Solid recovered fuels - Specifications and classes (ISO 21640:2021)

This International Standard specifies a classification system for solid recovered fuels (SRF)
and a template for the specification of their properties.
SRF are produced from non-hazardous waste.
Excluded:
— untreated municipal solid waste
— Solid Biofuels included in the scope of ISO TC238

Feste Sekundärbrennstoffe - Spezifikationen und Klassen (ISO 21640:2021)

Dieses Dokument legt ein Klassifizierungssystem für feste Sekundärbrennstoffe (SRF) und ein Formular fest, das eine Liste mit Kenngrößen für die Spezifikation ihrer Eigenschaften enthält, die den Handel und die Verwendung von SRF zum Schutz der Umwelt ermöglichen.
SRF werden aus nicht gefährlichen Abfällen hergestellt.
ANMERKUNG 1   Unbehandelter fester Siedlungsabfall als solcher kann nicht als SRF betrachtet werden. Unbehandelter fester Siedlungsabfall kann jedoch als Ausgangsmaterial für Anlagen dienen, die SRF herstellen.
ANMERKUNG 2   Chemisch behandelte biogene Festbrennstoffe, die keine halogenorganischen Verbindungen oder Schwermetalle enthalten, deren Schwellwerte höher sind als die in typischen Rohstoffen, können als biogene Festbrennstoffe definiert werden und sind somit Teil der Normenreihe ISO 17225 [1].

Combustibles solides de récupération - Spécifications et classes (ISO 21640:2021)

Trdna alternativna goriva - Specifikacije in razredi (ISO 21640:2021)

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
31-May-2020
Publication Date
12-Jul-2021
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
09-Jun-2021
Due Date
14-Aug-2021
Completion Date
13-Jul-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 21640:2021
01-september-2021
Nadomešča:
SIST EN 15359:2012
Trdna alternativna goriva - Specifikacije in razredi (ISO 21640:2021)
Solid recovered fuels - Specifications and classes (ISO 21640:2021)
Feste Sekundärbrennstoffe - Spezifikationen und Klassen (ISO 21640:2021)

Combustibles solides de récupération - Spécifications et classes (ISO 21640:2021)

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 21640:2021
ICS:
75.160.10 Trda goriva Solid fuels
SIST EN ISO 21640:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 21640:2021
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 21640:2021
EN ISO 21640
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
May 2021
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 75.160.10 Supersedes EN 15359:2011
English Version
Solid recovered fuels - Specifications and classes (ISO
21640:2021)

Combustibles solides de récupération - Spécifications Feste Sekundärbrennstoffe - Spezifikationen und

et classes (ISO 21640:2021) Klassen (ISO 21640:2021)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 1 May 2021.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 21640:2021 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 21640:2021
EN ISO 21640:2021 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 21640:2021
EN ISO 21640:2021 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 21640:2021) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 300 "Solid

recovered materials, including solid recovered fuels" in collaboration with Technical Committee

CEN/TC 343 “Solid Recovered Fuels” the secretariat of which is held by SFS.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by November 2021, and conflicting national standards

shall be withdrawn at the latest by November 2021.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN 15359:2011.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 21640:2021 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 21640:2021 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 21640:2021
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SIST EN ISO 21640:2021
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 21640
First edition
2021-05
Solid recovered fuels — Specifications
and classes
Combustibles solides de récupération — Spécifications et classes
Reference number
ISO 21640:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 21640:2021
ISO 21640:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 21640:2021
ISO 21640:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols and abbreviations ....................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Principles ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

6 Classification ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

7 Specifications ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

7.2 Origin ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

7.3 Traded forms of solid recovered fuels ................................................................................................................................ 6

7.4 Properties obligatory to specify ............................................................................................................................................... 7

7.5 Properties non-obligatory to specify ................................................................................................................................... 8

8 Compliance rules .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

8.1 Compliance rules for classification ........................................................................................................................................ 9

8.1.1 General compliance rules ......................................................................................................................................... 9

8.1.2 Start-up or considerable changes in the production .....................................................................10

8.1.3 Exemptions ........................................................................................................................................................................10

8.2 Compliance rules for specification .....................................................................................................................................10

8.2.1 General compliance rules ......................................................................................................................................10

8.2.2 Exemptions ........................................................................................................................................................................11

9 Requirements and declaration of conformity .....................................................................................................................11

Annex A (normative) Template for the specification of solid recovered fuels .......................................................12

Annex B (informative) Fuel preparation .......................................................................................................................................................14

Annex C (informative) Template for declaration of conformity ............................................................................................16

Annex D (informative) Calculation of standard deviation, median and 80 percentile .............................18

Annex E (informative) Examples of establishing of compliance with SRF classification ............................20

Annex F (informative) Examples of establishing of compliance with SRF specification .............................24

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................26

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 21640:2021
ISO 21640:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 300 Solid recovered fuels.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 21640:2021
ISO 21640:2021(E)
Introduction

The objective of this document is to provide a common classification and specification system for solid

recovered fuels (SRF) to enable efficient trading of SRF, to promote their safe use in energy conversion

activities and to increase the public trust. The document facilitates a good understanding between

seller and buyer, supports purchase, trans border movements, use and supervision as well as an

effective communication with equipment manufacturers. The classification and specification system

support authority permission procedures and ease the reporting on environmental issues.

SRF are produced from non-hazardous waste. The input waste can be production specific waste,

municipal solid waste, industrial waste, commercial waste, construction and demolition waste, sewage

sludge etc. It is thus obvious that SRF are a heterogeneous group of fuels. A well-defined system for

classification and specification is therefore of significant importance to reach the above-mentioned

objectives and intentions.

This document covers all types of SRF and will thus have a wide field of application. The aim of producing

a solid recovered fuel is to use it for energy purposes at the highest possible energy efficiency.

This document describes the compliance rules for SRF according to this classification system.

Classification enables statistical information of SRF properties in the market, thus increasing

transparency in the use of non-hazardous waste in SRF and demonstrating development of this business

field.

This document also describes how the supplier can establish specifications and a declaration of

conformity to the different ISO standards for SRF.

It is important to emphasise that despite the standardisation of SRF, the standard should not be

interpreted as end-of-waste criteria. Such criteria can be set at national or regional levels, but then in

legislation and not in this document. Also, it should be noted that the waste used for the SRF production

should be such waste streams that are not suitable for re-use, preparation for re-use or efficient

material recycling.

Figure 1 illustrates a simplified flow chain for SRF, from input of non-hazardous waste to end use of

SRF. This document has an interface to all the stages in the chain, from point of acceptance to point of

delivery. The fuel is not considered an SRF until it is specified and classified according to this document.

Requirements for how the input waste is collected and how to use the SRF are not part of this document.

Figure 1 — Solid recovered fuels chain – This document on specifications and classes is

applicable after production up to the point of delivery
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 21640:2021
ISO 21640:2021(E)

NOTE This document is applicable to trading and storage of SRF. However, if during storage or trade the

SRF is mixed with other SRF or other fuels, then the classification and specifications are no longer valid. If sold

further, then the mixing would constitute an SRF production.
vi © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 21640:2021
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 21640:2021(E)
Solid recovered fuels — Specifications and classes
1 Scope

This document specifies a classification system for solid recovered fuels (SRF), and a template

containing a list of characteristics for the specification of their properties, enabling trade and use of

SRF supporting the protection of the environment.
SRF are produced from non-hazardous waste.

NOTE 1 Untreated municipal solid waste as such cannot be considered SRF. Untreated municipal solid waste

can however be feedstock to plants producing SRF.

NOTE 2 Chemically treated solid biofuels that do not contain halogenated organic compounds or heavy metals

at levels higher than those in typical virgin material, can be defined as solid biofuels and thus be part of the

[1]
standard series ISO 17225 .
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 21637, Solid recovered fuels — Vocabulary
ISO 21645, Solid recovered fuels — Methods for sampling
ISO 21654, Solid recovered fuels — Determination of calorific value
ISO 21656, Solid recovered fuels — Determination of ash content

ISO 21660-3Solid recovered fuels — Determination of moisture content using the oven dry method —

Part 3: Moisture in general analysis sample
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 21637 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
classification of solid recovered fuels

categorizing of solid recovered fuels into classes focusing on the key properties – NCV, Cl and Hg that

are defined by boundary values
3.2
specification of solid recovered fuels
list of properties that characterizes solid recovered fuels

Note 1 to entry: Templates for such specifications are given in Annex A in this document.

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 21640:2021
ISO 21640:2021(E)
4 Symbols and abbreviations

The symbols and abbreviations used in this document comply with the SI system of units as far as

possible.
Table 1 — Symbols and abbreviations
Symbol Definition
(d) dry (dry basis)

d particle diameter where x denominates the share of particles passing through a sieve of that size

(ar) as received
A Designation for ash content on dry basis A [% in mass]
(d)
ρ Designation for bulk density as received [kg/m ]
M Designation for moisture content as received on wet basis, M [% in mass]

P Designation for the particle size of the main fraction (> 95 % in mass) related to size intervals.

NCV Designation for net calorific value as received, q [MJ/kg or kWh/kg or MWh/t] at constant

p, net, ar
pressure
VM Designation for volatile matter on dry basis [% in mass]

NOTE 1 MJ/kg equals 0,277 8 kWh/kg (1 kWh/kg equals 1 MWh/t and 1 MWh/t are 3,6 MJ/kg). 1 g/cm

equals 1 kg/dm . 1 mg/kg equals 0,000 1 % in mass.
5 Principles

The classification system is based on three important characteristics, referred to as the main SRF

characteristics: an economic characteristic (net calorific value), a technical characteristic (chlorine

content) and an environmental characteristic (mercury content). The characteristics are chosen to give

a stakeholder an immediate but simplified picture of the fuel in question.

The classes also impose limitations on what can be called SRF restricting it with a minimum net calorific

value as well as maximum values of chlorine and mercury. Fuel outside the ranges of the classes shall

not be defined as SRF.

Only fuels derived from non-hazardous waste that meet the SRF ISO Standards can be classified as SRF.

The classification itself is not enough for an intending user or other stakeholders. The level of detailed

information needed depends on several different factors. Such factors can be; the end use of the SRF,

legislative demands, character of the input material, and the technology used either in production or

end use of the SRF. Relevant fuel properties are thus to be given in the specification of the SRF. Some of

the fuel properties are deemed so important that they are obligatory to specify whereas others can be

recorded voluntarily, e.g. upon request of the user.

It is important that SRF meet specified quality requirements which are to be determined based on a

defined lot size by a minimum number of measurements.
6 Classification

The classification system (Table 2) for SRF is based on limit values for three important fuel

characteristics. These are the net calorific value (NCV); chlorine content (Cl); mercury content (Hg).

Due to the statistical distribution pattern of the characteristics the values shall be presented as:

2 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 21640:2021
ISO 21640:2021(E)
— NCV (ar) mean (arithmetic);
— Cl (d) mean (arithmetic);
— Hg (ar) median and 80 percentile

The average, median, and percentiles are determined on the quantity of SRF as specified in Clause 8.

NOTE 1 80 percentile is the value on or below which 80 % of the observations fall.

[2]

Not all kinds of SRF are suited for all types of energy recovery installations, see CEN/TR 15508 .

Each of the classification characteristic is divided into 5 classes. The SRF should be assigned a class

number from 1 to 5 for each characteristic. A combination of the class numbers makes up a class code

(see example below). The characteristics should be considered as equal important and thus no single

class number determines the code. The class code shall be included in the specification as described in

Clause 9.

For mercury, the higher of the two statistical values (median and 80 percentile) in a Hg data set

determines the class.

EXAMPLE An SRF with a median value of 0,03 and 80 percentile value of 0,07 belongs to Hg class 3

(according to Table 2).

NOTE 2 The performances of the plant where SRF is used are depending on the properties of the SRF and

more significantly on the design and operating conditions of such a plant.

NOTE 3 The limit values used for different classes must not be mixed up with limit values set by the competent

authority in an environmental permit or other equally binding documents.

NOTE 4 The specific transfer factor for mercury of a given process and the proportion of SRF will determine

[2]

which classes can be used. Examples of transfer factors for existing processes are given in CEN/TR 15508 .

Table 2 — Classification for solid recovered fuels
Classes
Classification charac- Statistical meas-
Unit
teristic ure
1 2 3 4 5
Net calorific value
Mean MJ/kg (ar) ≥ 25 ≥ 20 ≥ 15 ≥ 10 ≥ 3
(NCV)
Chlorine (Cl) Mean % in mass (d) ≤ 0,2 ≤ 0,6 ≤ 1,0 ≤ 1,5 ≤ 3
Median mg/MJ (ar) ≤ 0,02 ≤ 0,03 ≤ 0,05 ≤ 0,10 ≤ 0,15
Mercury (Hg)
80 percentile mg/MJ (ar) ≤ 0,04 ≤ 0,06 ≤ 0,10 ≤ 0,20 ≤ 0,30
7 Specifications
7.1 General

The SRF shall be specified according to the template in Annex A. Annex A consists of properties that

are obligatory to specify. If the producer and the end user have agreed upon additional properties to be

specified, those should be documented in a similar way.

For specification of the properties in Annex A, determination shall be made according to ISO test

methods for SRF. Technical specifications or regional/national standards can be used if no ISO test

method is available. For additional properties, ISO test methods are recommended but other relevant

methods can be used. If other methods are used, it shall be stated in the SRF specification.

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 21640:2021
ISO 21640:2021(E)
7.2 Origin

The specification of origin is based on the origin and source of waste input material as described in

Table 3. The material accepted for SRF production are those that are not suitable for material recycling.

This can, as an example, include reject streams from packaging recycling/sorting. The main origin-

based solid recovered groups are:
1. Non- hazardous industrial waste

There are several waste streams generated within industry and commerce that could be used to

produce SRF. Different industrial sectors typically generate different kinds of wastes, like manure

from agriculture or fibre reject streams from pulp and paper industry. For this reason, there are

several subcategories (Table 3). However packaging waste are generated many different industries

and commerce operations. In this case they are often quite similar and are thus not specified for

individual industries. In this post is also included the packaging materials from construction

projects.
2. Non-hazardous construction and demolition waste

Construction waste and demolition waste differ from each other because constructing means

building something new while waste from demolition normally comes from old structures. In

renovation projects, both construction and demolition typically take place simultaneously, and thus

generates both types of waste. The waste from the construction and demolition industry used for

SRF production are mainly different wood and plastic fractions although also bituminous mixtures

considered as non-hazardous waste can be used. The possibility to source separate materials at

construction and demolition sites can be limited thus often resulting in a mixed waste fraction.

3. Non-hazardous waste from waste management facilities

Waste received at waste management facilities are treated in diverse ways. It can be water

treatment, composting, anaerobic treatment, sorting, crushing and densifying. When doing these

treatments, the plants will end up with different waste streams aimed for recycling, recovery or

disposal. Some of these can be used for the production of SRF.
4. Non-hazardous waste from material recycling facilities

During the recycling process, there will be material that does not fulfil the quality criteria. These

reject streams can be potentially used for the production of SRF.

5. Non-hazardous municipal solid waste and similar non-hazardous commercial waste

Although an untreated mixed municipal waste stream could not be called SRF, it still can be sorted

and used for the production of SRF. Municipal solid waste includes bulky waste and waste from

gardens and parks as well as waste from markets. Source separated material streams (e.g. paper,

plastics etc.) are not intended as direct input material for SRF production but are rather intended

for material recycling. Reject from these kinds of materials can be found above under bullet 4 Non-

hazardous waste from material recycling facilities.
6. Non- hazardous waste not otherwise specified in the list

If the waste origin is not covered in the above categories, it shall be declared here. The origin of the

waste should be described as clearly as possible.

It is not unusual that waste fractions that are intended for production of SRF (or for combustion) are

mixed during the logistic chain, thus there could be waste from different origins in the same transport.

However, the principle is to give as much detail about the origin as possible. Thus, if waste has been

collected from different industries (and not being packaging waste) then the separate codes of origins

shall be stated according to Table 3.
4 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 21640:2021
ISO 21640:2021(E)
Table 3 — Sources of input material for the production of SRF
1.1.1 plastic waste (except packaging)
1.1 wastes from agricul-

ture, horticulture, aqua- 1.1.2 absorbed urine and manure (including spoiled straw),

culture, forestry, hunting collected separately and treated off-site
and fishing
1.1.3 other non- hazardous waste
1.2.1 mechanically separated rejects from pulping of waste-
paper and cardboard
1.2 wastes from pulp,

paper and cardboard pro- 1.2.2 fibre rejects, fibre-, filler- and coating-sludges from

duction and processing mechanical separation
1.2.3 other non- hazardous waste
1.3.1 non-hazardous wood waste from chemically treated
1.3 waste from wood
wood
processing, production of
panels and furniture
1.3.2 other non-hazardous waste
1. Non- hazardous
1.4.1 waste from composite materials (impregnated textile,
industrial waste
elastomer, plastomer)
1.4 wastes from the tex-
1.4.2 waste from unprocessed textile fibres
tile industry
1.4.3 waste from processed textile fibres
1.4.4 other non- hazardous waste
1.5.1 plastic waste (except packaging)
1.5 wastes f
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN ISO 21640:2020
01-maj-2020
Trdna alternativna goriva - Specifikacije in razredi (ISO/DIS 21640:2020)
Solid recovered fuels - Specifications and classes (ISO/DIS 21640:2020)
Feste Sekundärbrennstoffe - Spezifikationen und Klassen (ISO/DIS 21640:2020)

Combustibles solides de récupération - Spécifications et classes (ISO/DIS 21640:2020)

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN ISO 21640
ICS:
75.160.10 Trda goriva Solid fuels
oSIST prEN ISO 21640:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 21640:2020
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 21640:2020
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
ISO/DIS 21640
ISO/TC 300 Secretariat: SFS
Voting begins on: Voting terminates on:
2020-03-18 2020-06-10
Solid recovered fuels — Specifications and classes
ICS: 75.160.10
THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED
This document is circulated as received from the committee secretariat.
FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS
THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY
NOT BE REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
ISO/CEN PARALLEL PROCESSING
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL,
TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND
USER PURPOSES, DRAFT INTERNATIONAL
STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO
BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR
POTENTIAL TO BECOME STANDARDS TO
WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
Reference number
NATIONAL REGULATIONS.
ISO/DIS 21640:2020(E)
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED
TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS,
NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT
RIGHTS OF WHICH THEY ARE AWARE AND TO
PROVIDE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION. ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 21640:2020
ISO/DIS 21640:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 21640:2020
ISO/DIS 21640:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols and abbreviations ....................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Principles ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

6 Classification ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

7 Specifications ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

7.2 Origin ............................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

7.3 Traded forms of solid recovered fuels ................................................................................................................................ 6

7.4 Properties obligatory to specify ............................................................................................................................................... 7

7.5 Properties non-obligatory to specify ................................................................................................................................... 7

8 Compliance rules .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

8.1 Compliance rules for classification ........................................................................................................................................ 8

8.1.1 General compliance rules ......................................................................................................................................... 8

8.1.2 Start-up or considerable changes in the production ........................................................................ 9

8.1.3 Exemptions ........................................................................................................................................................................10

8.2 Compliance rules for specification .....................................................................................................................................10

8.2.1 General compliance rules ......................................................................................................................................10

8.2.2 Exemptions ........................................................................................................................................................................10

9 Requirements and declaration of conformity .....................................................................................................................10

Annex A (normative) Template for the specification of solid recovered fuels .......................................................12

Annex B (informative) Fuel preparation .......................................................................................................................................................13

Annex C (informative) Template for declaration of conformity ............................................................................................15

Annex D (informative) Calculation of standard deviation, median and 80 percentile ..................................16

Annex E (informative) Examples of establishing of compliance with SRF classification ............................18

Annex F (informative) Examples of establishing of compliance with SRF specification .............................21

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................23

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Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 300 Solid recovered fuels.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
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Introduction

The objective of this document is to provide a common classification and specification system for solid

recovered fuels (SRF) to enable efficient trading of SRF, to promote their safe use in energy conversion

activities and to increase the public trust. The document will facilitate a good understanding between

seller and buyer, facilitate purchase, trans border movements, use and supervision as well as an

effective communication with equipment manufacturers. The classification and specification system

support authority permission procedures and ease the reporting on environmental issues.

SRF are produced from non-hazardous waste. The input waste can be production specific waste,

municipal solid waste, industrial waste, commercial waste, construction and demolition waste, sewage

sludge etc. It is thus obvious that SRF are a heterogeneous group of fuels. A well-defined system for

classification and specification is therefore of significant importance to reach the above-mentioned

objectives and intentions.

This document covers all types of SRF and will thus have a wide field of application. The aim of producing

a solid recovered fuel is to use it for energy purposes at the highest possible energy efficiency.

This document describes the compliance rules which SRF shall meet to be classified according to this

classification system. Classification enables statistical information of SRF properties in the market, thus

increasing transparency in the use of non-hazardous waste in SRF and demonstrating development of

this business field.

This document also describes how the supplier can establish specifications and a declaration of

conformity to the different ISO standards for SRF.

It is important to emphasise that despite this standardisation of SRF, the standard should not be

interpreted as end-of-waste criteria. Such criteria might be set at national or regional levels, but then in

legislation and not in this standard. Also, it should be noted that the waste used for the SRF production

should be such waste streams that are not suitable for re-use, preparation for re-use or efficient

material recycling.

Figure 1 illustrates a simplified flow chain for SRF, from input of non-hazardous waste to end use of SRF.

This document has an interface to all the stages in the chain, but SRF classification and specification

are applicable at the point of delivery as shown in the figure. Requirements for how the input waste is

collected and how to use the fuel are not part of this document.

Figure 1 — Solid recovered fuels chain – This document on specifications and classes is

applicable after production up to the point of delivery
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NOTE This document is applicable to trading and storage of SRF. However, if during storage or trade the

SRF is mixed with other SRF or other fuels, then the classification and specifications are no longer valid. If sold

further, then the mixing would constitute a SRF production and thus a new classification and specification needs

to be done.
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oSIST prEN ISO 21640:2020
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/DIS 21640:2020(E)
Solid recovered fuels — Specifications and classes
1 Scope

This document specifies a classification system for solid recovered fuels (SRF), and a template

containing a list of characteristics for the specification of their properties, enabling trade and use of

SRF supporting the protection of the environment.
SRF are produced from non-hazardous waste.

NOTE 1 Untreated municipal solid waste as such cannot be considered SRF. Untreated municipal solid waste

can however be feedstock to plants producing SRF.

NOTE 2 Chemically treated solid biofuels that do not contain halogenated organic compounds or heavy metals

at levels higher than those in typical virgin material, can be defined as solid biofuels and thus be part of the

[1]
standards series ISO 17225 .
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO/DIS 21637:2019, Solid recovered fuels — Terminology, definitions and descriptions

ISO/DIS 21660-3:2019, Solid recovered fuels — Determination of moisture content using the oven dry

method — Part 3: Moisture in general analysis sample
ISO/DIS 21656:2019, Solid recovered fuels — Determination of ash content
ISO/DIS 21654:2019, Solid recovered fuels — Determination of calorific value
ISO/DIS 21645:2019, Solid recovered fuels — Methods for sampling
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO/DIS 21637:2019 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
classification of solid recovered fuels

categorizing of solid recovered fuels into classes focusing on the key properties – NCV, Cl and Hg that

are defined by boundary values.
3.2
specification of solid recovered fuels
list of properties that characterizes solid recovered fuels.

Note 1 to entry: A templates for such specifications are given in Annex A (normative) in this standard.

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4 Symbols and abbreviations

The symbols and abbreviations used in this document comply with the SI system of units as far as

possible.
Table 1 — Symbols and abbreviations
Symbol Item
(d) dry (dry basis)

d particle diameter where x denominates the share of particles passing through a sieve of that size

(ar) as received
w-% weight-percentage
A Designation for ash content on dry basis A [w-%]
(d)

BC Designation for biomass content. Can be stated by mass, energy or share of total carbon

BD Designation for bulk density as received [kg/m ]
M Designation for moisture content as received on wet basis, M [w-%]

P Designation for the particle size of the main fraction (>95% by weight) related to size intervals.

NCV Designation for net calorific value as received, q [MJ/kg or kWh/kg or MWh/t] at constant

p, net, ar
pressure
VM Designation for volatile matter on dry basis [w-%]

NOTE 1 MJ/kg equals 0,277 8 kWh/kg (1 kWh/kg equals 1 MWh/t and 1 MWh/t are 3,6 MJ/kg). 1 g/cm

equals 1 kg/dm . 1 mg/kg equals 0,000 1 % or 1 ppm.
5 Principles

The classification system is based on three important characteristics, referred to the main SRF

characteristics: an economic characteristic (net calorific value), a technical characteristic (chlorine

content) and an environmental characteristic (mercury content). The characteristics are chosen to give

a stakeholder an immediate but simplified picture of the fuel in question.

The classes also impose limitations on what can be called SRF restricting it with a minimum net calorific

value as well as maximum values of chlorine and mercury. Fuel outside the ranges of the classes shall

not be defined as SRF.

Only fuels derived from non-hazardous waste that meet the SRF ISO Standards can be classified as SRF.

The classification itself is not enough for an intending user or other stakeholders. The level of detailed

information needed depend on several different factors. Such factors might be; the end use of the SRF,

legislative demands, character of the input material, and the technology used either in production or

end use of the SRF. Relevant fuel properties are thus to be given in the specification of the SRF. Some of

the fuel properties are deemed so important that they are obligatory to specify whereas others can be

recorded voluntarily, e.g. upon request of the user.

It is important that SRF meet specified quality requirements which are to be determined based on a

defined lot size by a minimum number of measurements.
6 Classification

The classification system (Table 2) for SRF is based on limit values for three important fuel

characteristics. These are the net calorific value (NCV); chlorine content (Cl); mercury content (Hg).

Due to the statistical distribution pattern of the characteristics the values shall be presented as:

— NCV (ar) mean (arithmetic);
— Cl (d) mean (arithmetic);
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— Hg (ar) median and 80th percentile

The average, median, and percentiles are determined on the quantity of SRF as specified in Clause 8.

NOTE 1 80th percentile is the value on or below which 80% of the observations fall.

[2]

Not all kinds of SRF are suited for all types of energy recovery installation, see CEN/TR 15508 .

Each of the classification characteristic is divided into 5 classes. The SRF should be assigned a class

number from 1 to 5 for each characteristic. A combination of the class numbers makes up a class code

(see example below). The characteristics should be considered as equal important and thus no single

class number determines the code. The class code shall be included in the specification as described in

Clause 9.

For mercury, the higher of the two statistical values (median and 80th percentile) in a Hg data set

determines the class.

EXAMPLE An SRF with a median value of 0,03 and 80th percentile value of 0,07 belongs to Hg class 3

(according to Table 2).

NOTE 1 The performances of the plant where SRF is used are depending on the properties of the SRF and

more significantly on the design and operating conditions of such a plant.

NOTE 2 The limit values used for different classes must not be mixed up with limit values set by the competent

authority in an environmental permit or other equally binding documents.

NOTE 3 The specific transfer factor for mercury of a given process and the proportion of SRF will determine

[2]

which classes can be used. Examples of transfer factors for existing processes are given in CEN/TR 15508 .

Table 2 — Classification for solid recovered fuels
Classes
Classification charac-
Statistical measure Unit
teristic
1 2 3 4 5
Net calorific value (NCV) Mean MJ/kg (ar) ≥ 25 ≥ 20 ≥ 15 ≥ 10 ≥ 3
Chlorine (Cl) Mean w-% (d) ≤ 0,2 ≤ 0,6 ≤ 1,0 ≤ 1,5 ≤ 3
Median mg/MJ (ar) ≤ 0,02 ≤ ≤ 0,03 ≤ ≤ 0,05 ≤ ≤ 0,10 ≤ ≤ 0,15 ≤
Mercury (Hg)
80 percentile mg/MJ (ar) 0,04 0,06 0,10 0,20 0,30
7 Specifications
7.1 General

The SRF shall be specified according to the template in Annex A. Annex A consists of properties that

are obligatory to specify. If the producer and the end user have agreed upon additional properties to be

specified, those should be documented in a similar way.

For specification of the properties in Annex A, determination shall be made according to ISO test

methods (Technical specifications or regional/national standards can be used if no ISO test method is

available). For additional properties, ISO test methods are recommended but other relevant methods

may be used. If other methods are used, it shall be stated in the (fuel) specification.

7.2 Origin

The specification of origin is based on the origin and source of waste input material as described in

Table 1. The material accepted for SRF production are those that are not suitable for material recycling.

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This might as an example include reject streams from packaging recycling/sorting. The main origin-

based solid recovered groups are:
1. Non- hazardous industrial waste

There are several waste streams generated within industry and commerce that could be used to

produce SRF. Different industrial sectors typically generate different kind of wastes, like manure

from agriculture or fibre reject streams from pulp and paper industry. For this reason, there are

several subcategories set up (Table 3). However packaging waste are generated in a lot of different

industries and commerce operations. In this case they are often quite similar and are thus not

specified for individual industries. In this post is also included the packaging materials from

construction projects.
2. Non-hazardous construction and demolition waste

Construction waste and demolition waste differ from each other already because constructing

means building something new while waste from demolition normally comes from old structures.

In renovation projects, both construction and demolition typically take place simultaneously, and

thus generates both types of waste. The waste from the construction and demolition industry

used for SRF production are mainly different wood and plastic fractions although also bituminous

mixtures considered as non-hazardous waste might be used. The possibility to source separates

the materials at construction and demolition sites might be limited thus often resulting in a mixed

waste fraction.
3. Non-hazardous waste from waste management facilities

Waste received at waste management facilities are treated in diverse ways. It might be water

treatment, composting, anaerobic treatment, sorting, crushing and densifying. When doing these

treatments, the plants will end up with different waste streams aimed for recycling, recovery or

disposal. Some of these can be used for the production of SRF.
4. Non-hazardous waste from material recycling facilities

During the recycling process, there will be material that does not fulfil the quality criteria. These

reject streams might be potentially used for the production of SRF.

5. Non-hazardous municipal solid waste and similar non-hazardous commercial waste

Although an untreated mixed municipal waste stream could not be called SRF, it still can be used

for the production of SRF. In this section, there is also bulky waste and waste from gardens and

parks as well as waste from markets. Source separated material streams (e.g. paper, plastics etc.)

are not intended as direct raw material for SRF production but are rather intended for material

recycling. Reject from these kinds of materials can be found above under bullet 4 Non-hazardous

waste from material recycling facilities.
6. Non- hazardous waste not otherwise specified in the list.

If the waste origin is not covered in the above categories, it should be declared here. The origin of

the waste should be described as clearly as possible.

It is not unusual that waste fractions that are intended for production of SRF (or for combustion) are

mixed during the logistic chain, thus there could be waste from different origins in the same transport.

However, the principle is to give as much detail about the origin as possible. Thus, if waste have been

collected from different industries (and not being packaging waste) then the separate codes of origins

should be stated.
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Table 3 — Sources of input material for the production of SRF
1.1.1 plastic waste (except packaging)
1.1 wastes from agriculture,
1.1.2 absorbed urine and manure (including spoiled straw), collected
horticulture, aquaculture, for-
separately and treated off-site
estry, hunting and fishing
1.1.3 other non- hazardous waste
1.2.1 mechanically separated rejects from pulping of wastepaper and
cardboard
1.2 wastes from pulp, paper

and cardboard production and 1.2.2 fibre rejects, fibre-, filler- and coating-sludges from mechanical

processing separation
1.2.3 other non- hazardous waste

1.3 waste from wood process- 1.3.1 non-hazardous wood waste from chemically treated wood

ing, production of panels and
1.3.2 other waste
furniture
1.4.1 waste from composite materials (impregnated textile, elastomer,
plastomer)
1.4 wastes from the textile
1.4.2 waste from unprocessed textile fibres
1. Non- hazardous industri-
industry
1.4.3 waste from processed textile fibres
al waste
1.4.4 other non- hazardous waste
1.5.1 plastic waste
1.5 wastes from organic chemi-
1.5.2 solid wastes other than solid wastes containing hazardous substances
cal processes
1.5.3 other non- hazardous waste
1.6 wastes from shaping and
physical and mechanical sur-
face treatment of plastics
1.7.1 paper and cardboard packaging
1.7.2 plastic packaging
1.7.3 wooden packaging
1.7 packaging waste
1.7.4 composite packaging
1.7.5 mixed packaging
1.7.6 textile packaging
2.1.1 wood
2.1 wood and plastic
2.1.2 plastic
2. Non- hazardous construc- 2.2 bituminous mixtures, coal
2.2.1 bituminous mixtures that are not considered as hazardous waste
tion and demolition waste tar and tarred products
2.3.1 insulation materials (polyurethane and polystyrene)
2.3 other construction and
demolition wastes
2.3.2 mixed construction and demolition waste
3.1.1 non-composted fraction of municipal and similar wastes
3.1 wastes from aerobic treat-
ment of solid wastes
3.1.2 non-composted fraction of animal and vegetable waste
3.2 wastes from anaerobic
3.2.1 non-digestible fraction of municipal, industrial and other waste
treatment of solid waste
3.3.1 sludge from treatment of urban wastewater
3.3.2 other solid waste from treatment of urban wastewater
3.3 sludge from wastewater
treatment plants
3.3.3 sludge from treatment of industrial wastewater
3.3.4 other solid waste from treatment of industrial wastewater
3. Non-hazardous waste
from waste management 3.4.1 paper and cardboard
facilities
3.4.2 plastic and rubber
3.4 wastes from the mechanical
treatment of waste (for example 3.4.3 wood
sorting, crushing, compacting,
3.4.4 textiles
pelletising)
3.4.5 other non-hazardous wastes (including mixtures of materials) from
mechanical treatment of wastes
3.5 End-of-life vehicles from 3.5.1 end of life tyres
different means of transport
3.5.2 plastic waste
(including off-road machinery)

and wastes from dismantling of 3.5.3 other non-hazardous waste from end-of-life vehicles

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Table 3 (continued)
4.1.1 paper and cardboard
4.1.2 clothes
4 Non-hazardous waste 4.1 Reject fractions from
4.1.3 textiles
from material recycling material recycling facilities, not
4.1.4 wood
facilities otherwise mentioned
4.1.5 plastics
4.1.6 other non-hazardous waste from material recycling facilities
5.1 Residual municipal solid
waste
5.2.1 Wood waste
5. Non-hazardous munici-
pal solid waste or similar
5.2 Bulky waste 5.2.2 Plastic waste (non-packaging material)
non-hazardous commer-
5.2.3 Mixed combustible bulky waste
cial waste
5.3.1 waste from markets
5.3 Other municipal solid waste
or similar commercial waste
5.3.2 park and garden waste
6 Non-hazardous waste
not otherwise specified in Any non-hazardous waste that is not defined
...

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