Solid recovered fuels - Methods for sampling (ISO 21645:2021)

The method should be useable for all SRF and will make it possible to obtain a representative sample from a large stock of SRF

Feste Sekundärbrennstoffe - Verfahren zur Probenahme (ISO 21645:2021)

Dieses Dokument legt Verfahren zur Entnahme von Proben von festen Sekundärbrennstoffen, z. B. aus Produktionsanlagen, Lieferungen oder Lagervorräten, fest. Eingeschlossen sind sowohl manuelle als auch mechanische Verfahren.
Es ist nicht anzuwenden für feste Sekundärbrennstoffe, die durch Flüssigkeiten oder Schlamm gebildet werden, es schließt jedoch entwässerten Schlamm ein.

Combustibles solides de récupération - Méthodes d'échantillonnage (ISO 21645:2021)

Trdna alternativna goriva - Metode za vzorčenje (ISO 21645:2021)

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
31-May-2020
Publication Date
03-May-2021
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
21-Apr-2021
Due Date
26-Jun-2021
Completion Date
04-May-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 21645:2021
01-junij-2021
Nadomešča:
SIST EN 15442:2011
Trdna alternativna goriva - Metode za vzorčenje (ISO 21645:2021)
Solid recovered fuels - Methods for sampling (ISO 21645:2021)
Feste Sekundärbrennstoffe - Verfahren zur Probenahme (ISO 21645:2021)

Combustibles solides de récupération - Méthodes d'échantillonnage (ISO 21645:2021)

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 21645:2021
ICS:
75.160.10 Trda goriva Solid fuels
SIST EN ISO 21645:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 21645:2021
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SIST EN ISO 21645:2021
EN ISO 21645
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
April 2021
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 75.160.10 Supersedes EN 15442:2011
English Version
Solid recovered fuels - Methods for sampling (ISO
21645:2021)

Combustibles solides de récupération - Méthodes Feste Sekundärbrennstoffe - Verfahren zur

d'échantillonnage (ISO 21645:2021) Probenahme (ISO 21645:2021)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 23 February 2021.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 21645:2021 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 21645:2021
EN ISO 21645:2021 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 21645:2021
EN ISO 21645:2021 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 21645:2021) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 300 "Solid

recovered materials, including solid recovered fuels" in collaboration with Technical Committee

CEN/TC 343 “Solid Recovered Fuels” the secretariat of which is held by SFS.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by October 2021, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by October 2021.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN 15442:2011.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 21645:2021 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 21645:2021 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 21645:2021
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SIST EN ISO 21645:2021
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 21645
First edition
2021-03
Solid recovered fuels — Methods for
sampling
Combustibles solides de récupération — Méthodes d'échantillonnage
Reference number
ISO 21645:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 21645:2021
ISO 21645:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 21645:2021
ISO 21645:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Symbols .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

5 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

6 Development of a sampling plan.......................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.1 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

6.2 Definition of overall objectives.................................................................................................................................................. 9

6.3 Definition of a lot and determining lot size .................................................................................................................... 9

6.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

6.3.2 Definition of a lot in case of sampling from a material flow ....................................................10

6.3.3 Definition of a lot in case of transport by a vehicle .........................................................................10

6.3.4 Definition of a lot in case of transport by ship ....................................................................................10

6.3.5 Definition of a lot in case of sampling from a static lot ................................................................10

6.4 Determination of the sampling procedure...................................................................................................................10

6.5 Determination of the number of increments .............................................................................................................11

6.6 Determination of minimum sample mass ....................................................................................................................11

6.7 Determination of the minimum increment mass ...................................................................................................11

6.7.1 Determination of minimum increment mass for material flows.........................................11

6.7.2 Determination of the minimum increment mass for static lots, vehicles or

ships .........................................................................................................................................................................................11

6.8 Determination of the planned increment and planned sample amounts .........................................11

6.9 Selection of distribution of increments over a lot .................................................................................................12

6.9.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................12

6.9.2 Determination of the distribution of the increments when sampling from

a material flow ................................................................................................................................................................12

6.9.3 Determination of the distribution of the increments when sampling from

a vehicle(s) .........................................................................................................................................................................12

6.9.4 Implementation of sampling from a static lot .....................................................................................13

6.10 Sampling equipment and implements .............................................................................................................................14

7 Implementation of the sampling plan .........................................................................................................................................14

7.1 Steps before actual sampling ...................................................................................................................................................14

7.2 Steps during sampling ...................................................................................................................................................................14

7.3 Steps after sampling ........................................................................................................................................................................14

8 Handling and storage of samples .....................................................................................................................................................15

9 Precision ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................15

Annex A (normative) Procedure for the development of a sampling plan ................................................................16

Annex B (normative) Sampling plan ..................................................................................................................................................................19

Annex C (informative) Example of a sampling plan ...........................................................................................................................23

Annex D (normative) Sampling equipment and implements ..................................................................................................28

Annex E (normative) Determination of minimum sample mass ..........................................................................................33

Annex F (normative) Determination of increment mass for sampling from material flows ..................38

Annex G (normative) Determination of increment mass for sampling from static lots,

vehicles or ships .................................................................................................................................................................................................41

Annex H (normative) Implementation of sampling plan from a material flow ....................................................42

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 21645:2021
ISO 21645:2021(E)

Annex I (normative) Implementation of the sampling plan from a static lot or vehicle .............................46

Annex J (normative) Minimum sample mass required for analysis .................................................................................48

Annex K (informative) Additional information about precision ..........................................................................................51

Annex L (informative) Examples for stratified and stratified random sampling ................................................54

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................56

iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 21645:2021
ISO 21645:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 300, Solid recovered fuels.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 21645:2021
ISO 21645:2021(E)
Introduction

The testing of solid recovered fuels (SRF) enables informed decisions about their subsequent handling

and use. In order to carry out a test on a solid recovered fuel, a sample of the material is required. Before

any sampling operation is devised, it is important that the objectives for sampling are clearly identified

and subsequently well executed to ensure that the expectations of any involved parties are recognized

and satisfied. The identification of objectives helps to define the level of testing required, e.g. thorough

examination or routine testing, and in addition desired reliability of testing / assessment and frequency

of testing. The sampling objectives, along with the sequence of operations required to fulfil them, are

detailed in an overall sampling plan. After a sampling plan has been prepared, the sampling of SRF itself

can be implemented.

This document is largely based on the work already done by CEN/TC 292 “Characterization of waste”

(now integrated in CEN/TC 444 “Environmental characterization of solid matrices”), in particular EN

[1] [2]
14899:2005 and CEN/TR 15310-1:2006 .

The main characteristic that makes SRF samples significantly different from other kinds of waste is

that SRFs are very often solid, but neither "granular" nor monolithic; it often happens that SRF samples

are fibrous-like materials. This typical characteristic of SRF implies that the statistical formula for

sampling of EN 14899:2005 and CEN/TR 15310-1:2006, Annex D are not applicable without amendment.

The "shape factor" ( f ) is additionally needed in the statistical formula.
Figure 1 shows the links between the essential elements of a testing program.

Sampling procedures are provided for a range of process streams and common storage conditions. The

sampling technique adopted depends on a combination of different characteristics of the material and

circumstances encountered at the sampling location. The determining factors are:
— the type of solid recovered fuel;

— the situation at the sampling location / the way in which the material occurs (e.g. in a stockpile, on

a conveyor belt, in a lorry);

— the (expected) degree of heterogeneity (e.g. monostreams, mixed fuels, blended fuels).

This document is primarily geared toward laboratories, producers, suppliers and purchasers of solid

recovered fuels, but is also useful for the authorities and inspection organizations.

[3]
Sampling of solid biofuels is described in ISO 18135 .
vi © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 21645:2021
ISO 21645:2021(E)
Figure 1 — Links between the essential elements of a testing program
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved vii
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SIST EN ISO 21645:2021
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SIST EN ISO 21645:2021
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 21645:2021(E)
Solid recovered fuels — Methods for sampling
1 Scope

This document specifies methods for taking samples of solid recovered fuels for example from

production plants, from deliveries or from stock. It includes manual and mechanical methods.

It is not applicable to solid recovered fuels that are formed by liquid or sludge, but it includes

dewatered sludge.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 21637, Solid recovered fuels — Terminology, definitions and descriptions
ISO 21640:— , Solid recovered fuels — Specifications and classes

ISO 21644, Solid recovered fuels — Methods for the determination of biomass content

ISO 21654, Solid recovered fuels — Determination of calorific value
ISO 21656, Solid recovered fuels — Determination of ash content

ISO 21660-3, Solid recovered fuels — Determination of moisture content using the oven dry method —

Part 3: Moisture in general analysis sample

ISO 21663, Solid recovered fuels — Methods for the determination of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and nitrogen

(N) content

ISO 22167, Solid recovered fuels — Determination of the content of volatile matter

EN 15408, Solid recovered fuels — Method for the determination of sulphur (S), chlorine (Cl), fluorine (F)

and bromine (Br) content

EN 15410, Solid recovered fuels — Method for the determination of the content of major elements (Al, Ca,

Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, Si, Ti)

EN 15411, Solid recovered fuels — Methods for the determination of the content of trace elements (As, Ba,

Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Tl, V and Zn)

EN 15415-1, Solid recovered fuels — Determination of particle size distribution — Part 1: Screen method

for small dimension particles

EN 15415-2, Solid recovered fuels — Determination of particle size distribution — Part 2: Maximum

projected length method (manual) for large dimension particles

EN 15415-3, Solid recovered fuels — Determination of particle size distribution — Part 3: Method by image

analysis for large dimension particles
CEN/TS 15401, Solid recovered fuels — Determination of bulk density

CEN/TR 15404, Solid recovered fuels — Methods for the determination of ash melting behaviour by using

characteristic temperatures
1) Under preparation. Stage at the time of publication ISO/FDIS 21640.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 21645:2021
ISO 21645:2021(E)

CEN/TS 15405, Solid recovered fuels —Determination of density of pellets and briquettes

CEN/TS 15406, Solid recovered fuels —Determination of bridging properties of bulk material

CEN/TS 15412, Solid recovered fuels — Methods for the determination of metallic aluminum

CEN/TS 15414-1, Solid recovered fuels — Determination of moisture content using the oven dry method —

Part 1: Determination of total moisture by a reference method

CEN/TS 15414-2, Solid recovered fuels — Determination of moisture content using the oven dry method —

Part 2: Determination of total moisture by a simplified method

CEN/TS 15639, Solid recovered fuels — Determination of mechanical durability of pellets

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 21637 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
coefficient of variation

estimate of the standard deviation of a population from a sample (3.28) of n results divided by the mean

of that sample

Note 1 to entry: The coefficient of variation is frequently stated as a percentage.

[4]
Note 2 to entry: Adapted from Eurachem/Citac Guide CG 4 .
3.2
composite sample mass

amount of sample (3.28) taken from a lot (3.11) or a sub-lot (3.40) consisting of all the increments (3.9)

3.3
distribution factor

correction factor for the particle size distribution (3.20) of the material to be sampled

[SOURCE: ISO 21637:2020, 3.17]
3.4
drop flow

material flow falling over an overflow point or a drop point in a transport system

[SOURCE: ISO 21637:2020, 3.18]
3.5
duplicate sample
two samples (3.28) taken under comparable conditions

Note 1 to entry: This selection may be accomplished by taking units adjacent in time or space.

Note 2 to entry: The replicate sample is usually used to estimate sample variability.

[SOURCE: ISO 21637:2020, 3.23, modified – Note 2 to entry has been added.]
3.6
general analysis sample

sub-sample (3.41) of a laboratory sample (3.10) having a nominal top size of 1 mm or less and used for a

number of chemical and physical analyses
2 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 21645:2021
ISO 21645:2021(E)
3.7
heterogeneity

degree to which a property or type of particle of a solid recovered fuel (3.34) is not uniformly distributed

throughout a quantity of material
[SOURCE: ISO 21637:2020, 3.36]
3.8
homogeneity

degree to which a property or type of particle of a solid recovered fuel (3.34) is uniformly distributed

throughout a quantity of material
[SOURCE: ISO 21637:2020, 3.37]
3.9
increment

portion of solid recovered fuel (3.34) extracted from a lot (3.11) or sub-lot (3.40) in a single operation of

the sampling (3.30) device
[SOURCE: ISO 21637:2020, 3.39]
3.10
laboratory sample

composite sample (3.28) received by the laboratory on which sample preparation (3.29) procedures for

analysis are undertaken

Note 1 to entry: When the laboratory sample is further prepared by mixing, subdividing, particle size reduction

or by combinations of these operations, the result is the general analysis sample. A test portion is removed from

the general analysis sample for the performance of the test or for analysis. When no preparation of the laboratory

sample is required, the test portion may be taken directly from the laboratory sample.

3.11
lot
defined quantity of fuel for which the quality is to be determined
Note 1 to entry: A lot may be divided into sub-lots.
[5]
[SOURCE: ISO 13909-1:2016, 3.16 ]
3.12
mechanical durability
ability of densified fuels to remain intact during handling and transportation

Note 1 to entry: Typical measures of resistance are shock and/or abrasion as a consequence of handling and

transportation processes, characterized by disintegration and fines formulation.
Note 2 to entry: Examples are briquettes and pellets.
[SOURCE: ISO 21637:2020, 3.41]
3.13
minimum increment mass

minimum dimension or mass of the increment that is taken from a lot (3.11) in a single operation of the

sampling (3.29) device from the point of view of preserving its representativeness

3.14
minimum sample mass

minimum amount or dimension of the sample required during sampling (3.30) and sample preparation

(3.29) from the point of view of preserving its representativeness

Note 1 to entry: The minimum sample mass is at least equal to the increment mass multiplied by the number of

increments, and is linked directly to the nominal top size.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 21645:2021
ISO 21645:2021(E)
3.15
moisture
water removable under specific conditions
Note 1 to entry: See also total moisture (3.43).
[SOURCE: ISO 21637:2020, 3.46, modified – Note 1 to entry has been added.]
3.16
nominal minimum size

smallest aperture size of the sieve used for determining the particle size distribution (3.20) of solid fuels

through which at least 5 % by mass of the material passes
3.17
nominal top size

smallest aperture size of the sieve used for determining the particle size distribution (3.20) of solid

recovered fuels (3.34) through which at least 95 % by mass of the total material passes through the sieve

[SOURCE: ISO 21637:2020, 3.48]
3.18
particle density
density of a single particle
Note 1 to entry: Pores within the particle are included.
[SOURCE: ISO 21637:2020, 3.52]
3.19
particle size
size of the fuel particles as determined in a solid fuel
Note 1 to entry: Different methods of determination can give different results.
Note 2 to entry: See also particle size distribution (3.20).
3.20
particle size distribution
proportions of various particle sizes (3.19) in a solid fuel
3.21
particle size reduction
reduction of the nominal top size (3.17) of a sample (3.28) or sub-sample (3.41)
3.22
planned increment mass

planned dimension or mass of the increment (3.9) that is taken from a lot (3.11) in a single operation of

the sampling (3.30) device
3.23
planned sample mass

sample (3.28) amount or dimension that is planned to be taken during sampling (3.29)

Note 1 to entry: The planned sample mass is derived from the minimum sample mass and includes additional

considerations regarding the sampling procedure, practical handling and storage and the required sample

amounts for analysis.

Note 2 to entry: The planned sample mass can be equal to the minimum sample mass.

4 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 21645:2021
ISO 21645:2021(E)
3.24
precision

closeness of agreement between independent test/measurement results obtained under stipulated

conditions

Note 1 to entry: Precision depends only on the distribution of random errors and does not relate to the true value

or the specified value.

Note 2 to entry: The measure of precision is usually expressed in terms of imprecision and computed as a

standard deviation of the test results or measurement results. Less precision is reflected by a larger standard

deviation.

Note 3 to entry: Quantitative measures of precision depend critically on the stipulated conditions.

[6]

[SOURCE: ISO 3534-2:2006, 3.3.4 , modified – Second sentence of Note 3 to entry has been r

...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN ISO 21645:2020
01-maj-2020
Trdna alternativna goriva - Metode za vzorčenje (ISO/DIS 21645:2020)
Solid recovered fuels - Methods for sampling (ISO/DIS 21645:2020)
Feste Sekundärbrennstoffe - Verfahren zur Probenahme (ISO/DIS 21645:2020)
Combustibles solides de récupération - Méthodes d'échantillonnage (ISO/DIS
21645:2020)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN ISO 21645
ICS:
75.160.10 Trda goriva Solid fuels
oSIST prEN ISO 21645:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 21645:2020
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 21645:2020
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
ISO/DIS 21645
ISO/TC 300 Secretariat: SFS
Voting begins on: Voting terminates on:
2020-02-25 2020-05-19
Solid recovered fuels — Methods for sampling
ICS: 75.160.10
THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED
This document is circulated as received from the committee secretariat.
FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS
THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY
NOT BE REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
ISO/CEN PARALLEL PROCESSING
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL,
TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND
USER PURPOSES, DRAFT INTERNATIONAL
STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO
BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR
POTENTIAL TO BECOME STANDARDS TO
WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
Reference number
NATIONAL REGULATIONS.
ISO/DIS 21645:2020(E)
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED
TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS,
NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT
RIGHTS OF WHICH THEY ARE AWARE AND TO
PROVIDE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION. ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 21645:2020
ISO/DIS 21645:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 21645:2020
ISO/DIS 21645:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

5 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

6 Development of a sampling plan.......................................................................................................................................................... 7

6.1 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

6.2 Definition of overall objectives.................................................................................................................................................. 7

6.3 Definition of a lot and determining lot size .................................................................................................................... 8

6.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

6.3.2 Definition of a lot in case sampling from a material flow ............................................................. 8

6.3.3 Definition of a lot in case of transport by a vehicle ............................................................................ 8

6.3.4 Definition of a lot in case of transport by ship ....................................................................................... 8

6.3.5 Definition of a lot in case of sampling from a static lot ................................................................... 8

6.4 Determination of the sampling procedure...................................................................................................................... 8

6.5 Determination of the number of increments ................................................................................................................ 9

6.6 Determination of minimum sample mass ....................................................................................................................... 9

6.7 Determination of the increment mass ................................................................................................................................ 9

6.7.1 Determination of increment mass for material flows ...................................................................... 9

6.7.2 Determination of the increment mass for static lots, vehicles or ships ........................10

6.8 Selection of distribution of increments over a lot .................................................................................................10

6.8.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................10

6.8.2 Determination of the distribution of the increments when sampling from

a material flow ................................................................................................................................................................10

6.8.3 Determination of the distribution of the increments when sampling from

a vehicle(s) .........................................................................................................................................................................10

6.8.4 Implementation of sampling from a static lot .....................................................................................11

6.9 Sampling equipment and implements .............................................................................................................................12

7 Implementation of the sampling plan .........................................................................................................................................12

7.1 Steps before actual sampling ...................................................................................................................................................12

7.2 Steps during sampling ...................................................................................................................................................................12

7.3 Steps after sampling ........................................................................................................................................................................13

8 Handling and storage of samples .....................................................................................................................................................13

9 Precision ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................13

Annex A (normative) Procedure for the development of a sampling plan ................................................................14

Annex B (normative) Guideline for a sampling plan ........................................................................................................................17

Annex C (informative) Example of a sampling plan ...........................................................................................................................21

Annex D (normative) Sampling equipment and implements ..................................................................................................26

Annex E (normative) Determination of minimum sample mass ..........................................................................................33

Annex F (normative) Determination of increment mass for sampling from material flows ..................39

Annex G (normative) Determination of increment mass for sampling from static lots or vehicles 42

Annex I (normative) Implementation of the sampling plan from a static lot or vehicle .............................47

Annex J (normative) Minimum sample mass required for analysis .................................................................................49

Annex K (informative) Additional information about precision ..........................................................................................53

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Annex L (informative) Distribution of increments .............................................................................................................................56

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................59

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Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 300, Solid recovered fuels.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
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Introduction

The testing of solid recovered fuel enables informed decisions about their subsequent handling and

use. In order to carry out a test on a solid recovered fuel a sample of the material is required. Before

any sampling operation is devised it is important that the objectives for sampling are clearly identified

and subsequently well executed to ensure that the expectations of any involved parties are recognized

and satisfied. The identification of objectives helps to define the level of testing required, e.g. thorough

examination or routine testing and in addition desired reliability of testing / assessment and frequency

of testing. The sampling objectives, along with the sequence of operations required to fulfil them are

detailed in an overall sampling plan. After a sampling plan has been prepared the sampling of solid

recovered fuels (SRF's) itself can be implemented.

This document is largely based on the work already done by CEN/TC 292 “Characterization of waste”

[1] [2]
and in particular EN 14899 and CEN/TR 15310-1 .

The main characteristic that makes SRF samples significantly different from other kinds of waste is

that very often SRFs are solid, but neither "granular" nor monolithic; it often happens that SRF samples

are fibrous-like materials. This typical characteristic of SRF implies that the statistical formula for

[1] [2]

sampling of EN 14899 and CEN/TR 15310-1 Annex D are not applicable without amendment. One

more term in the statistical equation is needed, namely the "shape factor" (f).
Figure 1 shows the links between the essential elements of a testing program.

Sampling procedures are provided for a range of process streams and common storage conditions. The

sampling technique adopted depends on a combination of different characteristics of the material and

circumstances encountered at the sampling location. The determining factors are:
— the type of solid recovered fuel;

— the situation at the sampling location / the way in which the material occurs (e.g. in a stockpile, on

a conveyor belt, in a lorry);

— the (expected) degree of heterogeneity (e.g. monostreams, mixed fuels, blended fuels).

This document is primarily geared toward laboratories, producers, suppliers and purchasers of solid

recovered fuels, but is also useful for the authorities and inspection organizations.

[25]
Standard for sampling of solid biofuels, see ISO 18135 .
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Figure 1 — Links between the essential elements of a testing program
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DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/DIS 21645:2020(E)
Solid recovered fuels — Methods for sampling
1 Scope

This document specifies methods for taking samples of solid recovered fuels for example from

production plants, from deliveries or from stock. It includes manual and mechanical methods.

It is not applicable to solid recovered fuels that are formed by liquid or sludge, but it includes

dewatered sludge.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/DIS 21637, Solid recovered fuels- Terminology, definitions and descriptions
ISO/CD 21640, Solid recovered fuels - Specifications and classes
ISO/CD 21646, Solid recovered fuels – Sample preparation

EN 15415-1, Solid recovered fuels — Determination of particle size distribution — Part 1: Screen method

for small dimension particles
CEN/TS 15401, Solid recovered fuels — Determination of bulk density
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/DIS 21637 and the

following apply.
3.1
general analysis sample

sub-sample of a laboratory sample having a nominal top size of 1 mm or less and used for a number of

chemical and physical analyses
3.2
coefficient of variation

estimate of the standard deviation of a population from a sample of n results divided by the mean of

that sample. Frequently stated as a percentage
[23]
Note 1 to entry: Adapted from Eurachem/Citac Guide CG 4 .
3.3
distribution factor

correction factor for the particle size distribution of the material to be sampled

3.4
drop flow

material flow falling over an overflow point or a drop point in a transport system

1) DIS expected 03/2020.
2) DIS expected during 2020.
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3.5
duplicate sample

two samples taken under comparable conditions, whereby this selection can be accomplished by taking

units adjacent in time or space

Note 1 to entry: Although the replicate samples are expected to be identical, often the only thing replicated is the

act of taking the physical sample.

Note 2 to entry: A duplicate sample is a replicate sample consisting of two portions.

Note 3 to entry: The replicate sample is usually used to estimate sample variability.

3.6
heterogeneity

degree to which a property or type of particle of a solid recovered fuel component is not uniformly

distributed throughout a quantity of material
3.7
homogeneity

degree to which a property or a type of particle of a solid recovered fuel component is uniformly

distributed throughout a quantity of material
3.8
increment

portion of fuel extracted from a lot or sub-lot in a single operation of the sampling device

3.9
laboratory sample

composite sample received by the laboratory on which sample preparation procedures for analysis are

undertaken

Note 1 to entry: When the laboratory sample is further prepared by mixing, subdividing, particle size reduction

or by combinations of these operations, the result is the general analysis sample. A test portion is removed from

the general analysis sample for the performance of the test or for analysis. When no preparation of the laboratory

sample is required, the test portion may be taken directly from the laboratory sample.

3.10
lot
defined quantity of fuel for which the quality is to be determined
Note 1 to entry: A lot may be divided into sub-lots.
[SOURCE: ISO 13909-1:2016, 3.16]
3.11
mechanical durability

measure of resistance of densified fuels from shocks and/or abrasion as a consequence of handling and

transportation processes, characterized by pellets disintegration and fines formation

3.12
metallic aluminium

aluminium that could be extracted from solid recovered fuel by using a 0,75 M NaOH solution, after

leaching with 0,14 M HNO3 solution

Note 1 to entry: This includes the metallic aluminium and some chemical forms of aluminium non-soluble in

nitric acid but easily soluble in alkaline media.
3.13
moisture
water in a fuel
Note 1 to entry: See also total moisture.
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3.14
increment mass

dimension or mass of the increment that is taken from a lot in a single operation of the sampling device,

from the point of view of preserving its representativeness
3.15
minimum sample mass

minimum sample mass or dimension of the sample required during sampling and sample preparation

from the point of view of preserving its representativeness

Note 1 to entry: The minimum sample mass is equal to the increment mass multiplied by the number of

increments, and is linked directly to the nominal top size.
3.16
nominal top size

aperture size of the sieve used for determining the particle size distribution of solid fuels through

which at least 95 % by mass of the material passes
3.17
particle density
density of a single particle in a solid fuel
3.18
particle size
size of the fuel particles as determined in a solid fuel
Note 1 to entry: Different methods of determination can give different results.
Note 2 to entry: See also particle size distribution.
3.19
particle size distribution
proportions of various particle sizes in a solid fuel
3.20
producer
organization or unit responsible for the production of solid recovered fuel
Note 1 to entry: The producer can also be the supplier of the fuel.
3.21
precision

closeness of agreement between independent test/measurement results obtained under stipulated

conditions

Note 1 to entry: Precision depends only on the distribution of random errors and does not relate to the true value

or the specified value.

Note 2 to entry: The measure of precision is usually expressed in terms of imprecision and computed as a

standard deviation of the test results or measurement results. Less precision is reflected by a larger standard

deviation.

Note 3 to entry: Quantitative measures of precision depend critically on the stipulated conditions.

[19]

[SOURCE: ISO 3534-2:2006, 3.3.4 – modified: second sentence of Note 3 to entry was removed.]

3.22
random sampling

taking a sample at a random location within a specified range or from a specified lot such that every

portion of the solid recovered fuel would have the same chance of being part of the sample

Note 1 to entry: A random location is determined by lot.
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3.23
sample

quantity of fuel, representative of a larger mass for which the quality is to be determined

3.24
sample preparation

actions taken to obtain representative analysis samples or test portions from the original sample

3.25
particle size reduction
reduction of the nominal top size of a sample or sub-sample
3.26
sampling
process of drawing or constituting a sample
3.27
sampling plan

predetermined procedure for the selection, withdrawal, preservation, transportation and preparation

of the portions to be removed from a lot as a sample
3.28
sampling record

report which serves as a check list and provides the investigator with all necessary information about

the sampling techniques applied at the site and any additional important information

[20]

[SOURCE: ISO 11074:2015, 4.4.26 – modified: part of definition was removed as irrelevant to this

context]
3.29
shape factor

factor that corrects the minimum sample mass if the particles in a lot have not a regular shape (e.g.

spherical or cubic)
3.30
solid recovered fuel

solid fuel derived from non-hazardous waste to be used for energy purposes and meeting the

classification and specification requirements laid down in ISO/CD 21640

Note 1 to entry: A number of terms can be used to describe fuels from waste that might (but not always) qualify

as solid recovered fuels. For example, refuse derived fuel, refuse derived paper and plastics densified fuel, waste

derived fuel, shredded light fraction, sewage sludge, end of life wood, fuel composed of either municipal solid waste,

industrial waste, commercial waste, construction and demolition waste, animal waste (e.g. meat and bone meal).

Note 2 to entry: This definition does not distinguish between valuable/commercial waste and non-valuable/non-

commercial waste.

Note 3 to entry: The determination of whether a solid recovered fuel is hazardous or non-hazardous is determined

through national laws and Directives or by categorisation of the fuel through the Annexes in the Basel Convention

On The Control Of Transboundary Movements Of Hazardous Wastes And Their Disposal

Note 4 to entry: Typically recovered non-hazardous waste has gone through a process or procedure to enable it

to be classified as being re-purposed for the use of energy conversion
3.31
specification
document stating requirements
[SOURCE: ISO 9000:2015, 3.8.7 – modified: example and notes were removed]
Note 1 to entry: See also specification of solid recovered fuels.
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3.32
specification of solid recovered fuels
specification for the properties characterising a solid recovered fuel
Note 1 to entry: A template for such specification is given in ISO/CD 21640.
3.33
static lot

lot that is not in motion during the sampling, or transported by a conveyor or alternative transport system

3.34
stratified sampling

sampling consisting of portions obtained from identified subparts (strata) of the parent population

3.35
stratified random sampling

sampling consisting of portions obtained from identified subparts (strata) of the parent population

Note 1 to entry: Within each stratum, the samples are taken randomly.
3.36
sub-lot
part of a lot for which a test result is required
3.37
sub-sample
portion of a sample

Note 1 to entry: A sub-sample is obtained by procedures in which the items of interest are randomly distributed

in part of equal or unequal size.

Note 2 to entry: A sub-sample may be either a portion of the sample obtained by selection or division of the

sample itself, or the final sample of a multistage sample preparation.
3.38
test portion

sub-sample of a laboratory or general analysis sample consisting of the quantity of material required

for a single execution of a test method

Note 1 to entry: Note 1 to entry: The test portion can be taken from the laboratory sample directly if no

preparation of sample is required (e.g. for Bulk Density determination or particle size distribution).

3.39
total moisture
moisture content
moisture in a fuel measured under specific conditions on as received basis
3.40
trueness

closeness of agreement between the expectation of a test result or a measurement result and a true value

Note 1 to entry: The measure of trueness is usually expressed in terms of bias.

Note 2 to entry: Trueness is sometimes referred to as “accuracy of the mean”. This usage is not recommended.

Note 3 to entry: In practice, the accepted reference value is substituted for the true value.

Note 4 to entry: The determination of the exact trueness for waste and from waste derived materials such as

solid recovered fuels is by definition not possible.
[19]
[SOURCE: ISO 3534-2:2006, 3.3.3 – modified: Note 4 to entry was added]
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3.41
actual sample mass
amount of sample taken from the lot, consisting of all increments
3.42
composite sample
sample consisting of all the increments taken from a lot or a sub-lot
3.43
particle size reduction
reduction of the nominal top size of a sample or sub-sample
4 Symbols

For the purposes of this document, the following symbols and abbreviated terms apply.

b is the breadth of the flow, in m
cv is the coefficient of variation

d is the nominal minimum size (a mass fraction of 5 % of the particles are smaller than d ), in mm

05 05

d is the nominal top size of a particle (a mass fraction of 95 % of the particles are smaller than

d ), in mm
g is the correction factor for distribution in the particle size
G is the conveyor load, in kg/m
λ is the bulk density of the solid recovered fuel, in kg/m
λ is the particle density, in kg/m
m is mass, in kg
n is the number of increments to be taken per lot

p is the fraction of the particles with a specific characteristic (such as a specific contaminant), in

kg/kg, and is equal to 0,1
Ф is the drop flow, in kg/s
3 3
f is the shape factor, in m /m
V is volume, in m
v is conveyor velocity, in m/s
5 Principle

Every particle in the lot or sub-lot to be represented by the sample should have an equal probability of

being included in the sample. When this principle cannot be applied in practice, the sampler shall note

the limitations in the sampling plan
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6 Development of a sampling plan
6.1 Principle

From a pre-defined lot of solid recovered fuel, samples shall be taken representatively on the basis of a

sampling plan that shall be drawn up before the sampling takes place.

The sampling plan shall be drawn up on the basis of the objective for the sampling process, using the

available data on a solid recovered fuel and the a
...

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