Part 2: System boundary

and inventory data

ISO 13315-4, Environmental management for concrete and concrete structures — Part 4: Environmental

design of concrete structures

ISO 14040, Environmental management — Life cycle assessment — Principles and framework

ISO 14050, Environmental management — Vocabulary
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 13315-1, ISO 13315-2,

ISO 13315-4, ISO 14040 and ISO 14050 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
3.1
maintenance

light work carried out to maintain the functions and performances of concrete and concrete structures

Note 1 to entry: Maintenance includes visual inspection on foot or by car and investigations for diagnosis.

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ISO 13315-6:2019(E)
3.2
remedial activity

construction work carried out to maintain or enhance the functions and performances of concrete and

concrete structures

Note 1 to entry: Remedial activities include repair, rehabilitation, refurbishment, renewal, renovation,

retrofitting, strengthening, and protection against corrosive agents.
3.3
target remedial activity
remedial activity (3.2) for which environmental consideration is given
3.4
reference remedial activity

conventional standard remedial activity (3.2) having the same purpose as the target remedial activity

(3.3) to be used for comparison in environmental management related to remedial activity

3.5
target concrete structure
target structure
concrete structure for which environmental consideration is given
3.6
reference concrete structure
reference structure

standard (concrete) structure having the same structural and durability aspects as a target concrete

structure (3.5) or an existing (concrete) structure prior to environmental improvement, to be used for

comparison in environmental management related to operation of concrete structures

4 Symbols
Symbols used in this document are as follows:
expected or attained environmental performance of the target remedial
P (i)
trem
activity expressed as a function of indicator i;
expected environmental performance of the target remedial activity
Pi()
expressed as a function of indicator i;
trem
attained environmental performance of the target remedial activity
Pi()
expressed as a function of indicator i;
trem
environmental performance of the reference remedial activity expressed
P (i)
rrem
as a function of indicator i;
environmental performance requirement of the remedial activity
S (i)
rem
expressed as a function of indicator i;
reduction amount of environmental impact of the target remedial activity
Ri()
in comparison with the reference remedial activity;
trem
reduction rate of environmental impact of the target remedial activity in
Ri()
comparison with the reference remedial activity;
trem
expected or attained environmental performance of the target (concrete)
P (i)
tco
structure during operation expressed as a function of indicator i;
expected environmental performance of the target (concrete) structure
Pi()
during operation expressed as a function of indicator i;
tco
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ISO 13315-6:2019(E)
attained environmental performance of the target (concrete) structure
Pi()
during operation expressed as a function of indicator i;
tco
environmental performance of the reference (concrete) structure
P (i)
rco
expressed as a function of indicator i;
environmental performance requirement of the (concrete) structure
S (i)
during operation expressed as a function of indicator i;
reduction amount of environmental impact of the target (concrete)
structure during operation in comparison with the reference (concrete)
Ri()
tco
structure;
reduction rate of environmental impact of the target (concrete) structure
Ri()
during operation in comparison with the reference (concrete) structure;
tco
reduction rate of environmental impact in consideration of both remedial
Ri()
trem_tco activity and operation of the structure.
5 Principles and procedures for environmental management related to
maintenance/remedial activities of concrete structures
5.1 General

This clause provides the principles and procedures to appropriately carry out environmental

management for maintenance works and various construction works related to remedial activities.

NOTE See ISO 16311-1 regarding general principles of maintenance and remedial activities.

5.2 Maintenance of concrete structures

Since environmental impacts due to maintenance works are generally small, environmental

management can be simplified by either of the following methods:

a) for maintenance works that are repeated on a routine basis, carry out environmental management

by taking up a typical set of works and in consideration of the number of times and frequency;

b) for maintenance works that scarcely generate environmental impacts, exclude these works from

the subject of environmental management with clear documentation.

NOTE 1 Works that are repeated on a routine basis include, for instance, regular visual inspection by car.

NOTE 2 Works that scarcely generate environmental impacts include, for instance, routine looking-around

on foot.
5.3 Remedial activities for concrete structures
5.3.1 General

Environmental management of remedial activities shall be conducted appropriately in accordance with

the following procedure:
a) client briefing (see 5.3.2);
b) setting of environmental performance requirements (see 5.3.3);
c) design (see 5.3.4);
d) estimation (see 5.3.5);
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ISO 13315-6:2019(E)
e) verification (see 5.3.6);
f) execution and related works (see 5.3.7);
g) inspection (see 5.3.8);
h) documentation (see 5.3.9).
Figure 1 shows the flow chart of the procedure.
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ISO 13315-6:2019(E)
Figure 1 — Procedure for environmental management of remedial activities
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ISO 13315-6:2019(E)
5.3.2 Client briefing

A client brief shall be formulated regarding the environmental aspect required for the target remedial

activities in consideration of the social and economic aspects.
NOTE See ISO 16311-2 regarding assessment of concrete structure.
5.3.3 Setting of environmental performance requirements
5.3.3.1 Selection of impact categories

Based on the client brief, the impact categories to be considered shall be selected from among the

following items:
— global climate change;
— natural resources use;
— stratospheric ozone level;
— land use/habitat alteration;
— eutrophication;
— acidification;
— air pollution;
— water pollution;
— soil contamination;
— pollution due to radioactive substances;
— impacts due to waste generation;
— noise/vibration;
— environmental impact improvement.

NOTE ISO 14040 and ISO 14044 serve as references for selecting impact categories.

5.3.3.2 Setting of indicators
Appropriate indicators shall be set for each category selected.

The reduction amount of environmental impact or the reduction rate of environmental impact of the

target remedial activity in comparison with the reference remedial activity may be used as an indicator.

The environmental performance of the reference remedial activity shall be appropriately estimated.

NOTE ISO 21929-1, ISO/TS 21929-2, ISO 21931-1 and Annex A serve as references for setting indicators.

5.3.3.3 Setting of environmental performance requirements for indicators
An environmental performance requirement shall be set for each indicator.
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ISO 13315-6:2019(E)

The environmental performance requirements shall be quantitatively set in the form of upper limits,

lower limits, or ranges, when the indicators are expressible in numerals.

NOTE The reduction amount of environmental impact of the target remedial activity, Ri() , refers to

trem

the difference between the environmental performance of the reference remedial activity and the expected or

attained environmental performance of the target remedial activity. It is defined as Formula (1).

Ri()=−Pi() Pi() (1)
trem rremtrem

The reduction rate of environmental impact of the target remedial activity, Ri() , refers to the ratio

trem

of the reduction of the environmental impact, Ri() , to the environmental performance of the

trem
reference remedial activity. It is defined as Formula (2).
Pi()−Pi()
r rremtrem
Ri()= (2)
trem
Pi()
rrem
5.3.4 Design

Remedial activities shall be designed to meet the environmental performance requirements set in 5.3.3.

Methods to ensure the required environmental performance include, for instance, the following:

a) selection of products, resources, and formwork/false work with low environmental impact (for

example, adopt alternative products/methods, optimize the transportation routes, etc.);

b) selection of energy sources with low environmental impact (for example, adopt renewable energy

sources);

c) selection of machinery/equipment with low environmental impact (for example, adopt hybrid

heavy machinery);
d) appropriate control/disposal of substances discharged on the site;

e) application of appropriate soundproof/vibration-proof measures (for example, install

soundproof walls).
NOTE See ISO 16311-3 regarding design of remedial activities.
5.3.5 Estimation

Each of the expected environmental performances of the remedial activity designed in 5.3.4 shall be

estimated.
5.3.6 Verification

Verification shall be made as to whether or not each of the expected environmental performances,

estimated in 5.3.5, meets the performance requirements set in 5.3.3. If any of the expected

environmental performances fails to meet the performance requirements, then re-design shall be

conducted by returning to 5.3.4. If the re-design fails to meet the requirements, the environmental

performance requirements shall be reviewed by returning to 5.3.3. If the re-design fails to meet the

reviewed environmental performance requirements, client briefing shall be carried out again by

returning to 5.3.2.

When it is impossible to formulate and execute environmental design that meets the environmental

performance requirements, the project can be cancelled.
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ISO 13315-6:2019(E)
5.3.7 Execution and related works

Construction works shall be carried out based on the design of the remedial activity, and necessary

data shall be acquired. Based on the acquired data, each of the attained environmental performances of

the remedial activity shall be confirmed.
NOTE See ISO 16311-4 regarding execution of remedial activities.
5.3.8 Inspection

Inspection shall be conducted as to whether or not the attained environmental performances meet

the environmental performance requirements. If the performances fail to meet the requirements, the

causes shall be analysed to contribute to the improvement of remedial activities in the future.

5.3.9 Documentation

All information related to the environmental management of remedial activities shall be recorded

regardless of the results of verification and inspection, and the record shall be stored by the designer of

remedial activities and the owner of the concrete structure for the required period.

Information related to the environmental management of remedial activities should preferably be used

to help the planning of similar projects.
6 Principles and procedures for environmental management during operation
of concrete structures
6.1 General

This clause provides the principles and procedures to appropriately carry out the environmental

management during the operation of concrete structures.

Environmental management during the operation of concrete structures shall appropriately be

conducted in accordance with the following procedure:
a) client briefing (see 6.2);
b) setting of environmental performance requirements (see 6.3);
c) design (see 6.4);
d) estimation (see 6.5);
e) verification (see 6.6);
f) execution and related works (see 6.7);
g) inspection (see 6.8);
h) documentation (see 6.9).
Figure 2 shows the flow chart of the procedure.
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ISO 13315-6:2019(E)

Figure 2 — Procedure for environmental management during operation of concrete structures

6.2 Client briefing

A client brief shall be formulated regarding the environmental aspect related to the intended functions

of concrete and concrete structures during their operation, in consideration of the social and economic

aspects.

NOTE 1 The use of concrete and concrete structure has negative and beneficial environmental impacts during

their operation.

— Negative impacts include, for instance, emission of ammonia, radiation of radioactive radon contained in

aggregate, and leaching of heavy metals from underground concrete structures in an environment with a

constant stream of groundwater.
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ISO 13315-6:2019(E)

— Beneficial impacts include, for instance, reductions in the consumption of fuels for air conditioning and

emission of greenhouse gas by utilizing the thermal mass effect of concrete, water purification and suppression

of the heat island phenomenon by utilizing pervious concrete, and reduction in CO in the atmosphere due to

concrete carbonation.

NOTE 2 Annex B serves as a reference for methods of environmental consideration for concrete and concrete

structures in operation.
6.3 Setting of environmental performance requirements
6.3.1 Selection of impact categories

Based on the client brief, the impact categories to be considered shall be selected from among the

following items:
— global climate change;
— natural resources use;
— stratospheric ozone level;
— land use/habitat alteration;
— eutrophication;
— acidification;
— air pollution;
— water pollution;
— soil contamination;
— pollution due to radioactive substances;
— impacts due to waste generation;
— noise/vibration;
— environmental impact improvement.

NOTE ISO 14040 and ISO 14044 serve as references for selecting impact categories.

6.3.2 Setting of indicators
Appropriate indicators shall be set for each category selected.

The reduction amount of environmental impact or the reduction rate of environmental impact of the

target (concrete) structure in comparison with the reference (concrete) structure may be used as an

indicator.

NOTE ISO 21929-1, ISO/TS 21929-2, ISO 21931-1 and Annex A serve as references for setting indicators.

6.3.3 Setting of environmental performance requirements for in
...

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