This International Standard specifies a classification system for solid recovered fuels (SRF)
and a template for the specification of their properties.
SRF are produced from non-hazardous waste.
Excluded:
— untreated municipal solid waste
— Solid Biofuels included in the scope of ISO TC238

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This document addresses the provision of background references that are helpful in defining a more detailed specification for SRF according to its specific end use for energy conversion (EfW plants) and to support the SRF market. The aim is to enable all the interested stakeholders – producers, end users, legislators, local authority bodies and standardization bodies – to guarantee that the SRF complies fully with technical, environmental and economic requirements and to facilitate its social acceptability when utilized for energy conversion. This document is intended to provide references for the specification of SRF produced from non-hazardous waste streams and traded to EfW plants as waste. The quality of such SRF is specified through values for relevant fuel properties, appropriate to the subsequent end uses that have an expected growth or an established/well consolidated role in heat and power generation in waste-to-energy systems: —   coal co-combustion in cement kilns, —   gasification, —   coal co-combustion in power plants. The SRF can also be used in other end-use applications but these are not addressed in this document.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of gross calorific value of solid recovered fuels at constant volume and at the reference temperature 25 °C in a combustion vessel calorimeter calibrated by combustion of certified benzoic acid.

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This document specifies procedures for the size analysis of coke by manual and/or low impact mechanical sieving, using square or round holed sieves of aperture sizes between 125 mm and 0,5 mm. Guidance on handling the sampling and sizing of coke products greater than 125 mm is given in Annex A.

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This document specifies a classification system for solid recovered fuels (SRF), and a template containing a list of characteristics for the specification of their properties, enabling trade and use of SRF supporting the protection of the environment. SRF are produced from non-hazardous waste. NOTEÂ 1Â Â Â Untreated municipal solid waste as such cannot be considered SRF. Untreated municipal solid waste can however be feedstock to plants producing SRF. NOTEÂ 2Â Â Â Chemically treated solid biofuels that do not contain halogenated organic compounds or heavy metals at levels higher than those in typical virgin material, can be defined as solid biofuels and thus be part of the standard series ISOÂ 17225[1].

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The method should be useable for all SRF and will make it possible to obtain a representative sample from a large stock of SRF

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This Standard specifies the requirements and a method for the determination of volatile matter of solid
recovered fuels.

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This International Standard specifies a method for the determination of moisture in an analysis sample
by drying the sample in an oven. It is applicable to all solid recovered fuels.

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This Standard specifies a method for the determination of ash content of all solid recovered fuels.

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This International Standard provides principles and requirements for safe handling and
storage of solid recovered fuels (SRF).
The International Standard covers the handling, transportation and storage of SRF
throughout the supply chain, from the point of reception of non-hazardous waste.

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This document specifies methods for taking samples of solid recovered fuels for example from production plants, from deliveries or from stock. It includes manual and mechanical methods. It is not applicable to solid recovered fuels that are formed by liquid or sludge, but it includes dewatered sludge.

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This document specifies the requirements and a method for the determination of volatile matter of solid recovered fuels.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of moisture in a general analysis sample by drying the sample in an oven. This method is suitable for use for general analysis samples in accordance with CEN/TS 15414‑1[3][1]. It is applicable to all solid recovered fuels. If solid recovered fuels contain large amounts of oil-fractions the Karl-Fischer-Method (for example ISO 760) is advisable. Otherwise, a lower temperature is recommended (e.g. 50 °C ± 10 °C) and a longer drying time until constant mass is achieved. NOTE The term moisture content, when used with recovered materials, can be misleading since solid recovered materials, e. g. biomass, frequently contain varying amounts of volatile compounds (extractives) which can evaporate when determining the moisture content of the general analyses sample by oven drying. [1] The adoption of the standard series EN 15414 as standard series ISO 21660 is planned. ISO 21660‑3 is published in parallel at CEN level as EN 21660-3.

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This document specifies methods for the determination of ash content of all solid recovered fuels.

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This document provides principles and requirements for safe handling, treatment and storage of solid recovered fuels (SRF), prepared from non-hazardous waste, to be used for energy purposes. This document covers process stages from point of acceptance of material to point of delivery of SRF. This document excludes fuels that are included in the scope of ISO/TC 238 Solid biofuels and ISO/TC 28 Petroleum products and related products of synthetic or biological origin. It uses a risk-based approach to determine what safety measures are to be considered. Although unloading and loading of e.g. vessels, trains or trucks are included, the safety issues following the loading and transport itself are not.

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This International Standard specifies two methods for the determination of the biomass content in solid
recovered fuels: the selective dissolution and the 14C content method. The standard provides the
criteria for choosing the more appropriate method and some examples of application.

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This International Standard defines terms and definitions concerned in all standardisation work within
the scope of ISO/TC 300, i.e. terms used in the field of production and trade of solid recovered fuels
that are prepared from non-hazardous waste.
NOTE Solid biofuels are covered by the scope of ISO/TC 238.
Definitions in other standards with a scope different from the scope of this International Standard can
be different from the definitions in this International Standard.

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This International Standard specifies a method for the determination of carbon (C), hydrogen (H),
nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S) by instrumental method. Depending on the amount of test portion used,
micro and macro instrumental apparatus are used.
An alternative method based on high temperature furnace combustion and IR detection is described in
Annex A.

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This document specifies three methods for the determination of the biomass content in solid recovered fuels: the 14C content method, the selective dissolution and the manual sorting methods.

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This document defines terms for solid recovered fuels to enable the user to understand the scope of the work of ISO/TC 300. Where a term and definition are required in a single standard, the term and definition will be referenced in that standard.

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This document specifies the determination of total content of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur in solid recovered fuels by instrumental method. Depending on the amount of test portion, micro or macro instrumental apparatus are used. This method is applicable for concentrations on dry matter basis of C > 0,1 %, N > 0,1 %, H > 0,1 % and S > 0,05 %.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the coke bulk density in a large container such as a wagon or skip.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the gross calorific value of a solid mineral fuel at constant volume and at the reference temperature of 25 °C in a combustion vessel calorimeter calibrated by combustion of certified benzoic acid. The result obtained is the gross calorific value of the analysis sample at constant volume with all the water of the combustion products as liquid water. In practice, fuel is burned at constant (atmospheric) pressure and the water is not condensed but is removed as vapour with the flue gases. Under these conditions, the operative heat of combustion is the net calorific value of the fuel at constant pressure. The net calorific value at constant volume can also be used; formulae are given for calculating both values. General principles and procedures for the calibrations and the fuel tests are specified in the main text, whereas those pertaining to the use of a particular type of calorimetric instrument are described in Annexes A to C. Annex D contains checklists for performing calibration and fuel tests using specified types of calorimeters. Annex E gives examples illustrating some of the calculations. Annex F provides guidance around safe use, maintenance and testing of the calorimeter combustion vessel. NOTE Descriptors: solid fuels, coal, coke, tests, determination, calorific value, rules of calculation, calorimetry.

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This document specifies a reference method for determining the total sulfur content of hard coal, brown coals and lignites, and coke by the Eschka method.

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This document specifies a method of determining the chlorine content of hard coal, brown coals and lignites, and coke using Eschka mixture.

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This document: a) specifies a general test procedure for quantification of the spontaneous heat generation from solid biofuel pellets using isothermal calorimetry; b) specifies a screening test procedure for wood pellets using an instrument temperature of 60 °C; c) establishes procedures for sampling and sample handling of solid biofuel pellets prior to the analysis of spontaneous heat generation; and d) gives guidance on the applicability and use of isothermal calorimetry for calculation of the net reaction rate of the heat producing reactions of solid biofuel pellets. The test procedure given in this document quantifies the thermal power (heat flow) of the sample during the test, it does not identify the source of self-heating in the test portion analysed. Data on spontaneous heat generation determined using this document is only associated with the specific quality and age of the sample material. The results are product specific. This document is applicable to solid biofuel pellets only. The information derived using this document is for use in quality control and in hazard and risk assessments related to the procedures given in ISO 20024:2020.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the mechanical strength of coke having a particle size greater than 20 mm.

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This document provides principles and requirements for safe handling and storage of solid biofuels pellets in commercial and industrial applications. This document is using a risk-based approach to determine what safety measures should be considered. Facilities with a storage capacity This document covers the handling and storage process of pellets in the following applications: — at a pellet production plant from the outlet of the cooler unit until loaded for transportation; — at a commercial distributor from the receiving station until loaded for transportation; and — at an industrial end-user from the receiving station until fed into the fuel preparation or combustion process. Although unloading and loading of e.g. vessels, trains or trucks are included in the operational envelops defined above, the safety aspect of the transportation itself is beyond the scope of this document. This document also gives specific guidance on detection and suppression systems and preparatory measures to enable safe and efficient firefighting operations. Guidance on the management of fire and explosion incidents is also specified.

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The proposed international standard describes methods for reducing combined samples (or increments) to laboratory
samples - and laboratory samples to sub-samples and general analysis samples and is applicable to solid biofuels.
The methods described in this proposed document may be used for sample preparation, for example, when the
samples are to be tested for calorific value, moisture content, ash content, bulk density, durability, particle size
distribution, ash melting behaviour, chemical composition, and impurities. The methods are not intended to be
applied to the very large samples required for the testing of bridging properties.

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This document sets out recommended practices for the inspection of mechanical sampling systems. It serves as a guide for conformance with applicable ISO/TC 27 standards. This document covers general considerations including precision, mineral variability and bias, establishment of inspection systems and inspection procedure.

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This document specifies two methods (high temperature combustion and high pressure vessel combustion) for the determination of chlorine in solid mineral fuels. It is applicable to solid mineral fuels. The chlorine in the absorption solution can be determined using different finishes, such as coulometric or potentiometric titration, spectrophotometry or ion chromatography. The method is applicable to determine the chlorine content higher than 0,005 % mass fraction.

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This document specifies a gravimetric method of determining the carbon in the mineral carbonates associated with solid mineral fuels. NOTE The result obtained will include any carbon from atmospheric carbon dioxide absorbed by the fuel.

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This document provides principles and requirements for the safe handling and storage of wood pellets in residential and other small-scale applications. It covers the supply chain from loading of the delivery truck, requirements of delivery trucks, connections to the end-user's store and the delivery process. It also covers the design and construction of pellet storage systems. This document addresses risks of fires, dust explosions, off-gassing, oxygen depletion, damage to appliances and buildings through swelling of pellets and other health risks. It is applicable to wood pellets according to ISO 17225-2.

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This document sets out a wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF) procedure for the determination of silicon, aluminium, iron, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, titanium, manganese, phosphorus and sulfur.

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ISO 18894:2018 specifies the equipment and techniques used for determining lump-coke (nominal top size >20 mm) reactivity in carbon dioxide gas at elevated temperatures and its strength after reaction in carbon dioxide gas by tumbling in a cylindrical chamber. Main application is the testing of coke to be used in iron making blast furnaces (CRI~ 55). This standard can also be applied to other coke types (e.g. foundry coke), but limited precision is to be expected. Application to coke for non-iron making blast furnaces is beyond the scope of this document.

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This part of this European Standard is applicable to barbecues which burn solid fuels, except single use barbecues. Barbecues which are intended to be converted from other fuels to solid fuels also should conform to this standard.
This European Standard specifies requirements for materials, construction, design, test methods, markings and instructions relating to them.

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This part of this European Standard is applicable to barbecues which burn solid fuels, except single use barbecues. Barbecues which are intended to be converted from other fuels to solid fuels also should conform to this standard.
This European Standard specifies requirements for materials, construction, design, test methods, markings and instructions relating to them.

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ISO 20336:2017 specifies an alternative method of determining the total sulfur content of coal and coke by high-temperature combustion ? Coulomb titration.

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This part of this European Standard is applicable to barbecues which burn solid fuels, except single use barbecues. Barbecues which are intended to be converted from other fuels to solid fuels also should conform to this standard.
This European Standard specifies requirements for materials, construction, design, test methods, markings and instructions relating to them.

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This part of this European Standard is applicable to barbecues which burn solid fuels, except single use barbecues. Barbecues which are intended to be converted from other fuels to solid fuels also should conform to this standard.
This European Standard specifies requirements for materials, construction, design, test methods, markings and instructions relating to them.

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The proposed international standard describes methods for reducing combined samples (or increments) to laboratory
samples - and laboratory samples to sub-samples and general analysis samples and is applicable to solid biofuels.
The methods described in this proposed document may be used for sample preparation, for example, when the
samples are to be tested for calorific value, moisture content, ash content, bulk density, durability, particle size
distribution, ash melting behaviour, chemical composition, and impurities. The methods are not intended to be
applied to the very large samples required for the testing of bridging properties.

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ISO 18125:2017 specifies a method for the determination of the gross calorific value of a solid biofuel at constant volume and at the reference temperature 25 °C in a bomb calorimeter calibrated by combustion of certified benzoic acid.
The result obtained is the gross calorific value of the analysis sample at constant volume with all the water of the combustion products as liquid water. In practice, biofuels are burned at constant (atmospheric) pressure and the water is either not condensed (removed as vapour with the flue gases) or condensed. Under both conditions, the operative heat of combustion to be used is the net calorific value of the fuel at constant pressure. The net calorific value at constant volume may also be used; formulae are given for calculating both values.
General principles and procedures for the calibrations and the biofuel experiments are presented in the main text, whereas those pertaining to the use of a particular type of calorimetric instrument are described in Annexes A to C. Annex D contains checklists for performing calibration and fuel experiments using specified types of calorimeters. Annex E gives examples to illustrate some of the calculations.

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ISO 14780:2017 defines methods for reducing combined samples (or increments) to laboratory samples and laboratory samples to sub-samples and general analysis samples and is applicable to solid biofuels.
The methods defined in this document can be used for sample preparation, for example, when the samples are to be tested for calorific value, moisture content, ash content, bulk density, durability, particle size distribution, ash melting behaviour, chemical composition, and impurities.

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ISO 19743:2017 specifies a method for the determination of content of heavy extraneous materials larger than 3,15 mm by the use of sink-and-float separation combined with elutriation. This document is applicable to woody biomass in accordance with ISO 17225‑1:2014, Table 1.

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ISO 18135:2017 describes methods for preparing sampling plans and certificates, as well as taking samples of solid biofuels, for example, from the place where the raw materials grow, from production plant, from deliveries, e.g. lorry loads, or from stock. It includes both manual and mechanical methods, and is applicable to solid biofuels that are either:
- fine (particle sizes up to about 10 mm) and regularly shaped particulate materials that can be sampled using a scoop or pipe, for example, sawdust, olive stones and wood pellets;
- coarse or irregularly shaped particulate materials (particle sizes up to about 200 mm) that can be sampled using a fork or shovel, for example, wood chips and nut shells, forest residue chips, and straw;
- baled materials, for example, baled straw or grass;
- large pieces (particle sizes above 200 mm) that are either picked manually or automatically;
- vegetable waste, fibrous waste from virgin pulp production and from production of paper from pulp that has been dewatered;
- thermally treated and densified biomass materials;
- roundwood.
ISO 18135:2017 is not applicable to airborne dust from solid biofuels. It may be possible to use this document for other solid biofuels.
The methods described in this document may be used, for example, when the samples are to be tested for moisture content, ash content, calorific value, bulk density, durability, particle size distribution, ash melting behaviour and chemical composition.

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ISO 14780:2017 defines methods for reducing combined samples (or increments) to laboratory samples and laboratory samples to sub-samples and general analysis samples and is applicable to solid biofuels. The methods defined in this document can be used for sample preparation, for example, when the samples are to be tested for calorific value, moisture content, ash content, bulk density, durability, particle size distribution, ash melting behaviour, chemical composition, and impurities.

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ISO 18125:2017 specifies a method for the determination of the gross calorific value of a solid biofuel at constant volume and at the reference temperature 25 °C in a bomb calorimeter calibrated by combustion of certified benzoic acid. The result obtained is the gross calorific value of the analysis sample at constant volume with all the water of the combustion products as liquid water. In practice, biofuels are burned at constant (atmospheric) pressure and the water is either not condensed (removed as vapour with the flue gases) or condensed. Under both conditions, the operative heat of combustion to be used is the net calorific value of the fuel at constant pressure. The net calorific value at constant volume may also be used; formulae are given for calculating both values. General principles and procedures for the calibrations and the biofuel experiments are presented in the main text, whereas those pertaining to the use of a particular type of calorimetric instrument are described in Annexes A to C. Annex D contains checklists for performing calibration and fuel experiments using specified types of calorimeters. Annex E gives examples to illustrate some of the calculations.

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ISO 19743:2017 specifies a method for the determination of content of heavy extraneous materials larger than 3,15 mm by the use of sink-and-float separation combined with elutriation. This document is applicable to woody biomass in accordance with ISO 17225‑1:2014, Table 1.

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ISO 18135:2017 describes methods for preparing sampling plans and certificates, as well as taking samples of solid biofuels, for example, from the place where the raw materials grow, from production plant, from deliveries, e.g. lorry loads, or from stock. It includes both manual and mechanical methods, and is applicable to solid biofuels that are either: - fine (particle sizes up to about 10 mm) and regularly shaped particulate materials that can be sampled using a scoop or pipe, for example, sawdust, olive stones and wood pellets; - coarse or irregularly shaped particulate materials (particle sizes up to about 200 mm) that can be sampled using a fork or shovel, for example, wood chips and nut shells, forest residue chips, and straw; - baled materials, for example, baled straw or grass; - large pieces (particle sizes above 200 mm) that are either picked manually or automatically; - vegetable waste, fibrous waste from virgin pulp production and from production of paper from pulp that has been dewatered; - thermally treated and densified biomass materials; - roundwood. ISO 18135:2017 is not applicable to airborne dust from solid biofuels. It may be possible to use this document for other solid biofuels. The methods described in this document may be used, for example, when the samples are to be tested for moisture content, ash content, calorific value, bulk density, durability, particle size distribution, ash melting behaviour and chemical composition.

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