Information technology for learning, education and training -- Reference framework of e-Portfolio information

This document specifies a reference framework of e-Portfolio implementation that can be used to inform and support development of ITLET systems that meet the requirements of learners, instructors, e-learning service providers and others in contexts such as K-12 education, higher education, training and personal development. The reference framework identifies content and functional components that support e-Portfolio systems. It addresses interoperability issues required for data exchange between these components and among the various categories. This document: — provides an e-Portfolio reference framework; — provides descriptions of e-Portfolios in terms of components (content or functional), categories, elements and items; — identifies commonalities of current implementations of e-Portfolios; and, — represents the needs of stakeholders (learners, instructors, etc.). This document does not include: — in-depth technical review of issues related to adaptability to culture, language, and human functions; — security techniques related to the protection of privacy information; — authentication of the identity of an IT or ITLET system user; — how e-Portfolios might integrate with ITLET systems; and, — specific requirements of e-Portfolios or e-Portfolio systems to meet jurisdictional domain requirements.

Technologies de l'information pour l'apprentissage, l'éducation et la formation -- Cadre de référence pour l'information des e-Portfolios

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Publication Date
14-Oct-2020
Current Stage
5060 - Close of voting Proof returned by Secretariat
Start Date
17-Sep-2020
Completion Date
17-Sep-2020
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INTERNATIONAL ISO/IEC
STANDARD 20013
First edition
2020-10
Information technology for learning,
education and training — Reference
framework of e-Portfolio information
Technologies de l'information pour l'apprentissage, l'éducation et la
formation — Cadre de référence pour l'information des e-Portfolios
Reference number
ISO/IEC 20013:2020(E)
ISO/IEC 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 20013:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC 20013:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Abbreviated terms .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 4

5 e-Portfolios and e-learning ........................................................................................................................................................................ 4

5.1 Role of e-Portfolios .............................................................................................................................................................................. 4

5.2 Classifying e-Portfolios .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

5.3 Benefits of e-Portfolios ..................................................................................................................................................................... 6

6 Reference framework of e-Portfolio information .............................................................................................................. 7

6.1 Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2 Content and functional components of an e-Portfolio .......................................................................................... 7

6.3 Common categories found in e-Portfolios ....................................................................................................................... 8

6.4 Content component structure .................................................................................................................................................10

6.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................10

6.4.2 Identification category ........................................................................................................................................... ..11

6.4.3 Overview category .................. .................................................... .................................................................................12

6.4.4 Education category .....................................................................................................................................................12

6.4.5 Career category ..............................................................................................................................................................12

6.4.6 Outcome category ........................................................................................................................................................12

6.4.7 Capability category .....................................................................................................................................................13

6.4.8 Experience category ..................................................................................................................................................13

6.4.9 Relationships between categories, elements and items .............................................................13

6.5 Functional component of e-Portfolio systems ..........................................................................................................14

Annex A (informative) Use cases of e-Portfolio ......................................................................................................................................16

Annex B (informative) Use cases of e-Portfolio ......................................................................................................................................34

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................37

© ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/IEC 20013:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical

Commission) form the specialized system for worldwide standardization. National bodies that

are members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through

technical committees established by the respective organization to deal with particular fields of

technical activity. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other

international organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also

take part in the work.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for

the different types of document should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject

of patent rights. ISO and IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights. Details of any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the

Introduction and/or on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents) or the IEC

list of patent declarations received (see https:// patents .iec .ch).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology,

Subcommittee SC 36, Information technology for learning, education and training.

This first edition cancels and replaces ISO/IEC TS 20013:2015, which has been technically revised.

The main changes compared to ISO/IEC TS 20013:2015 are as follows:

— notes to entry have been added to terms 3.3 and 3.8 providing examples of the use of artefacts;

— acknowledgement is given that the term artefact may be used more broadly in some areas of the

world when referring to e-Portfolio components;
— minor editorial changes have been made throughout the document.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 20013:2020(E)
Introduction

e-Portfolios have been deployed in many contexts that span educational, employment, artistic and social

contexts. Individuals have new opportunities to accumulate, manage and share their credentials digitally

(using badges, micro-credentials, etc.). These digital items can be included in and shared by individuals

using e-Portfolios. A key characteristic of these digital artefacts can be verification of the credential

by a third party. In learning, education and training (LET), e-Portfolios have demonstrated their

potential to enhance the development of learners and to support the work of educators, administrators,

and others, through streamlining information management processes, developing learner autonomy

and metacognition, and fostering the personal and professional development of individuals. However,

this broad implementation has also brought with it issues related to interoperability, accessibility and

usability of both systems and content.

This document was developed to support the creation and use of e-Portfolios in LET. It can be used

to develop more responsive, flexible and modular systems and services and is intended to support

learners, instructors, trainers, e-learning service providers and other stakeholders. In addition, it is

intended to support a wide range of activities related to e-Portfolio creation and use across various

information technology for learning, education and training (ITLET) contexts (such as K-12 education,

higher education, training, career planning and professional development). With ongoing developments

in information and communications technology (ICT), learners have access to an increasing diversity of

LET opportunities. As a consequence, production of educational content and services extends the scope

of opportunities for learning; providing potential for learners to experience personalized and adaptive

opportunities that can also enhance their learning and improve their abilities. Content and services

are delivered to or accessed by learners – as well as produced and managed by them. ITLET systems

therefore need to be designed to accommodate this. For example, a common feature of most e-Portfolio

systems is that their owners not only author the content but also control the selection and presentation

of it. In some jurisdictions this key function is seen as integral to personal development planning (PDP).

A key characteristic of e-Portfolio systems for ITLET stakeholders is the data or information that is

used for e-Portfolios can provide instructors, trainers, administrators and employers with an efficient

means of appraisal, management and decision-making. e-Portfolios thus provide an opportunity to

monitor the development of an individual’s achievements, skills and competencies within and beyond

formal education and training contexts. This key characteristic also benefits learners through providing

opportunities to reflect on their own learning and career development.

One means of delivering such functionality is via a management system, such as an integrated learning

management system (LMS) or human resource management system (HRMS) that can be used to

monitor and organize learners’ learning; however, such functionality can also be provided by unbundled

applications and services and e-Portfolio system components in a highly distributed manner.

For these reasons, implementing e-Portfolios has the potential to be an efficient method for tracking

learning history, documenting activities within LET, supporting peer and self-assessment as well as

professional development in the workplace. Consideration of how e-Portfolios can be used within

teaching and learning environments has therefore been central to shaping this document.

In order to encourage streamlined management and exchange of participant information and associated

data, such as the evidentiary information contained in an e-Portfolio, a standardized approach is

necessary. Through the standardization of e-Portfolio system components (that is, IT systems and

services that enable e-Portfolios), common underlying structures will provide the potential to share

data across and among different applications, thus improving interoperability.

This document provides a reference framework for the use of e-Portfolios within ITLET contexts where

there are requirements for importing, exporting and aggregating data. The reference framework has

been developed with the aim of supporting interoperability and transfer of information among ICT

systems and services where data interchange is required for e-Portfolio systems. It is intended to be

used by learners, instructors, software developers, implementers, instructional designers, and others

within learning, education, and training environments that are supported by information technology.

© ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved v
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ISO/IEC 20013:2020(E)

This document includes six clauses and two annexes. The first clause provides the scope, exclusions, and

aspects not currently addressed. The second clause includes the normative reference. The third clause

provides terms and definitions, while the fourth clause provides background information regarding

e-Portfolios. The fifth clause describes various types of e-Portfolios used in LET contexts and provides

an approach to classifying them. The sixth clause provides details regarding the e-Portfolio reference

framework.

The annexes include use case information that has been submitted by national bodies (Annex A) and

study cases of e-Portfolio interoperability (Annex B).
This document currently does not address:
— aspects of accessibility;
— the elements required of learner and instructor;

— best practices of e-Portfolio use cases in the fields on K-12 education, higher education and training;

— guides to support the use of e-Portfolios in learning, education, and training environments; and,

— detailed technical information regarding specific types of e-portfolios (e.g. learning, teaching,

assessment, presentation, personal development, career, course, programme, institutional, or other).

It is anticipated that some or all of these requirements will be addressed in future editions or in

companion International Standards or Technical Reports.
vi © ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC 20013:2020(E)
Information technology for learning, education and
training — Reference framework of e-Portfolio information
1 Scope

This document specifies a reference framework of e-Portfolio implementation that can be used to

inform and support development of ITLET systems that meet the requirements of learners, instructors,

e-learning service providers and others in contexts such as K-12 education, higher education, training

and personal development.

The reference framework identifies content and functional components that support e-Portfolio

systems. It addresses interoperability issues required for data exchange between these components

and among the various categories.
This document:
— provides an e-Portfolio reference framework;

— provides descriptions of e-Portfolios in terms of components (content or functional), categories,

elements and items;
— identifies commonalities of current implementations of e-Portfolios; and,
— represents the needs of stakeholders (learners, instructors, etc.).
This document does not include:

— in-depth technical review of issues related to adaptability to culture, language, and human functions;

— security techniques related to the protection of privacy information;
— authentication of the identity of an IT or ITLET system user;
— how e-Portfolios might integrate with ITLET systems; and,

— specific requirements of e-Portfolios or e-Portfolio systems to meet jurisdictional domain

requirements.
2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
© ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO/IEC 20013:2020(E)
3.1
component
set of constituent parts that comprises an e-Portfolio (3.4)

Note 1 to entry: An e-portfolio component may be either a content component or a functional component.

Note 2 to entry: A content component makes learner information explicit so that it can be matched to resources.

The following are content categories for e-Portfolio information: identification, overview, education, career,

outcome, capability and experience.

Note 3 to entry: A functional component is used to identify and support interoperability and may include "layers"

of entities.
EXAMPLE Business requirements and processes, technical services, data sources.

[SOURCE: ISO 16175-2:2011, 3.7, modified — in the definition, “a digital record” has been replaced with

“an e-Portfolio”; the three Notes to the entry have been added.]
3.2
e-learning
learning (3.9) facilitated by information and communications technology
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 24751-1:2008, 2.18]
3.3
element

unit of data for which the definition, identification, representation and permissible values are specified

by means of a set of attributes

Note 1 to entry: There can be one or more elements in each category within a component.

Note 2 to entry: An element is the label assigned to indicate this layer of the e-Portfolio reference framework.

Note 3 to entry: The term artefact (or digital artefact) is sometimes used as the general term to refer broadly to

the digital representation of elements, (awards and certificates, photographs, etc.) found in several categories,

(overview, education and experience). Artefacts may also be assigned unique identifiers to support various

e-Portfolio processes (e.g. management and verification).

EXAMPLE 1 A photograph that is selected and uploaded by an individual to their e-Portfolio for identification

purposes could be referred to as an artefact that is a user information element within the identification category.

EXAMPLE 2 An artefact may be associated with an element from the capability category (such as a skills

element linked to a skills framework).

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 6523-1:1998, 3.3, modified — in the term, "data element" has been replaced with

"element"; in the definition, the three Notes to entry have been added.]
3.4
e-Portfolio

collection of digital items aggregated within an IT system (3.7) used for a diversity of purposes to

support LET and professional development activities such as assessment, educational or career

guidance.

EXAMPLE An e-Portfolio is in digital form, and can be used a) to store personal or professional digital

artefacts, b) as a personal or professional journal to support reflective learning; c) as a collation of evidence of

learning, experience and achievement; d) to support lifelong learning and ongoing transitions between education

and workplace environments; e) to support collation and integration of informal learning into formal settings;

and, (f) to present selected views of content to prospective and existing employers and educators.

2 © ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 20013:2020(E)
3.5
reference framework

structure for understanding significant relationships among the entities of some

environment, and for the development of consistent standards or specifications supporting that

environment

Note 1 to entry: A reference framework is based on a small number of unifying concepts and may be used as a

basis for education and explaining standards to a non-specialist.
3.6
e-Portfolio system

IT system (3.7) designed and implemented specifically to support the creation, use and management of

coupled (sets of) IT applications and services.
3.7
IT system

set of one or more computers, associated software, peripherals, terminals, human operations, physical

processes, information transfer means, that form an autonomous whole, capable of performing

information processing and/or information transfer
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 14662:2010, 3.13]
3.8
item
unit of discrete data that comprises an element (3.3)
Note 1 to entry: There can be one or more items in an element.
EXAMPLE 1 A file or a link to a website.

Note 2 to entry: An item is the label assigned to indicate this layer of the e-Portfolio reference framework.

Note 3 to entry: The term artefact (or digital artefact) is sometimes used as the general term to refer broadly to

the digital representation of items within elements, (e.g. past projects, awards, certificates). Artefacts may also

be assigned unique identifiers to support various e-Portfolio processes (e.g. management and verification).

EXAMPLE 2 An item that is selected by an individual can be associated with a digital representation of a

certification, (e.g. digital badge).
3.9
learning
acquisition of knowledge, skills or attitudes
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 2382-36:2019, 3.1.1]
3.10
learning management system
LMS

software system designed for the purpose of performing administrative and technical support

processes associated with e-learning (3.2)
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 2382-36:2019, 3.3.1]
3.11
personal development planning
PDP

process that makes explicit the learning or professional development goals of an individual and

proposed strategies for achieving them

Note 1 to entry: e-Portfolios may be used in a variety of ways to support personal development planning,

summative assessment, presentation, reflection, and other uses.
© ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO/IEC 20013:2020(E)
4 Abbreviated terms
ICT information and communications technology
IPTV internet protocol television
ITLET information technology for learning, education and training
LET learning, education and training
RPL recognition of prior learning
QCL qualifications, certifications and licences
VET vocational educational training
WIL work integrated learning
5 e-Portfolios and e-learning
5.1 Role of e-Portfolios

This Clause outlines the roles of e-Portfolios, their key characteristics, and their advantages over

traditional portfolios.

In the early development of the e-learning industry, the LMS occupied a prominent role as the central

ITLET system. Developments since this time provide new opportunities to monitor human-computer

interactions during learning, such as tools that build on outcomes-based assessment and evaluation,

enabling process-centred assessment and evaluation. However, wide adoption of e-learning in

education has also brought new challenges for instructors, such as how to measure the effectiveness of

e-learning and determine what might constitute authentic assessment. Innovations in practice, as well

as technology, have meant that there is an increasing diversity of methods for addressing such issues.

Importantly, learners who are engaged in e-learning activities typically have the option to study at their

own pace and to access learning materials suitable to their particular situation. To fully support this

flexibility, IT and ICT systems need to be adaptable to individual needs and requirements in providing

appropriate e-learning services.

In education and training contexts, e-Portfolios have typically been used as contained environments

that stimulate thinking about learning goals, monitor progress toward achieving those goals, and

provide an interactive platform to give and receive advice about learning. These processes are

sometimes referred to as personal development planning (PDP), particularly when the learning or

professional development goals and proposed strategies for achieving them are made explicit. Thus,

e-Portfolios typically contain data sets such as a learner’s learning history, learning goals, educational

activities, outcomes, and related achievements. PDP and learning-based e-Portfolios also typically

include evidence of reflection by the e-Portfolio owner. Reference [34] also suggests that “portfolios are

highly motivating, because portfolios get learners into a rich and deep knowledge base focused on their

own learning experiences. Collaboration with others deepens these individual experiences by allowing

probing questions, socially constructed knowledge, and alternative viewpoints”.

Despite these opportunities to assist and enhance learning experiences, traditional (non-digital)

portfolios can be seen to have a number of weaknesses:
— data are not durable, may be lost or not easily re-discoverable;
— managing overlapping data is difficult (e.g. teaching material);
— maintenance can cost a lot of time and effort;

— effective use in learning and teaching contexts is typically limited to evidence of achievement; and,

4 © ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved
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ISO/IEC 20013:2020(E)

— integrating multiple file types, such as video/audio files, images, and others, is not easily managed.

These weaknesses of traditional portfolios can mostly be overcome by using ICT, although the durability

of data is also dependent upon information management practices. e-Portfolios provide a platform

for supporting learners and instructors to increase educational effectiveness. By using e-Portfolios,

instructors/learners can manage teaching and learning resources and processes, monitor activities

and learning status while also enabling feedback for improving learning outcomes.

Three key characteristics of e-Portfolios that overcome limitations of traditional portfolios are:

— Flexibility in modification, management and portability. Users can modify their e-Portfolio

conveniently and easily. Users also can manage their personal information and easily export this

information to other systems and file formats as required.

— Multiple data types can be managed. Users can show their outcomes dynamically related to their

competency using multimedia files such as audio, video, graphics, images and others. This capability

lends itself to creativity of expression.

— Opportunities to integrate with other IT systems and the ability to have access anywhere through

the use of network technologies.

These characteristics of e-Portfolios facilitate their use in many different situations and contexts, not

just in the support of learners. Subclause 5.2 outlines the different types of e–Portfolios.

5.2 Classifying e-Portfolios

This reference framework has been developed to support different types of e-Portfolios that may be

used to support learning, teaching and other LET activities. One approach is for e-Portfolios to be

classified into different types, according to purpose, function and target audience, as advocated by

Reference [42]:

— Assessment e-Portfolios: document individual reflections and present outcomes that can be used

to demonstrate capability.

— Presentation e-Portfolios: provide traditional portfolio functions such as enabling users to collate

their artefacts to demonstrate achievement and competence.

— Personal development e-Portfolios: include the collection of data and information to support

employment and professional development planning.
— Learning e-Portfolios: track and identify learning over time.

— Informal learning e-Portfolios: allow for individuals to assemble content, evidence and reflections

related to informal and personal learning activities not necessarily related to any formal education

or training.

e-Portfolios also can be classified depending on the context in which they are applied (Reference [34]):

— Course e-Portfolios: are specific to a particular course and typically contain information assembled

by the student documenting achievement and reflections on achievement of outcomes. In addition,

course portfolios are often used for course assessments in part or in whole.

— Programme e-Portfolios: are specific to a defined field of academic study and document the learner's

work completed, skills acquired, and outcomes met, possibly as a requi
...

DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
ISO/IEC DIS 20013
ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 36 Secretariat: KATS
Voting begins on: Voting terminates on:
2020-03-12 2020-06-04
Information technology for learning, education and
training — A reference framework of e-Portfolio
information

Techonologies de l'information pour l'apprentissage, l'éducation et la formation — Un cadre de référence

pour l'information des e-Portfolios
ICS: 03.100.30; 35.240.90
THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED
FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS
THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY
NOT BE REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL,
This document is circulated as received from the committee secretariat.
TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND
USER PURPOSES, DRAFT INTERNATIONAL
STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO
BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR
POTENTIAL TO BECOME STANDARDS TO
WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
Reference number
NATIONAL REGULATIONS.
ISO/IEC DIS 20013:2020(E)
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED
TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS,
NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT
RIGHTS OF WHICH THEY ARE AWARE AND TO
PROVIDE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION. ISO/IEC 2020
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/IEC DIS 20013:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO/IEC 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/IEC DIS 20013:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................... 4

5 e-Portfolios and e-learning ........................................................................................................................................................................ 5

5.1 Role of e-Portfolios .............................................................................................................................................................................. 5

5.2 Classifying e-Portfolios .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5.3 Benefits of e-Portfolios ..................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6 Reference framework of e-Portfolio information .............................................................................................................. 7

6.1 Overview ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.2 Content and functional components of an e-Portfolio .......................................................................................... 8

6.3 Common categories found in e-Portfolios ....................................................................................................................... 9

6.4 Content component structure .................................................................................................................................................11

6.4.1 Identification category ........................................................................................................................................... ..12

6.4.2 Overview category .................. .................................................... .................................................................................13

6.4.3 Education category .....................................................................................................................................................13

6.4.4 Career category ..............................................................................................................................................................13

6.4.5 Outcome category ........................................................................................................................................................13

6.4.6 Capability category .....................................................................................................................................................14

6.4.7 Experience category ..................................................................................................................................................14

6.4.8 Relationships between categories, elements and items .............................................................14

6.5 Functional component of e-Portfolio systems ..........................................................................................................15

Annex A (informative) Use cases of e-Portfolio ......................................................................................................................................17

Annex B (informative) Use cases of e-Portfolio ......................................................................................................................................35

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................38

© ISO/IEC 2020 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO/IEC DIS 20013:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Subcommittee JTC1 ISO/IEC SC 36, Information technology for

learning, education and training.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO/IEC TS 20013:2015), which has been

technically revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— note added to the definition of "element" and "item" providing examples of the use of artefacts;

— acknowledgement that the term artefact may be used more broadly in some areas of the world when

referring to e-Portfolio components.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
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ISO/IEC DIS 20013:2020(E)
Introduction

e-Portfolios have been deployed in many contexts that span educational, employment, artistic, and

social contexts. Individuals have new opportunities to accumulate, manage and share their credentials

digitally (e.g., using badges, micro-credentials, etc.). These digital items can be included in and shared

by individuals using e-Portfolios. A key characteristic of these digital artefacts can be verification of the

credential by a 3rd party. In learning, education and training (LET), e-Portfolios have demonstrated their

potential to enhance the development of learners and to support the work of educators, administrators,

and others, through streamlining information management processes, developing learner autonomy

and metacognition, and fostering the personal and professional development of individuals. However,

this broad implementation has also brought with it issues related to interoperability, accessibility, and

usability of both systems and content.

This standard has been developed to support the creation and use of e-Portfolios in LET. It can be used

to develop more responsive, flexible and modular systems and services and is intended to support

learners, instructors, trainers, e-learning service providers and other stakeholders. As well, it is

intended to support a wide range of activities related to e-Portfolio creation and use across various

Information Technology for Learning, Education and Training (ITLET) contexts (such as K-12 education,

higher education, training, career planning and professional development). With ongoing developments

in Information and Communications Technology (ICT), learners have access to an increasing diversity

of LET opportunities. Production of educational content and services as a consequence of developments

in ICT extends the scope of opportunities for learning, providing potential for learners to experience

personalized and adaptive opportunities that also may enhance their learning and improve their

abilities. Content and services are delivered to or accessed by learners – as well as produced and

managed by them. ITLET systems therefore need to be designed to accommodate this. For example, a

common feature of most e-Portfolio systems is that their owners not only author the content but also

control the selection and presentation of it. In some jurisdictions this key function is seen as integral to

personal development planning (PDP).

A key characteristic of e-Portfolio systems for ITLET stakeholders is the data or information that is

used for e-Portfolios can provide instructors, trainers, administrators, and employers with an efficient

means of appraisal, management, and decision-making. e-Portfolios thus provide an opportunity to

monitor the development of an individual’s achievements, skills and competencies within and beyond

formal education and training contexts. This key characteristic also benefits learners through providing

opportunities to reflect on their own learning and career development.

One means of delivering such functionality is via a management system, such as an integrated Learning

Management system (LMS) or Human Resource management System (HRMS) that can be used to

monitor and organize learners’ learning; however, such functionality can also be provided by unbundled

applications and services and e-Portfolio system components in a highly distributed manner.

For these reasons, implementing e-Portfolios has the potential to be an efficient method for tracking

learning history, documenting activities within LET, supporting peer and self-assessment as well as

professional development in the workplace. Consideration of how e-Portfolios may be used within

teaching and learning environments has therefore been central to shaping this document.

In order to encourage streamlined management and exchange of participant information and associated

data, such as the evidentiary information contained in an e-Portfolio, a standardized approach is

necessary. Through the standardization of e-Portfolio system components (that is, IT systems and

services that enable e-Portfolios), common underlying structures will provide the potential to share

data across and among different applications, thus improving interoperability.

This standard provides a reference framework for the use of e-Portfolios within ITLET contexts where

there are requirements for importing, exporting, and aggregating data. The reference framework has

been developed with the aim of supporting interoperability and transfer of information among ICT

systems and services where data interchange is required for e-Portfolio systems. It is intended to be

used by learners, instructors, software developers, implementers, instructional designers, and others

within learning, education, and training environments that are supported by information technology.

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ISO/IEC DIS 20013:2020(E)

This standard includes six clauses and two annexes. The first clause provides the scope, exclusions, and

aspects not currently addressed. The second clause includes the normative reference. The third clause

provides terms and definitions, while the fourth clause provides background information regarding

e-Portfolios. The fifth clause describes various types of e-Portfolios used in LET contexts and provides

an approach to classifying them. The sixth clause provides details regarding the e-Portfolio reference

framework.

The annexes include use case information that has been submitted by national bodies (Annex A) and

study cases of e-Portfolio interoperability (Annex B).
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DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/IEC DIS 20013:2020(E)
Information technology for learning, education and
training — A reference framework of e-Portfolio
information
1 Scope

This standard details a reference framework of e-Portfolio implementation that can be used to inform

and support development of ITLET systems that meet the requirements of learners, instructors,

e-learning service providers and others in contexts such as K-12 education, higher education, training

and personal development.

The reference framework identifies content and functional components that support e-Portfolio

systems. It addresses interoperability issues required for data exchange between these components

and among the various categories.
This standard:
— provides an e-Portfolio reference framework;

— provides descriptions of e-Portfolios in terms of components (content or functional), categories,

elements and items;
— identifies commonalities of current implementations of e-Portfolios; and,
— represents the needs of stakeholders (e.g., learners, instructors, etc.).
The scope of this standard does not include:

— in-depth technical review of issues related to adaptability to culture, language, and human functions;

— security techniques related to the protection of privacy information;
— authentication of the identity of an IT or ITLET system user;
— how e-Portfolios might integrate with ITLET systems; and,

— specific requirements of e-Portfolios or e-Portfolio systems to meet jurisdictional domain

requirements.
This standard currently does not address:
— aspects of accessibility;
— the elements required of learner and instructor;

— best practices of e-Portfolio use cases in the fields on K-12 education, higher education and training;

— guides to support the use of e-Portfolios in learning, education, and training environments; and,

— detailed technical information regarding specific types of e-portfolios (e.g., learning, teaching,

assessment, presentation, personal development, career, course, program, institutional, or other).

It is anticipated that some or all of these requirements may be addressed in future editions of

ISO/IEC 20013, or in companion International Standards or Technical Reports.
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2 Normative references

The following document is referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of its content constitutes

requirements for this document.

ISO/IEC 2382-36:2019, (E/F), Information technology — Vocabulary — Part 36: Learning, education and

training
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
category
type of component (3.2)
3.2
component
set of constituent parts that comprises an e-Portfolio (3.5)

Note 1 to entry: An e-portfolio component may be either a content component or a functional component.

Note 2 to entry: A content component makes learner information explicit so that it can be matched to resources.

The following are content categories for e-Portfolio information: identification, overview, education, career,

outcome, capability, and experience.

Note 3 to entry: A functional component is used to identify and support interoperability and may include "layers"

of entities.
EXAMPLE Business requirements and processes, technical services, data sources.

[SOURCE: ISO 16175-2:2011, 3.7 Modified: in the definition, “a digital record” has been replaced with

“an e-Portfolio”; the 3 Notes to the entry have been added.]
3.3
e-learning
learning (3.9) facilitated by information and communications technology
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 24751-1:2008, 2.18]
3.4
element

unit of data for which the definition, identification, representation and permissible values are specified

by means of a set of attributes

Note 1 to entry: There can be one or more elements in each category within a component.

Note 2 to entry: An element is the label assigned to indicate this layer of the e-Portfolio reference framework.

Note 3 to entry: The term artefact (or digital artefact) is sometimes used as the general term to refer broadly

to the digital representation of elements, (e.g., awards and certificates, photographs, etc.) found in several

categories, (overview, education and experience). Artefacts may also be assigned unique identifiers to support

various e-Portfolio processes (e.g., management and verification).

EXAMPLE 1 A photograph that is selected and uploaded by an individual to their e-Portfolio for identification

purposes could be referred to as an artefact that is a user information element within the Identification category.

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EXAMPLE 2 An artefact may be associated with an element from the Capability category (such as a skills

element linked to a skills framework).

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 6523-1:1998, 3.3 Modified: in the term, "data element" has been replaced with

"element"; in the definition, the three Notes to entry have been added.]
3.5
e-Portfolio

collection of digital items aggregated within an IT System (3.7) used for a diversity of purposes to

support LET and professional development activities such as assessment, educational or career

guidance.

EXAMPLE An e-Portfolio should be in digital form, and may be used a) to store personal or professional

digital artefacts, b) as a personal or professional journal to support reflective learning; c) as a collation of

evidence of learning, experience, and achievement; d) to support lifelong learning and ongoing transitions

between education and workplace environments; e) to support collation and integration of informal learning

into formal settings; and, (f) to present selected views of content to prospective and existing employers and

educators.
3.6
e-Portfolio reference framework

structure for understanding significant relationships among the entities of some environment, and for

the development of consistent standards or specifications supporting that environment

Note 1 to entry: A reference framework is based on a small number of unifying concepts and may be used as a

basis for education and explaining standards to a non-specialist.

[SOURCE: ISO 14721:2012, 1.7.2 Modified: in the term, "reference model" has been replaced with

"e-Portfolio reference framework"; in the definition, the last line has been deleted, and Note 1 to entry

has been added]
3.7
e-Portfolio system

instance of an IT System (3.7) designed and implemented specifically to support the creation, use, and

management of e-Portfolios (3.5)

Note 1 to entry: An e-Portfolio system may be coupled (sets of) IT applications and services.

3.8
IT System

set of one or more computers, associated software, peripherals, terminals, human operations, physical

processes, information transfer means, that form an autonomous whole, capable of performing

information processing and/or information transfer
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 14662:2010, 3.13]
3.9
item
unit of discrete data that comprises an element (3.4)
Note 1 to entry: There can be one or more items in an element.
EXAMPLE 1 A file or a link to a website.

Note 2 to entry: An item is the label assigned to indicate this layer of the e-Portfolio reference framework.

Note 3 to entry: The term artefact (or digital artefact) is sometimes used as the general term to refer broadly to

the digital representation of items within elements, (e.g., past projects, awards, certificates). Artefacts may also

be assigned unique identifiers to support various e-Portfolio processes (e.g., management and verification).

EXAMPLE 2 An item that is selected by an individual can be associated with a digital representation of a

certification, (e.g., digital badge).
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3.10
learning
acquisition of knowledge, skills or attitudes
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 2382-36:2019, 3.1.1]
3.11
learning management system
LMS

software system designed for the purpose of performing administrative and technical support

processes associated with e-learning (3.3)
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 2382-36:2019, 3.3.1]
3.12
personal development planning
PDP

process that makes explicit the learning or professional development goals of an individual and

proposed strategies for achieving them

Note 1 to entry: e-Portfolios may be used in a variety of ways to support personal development planning,

summative assessment, presentation, reflection, and other uses.
4 Symbols and abbreviated terms

The following symbols and abbreviated terms are defined for use within this standard.

ABEEK Accreditation Board for Engineering Education of Korea
CBE Calgary Board of Education
ePEARL electronic Portfolio Encouraging Active Reflective Learning
HRMS Human Resource management System
ICT Information and Communications Technology
IEC International Electrotechnical Commission
IMS IMS Global Learning Consortium, Incorporated
IPTV Internet Protocol Television
ISO International Organization for Standardization
IT Information Technology
IT System Information Technology System
ITLET Information Technology for Learning, Education and Training
LET Learning, Education and Training
LMS Learning Management system
LORFOLIO e-Portfolio offered by Lorraine Region
PC Personal Computer
PDP Personal Development Planning
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RPL Recognition of Prior Learning
QCL Qualifications, Certifications and Licenses
SDEG Shanghai Distance Education Group
SMEC Shanghai Municipal Education Commission
SMS Short Message Service
VET Vocational educational training
WIL Work Integrated Learning
5 e-Portfolios and e-learning
5.1 Role of e-Portfolios

The purpose of this Clause is to outline the roles of e-Portfolios, their key characteristics, and their

advantages over traditional portfolios.

In the early development of the e-learning industry, the LMS occupied a prominent role as the central

ITLET system. Developments since this time provide new opportunities to monitor human-computer

interactions during learning, such as tools that build on outcomes-based assessment and evaluation

that enable process-centred assessment and evaluation. However, wide adoption of e-learning in

education has also brought new challenges for instructors, such as how to measure the effectiveness of

e-learning and determine what might constitute authentic assessment. Innovations in practice, as well

as technology, have meant that there is an increasing diversity of methods for addressing such issues.

Importantly, learners who are engaged in e-learning activities typically have the option to study at their

own pace and to access learning materials suitable to their particular situation. To fully support this

flexibility, IT and ICT systems need to be adaptable to individual needs and requirements in providing

appropriate e-learning services.

In education and training contexts, e-Portfolios have typically been used as contained environments that

stimulate thinking about learning goals, monitor progress toward achieving those goals, and provide an

interactive platform to give and receive advice about learning. These processes are sometimes referred

to as Personal Development Planning (PDP), particularly when the learning or professional development

goals and proposed strategies for achieving them are made explicit. Thus, e-Portfolios typically contain

data sets such as a learner’s learning history, learning goals, educational activities, outcomes, and

related achievements. PDP and learning-based e-Portfolios also typically include evidence of reflection

by the e-Portfolio owner. Millis, in Zubizarreta (2009, p. xx), also suggests that “portfolios are highly

motivating, because portfolios get learners into a rich and deep knowledge base focused on their own

learning experiences. Collaboration with others deepens these individual experiences by allowing

probing questions, socially constructed knowledge, and alternative viewpoints”.

Despite these opportunities to assist and enhance learning experiences, traditional (non-digital)

portfolios can be seen to have a number of weaknesses:
— data are not durable, may be lost or not easily re-discoverable;
— managing overlapping data is difficult (e.g., teaching material);
— maintenance can cost a lot of time and effort;

— effective use in learning and teaching contexts is typically limited to evidence of achievement; and,

— integrating multiple file types, such as video/audio files, images, and others, is not easily managed.

These weaknesses of traditional portfolios can mostly be overcome by using ICT, although the durability

of data is also dependent upon information management practices. e-Portfolios provide a platform

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for supporting learners and instructors to increase educational effectiveness. By using e-Portfolios,

instructors/learners can manage teaching and learning resources and processes, monitor activities

and learning status while also enabling feedback for improving learning outcomes.

Three key characteristics of e-Portfolios that overcome limitations of traditional portfolios are:

— flexibility in modification, management, and portability. Users can modify their e-Portfolio

conveniently and easily. Users also can manage their personal information and easily export this

information to other systems and file formats as required.

— multiple data types can be managed. Users can show their outcomes dynamically related to their

competency using mu
...

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