Sustainability of construction works - Additional environmental impact categories and indicators - Background information and possibilities - Evaluation of the possibility of adding environmental impact categories and related indicators and calculation methods for the assessment of the environmental performance of buildings

This Technical Report (TR) has been developed by CEN/TC 350/WG 1 and WG 3 to provide a clear and structured view on the relevance, robustness and applicability of a predefined set of additional impact categories and related indicators for the assessment of the environmental performance of construction works, construction products and building materials.
The TR describes the evaluation criteria that are used to determine, for these impact categories, the suitability of indicators and calculation method(s) for inclusion in the standards EN 15978 and EN 15804 (or other CEN/TC 350 standards as appropriate) in terms of their:
a)   relevance to:
1)   the environment,
2)   construction works,
3)   construction products, and
4)   EU policy;
b)   scientific robustness and certainty; and
c)   applicability of the impact assessment method(s).
The additional impact categories examined in the TR are:
-   human toxicity and ecotoxicity;
-   particulate matter;
-   land use;
-   biodiversity;
-   water scarcity; and
-   ionizing radiation.
Because EN 15978 and EN 15804 are founded on a life cycle approach, the impact categories, indicators and methods reviewed are predominantly based on their potential suitability for application in LCA. In relation to some of the areas of concern, however, where LCA methods might not be sufficiently robust or developed, some non-LCA based indicators and methods are also considered.
Due to the scope of LCA used in the EN 15804 and EN 15978, impacts to users of buildings due to direct exposure to harmful emissions fall outside the scope of this TR. This falls under the scope of CEN/TC 351. Important information related to this aspect found during the development of this TR, is however mentioned in the TR.
Uncertainty is an important issue in LCA. General assessment of the uncertainty related to impact assessment models is considered in the evaluation framework of this TR. However, the TR does not lay down a maximum uncertainty level to be considered acceptable in the context of the CEN standards EN 15804 and EN 15978, nor does it provide exact figures on uncertainties.
Annex A of the TR provides a description of options that may be considered for incorporating selected impact categories/indicator in the standards EN 15978 and EN 15804.
The TR recognizes and takes account of:
-   the work done by the European Commission, Joint Research Centre (EC-JRC), in the development of the International Reference Life Cycle Data System (ILCD) Handbook Recommendations,
-   other reports and scientific studies into the methods and application of the indicators reviewed,
-   findings of specific activities connected with this work such as of the CEN/TC 350 Workshop, held in Brussels on 24-25 June 2014.

Nachhaltigkeit von Bauwerken - Hintergrundinformationen zu möglichen, zusätzlichen Wirkungskategorien und Indikatoren für die Erfassung der umweltbezogenen Qualität von Gebäuden

Indicateurs complémentaires pour la déclaration de la performance environnementale des produits de construction et pour l'évaluation de la performance environnementale des bâtiments

Trajnostnost gradbenih objektov - Dodatne kategorije in kazalniki vplivov na okolje - Temeljne informacije in možnosti - Vrednotenje možnosti dodanih kategorij vplivov na okolje in sorodnih kazalnikov ter računske metode za ocenjevanje učinkov ravnanja z okoljem v stavbah

To tehnično poročilo sta razvila CEN/TC 350/WG 1 in WG 3, da bi zagotovila jasen in strukturiran pogled na ustreznost, robustnost in uporabnost vnaprej določenega nabora dodanih kategorij vplivov in sorodnih kazalnikov za ocenjevanje učinkov gradbenih objektov, gradbenih del, gradbenih proizvodov in gradbenih materialov na ravnanje z okoljem.
Tehnično poročilo opisuje merila vrednotenja za te kategorije vplivov, ki so uporabljena za določanje ustreznosti kazalnikov in računskih metod za vključitev v standardov EN 15978 in EN 15804 (ali drugih standardov CEN/TC 350, kot je ustrezno) in sicer glede:
a) ustreznosti za:
1) okolje,
2) gradbena dela,
3) gradbene proizvode in
4) politiko EU;
b) znanstvene robustnosti in varnosti; ter
c) uporabnosti metod za ocenjevanje vplivov.
Dodatne kategorije vplivov, obravnavane v tehničnem poročilu:
- toksičnost za človeka in ekosisteme;
- trdni delci;
- raba zemljišč;
- biotska raznovrstnost;
- pomanjkanje vode; in
- ionizirajoče sevanje.
Ker standarda EN 15978 in EN 15804 temeljita na pristopu življenjskega cikla, pregledane kategorije vplivov, kazalniki in metode temeljijo predvsem na njihovi morebitni primernosti za uporabo pri oceni življenjskega cikla (LCA). V zvezi z nekaterimi zadevnimi področji, pri katerih metode ocene življenjskega cikla morda ne bodo dovolj robustne ali razvite, so obravnavani tudi nekateri kazalniki in metode, ki ne temeljijo na oceni življenjskega cikla.
Zaradi obsega ocene življenjskega cikla, ki se uporablja v standardih EN 15804 in EN 15978, učinki na uporabnike stavb zaradi neposredne izpostavljenosti škodljivim emisijam ne sodijo na področje uporabe tega tehničnega poročila.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
29-Jun-2016
Publication Date
03-Jan-2017
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
23-Nov-2016
Due Date
28-Jan-2017
Completion Date
04-Jan-2017

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17005:2017
01-februar-2017

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7HPHOMQHLQIRUPDFLMHLQPRåQRVWL9UHGQRWHQMHPRåQRVWLGRGDQLKNDWHJRULM
YSOLYRYQDRNROMHLQVRURGQLKND]DOQLNRYWHUUDþXQVNHPHWRGH]DRFHQMHYDQMH
XþLQNRYUDYQDQMD]RNROMHPYVWDYEDK

Sustainability of construction works - Additional environmental impact categories and

indicators - Background information and possibilities - Evaluation of the possibility of

adding environmental impact categories and related indicators and calculation methods

for the assessment of the environmental performance of buildings

Nachhaltigkeit von Bauwerken - Hintergrundinformationen zu möglichen, zusätzlichen

Wirkungskategorien und Indikatoren für die Erfassung der umweltbezogenen Qualität

von Gebäuden

Indicateurs complémentaires pour la déclaration de la performance environnementale

des produits de construction et pour l'évaluation de la performance environnementale

des bâtiments
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TR 17005:2016
ICS:
13.020.20 Okoljska ekonomija. Environmental economics.
Trajnostnost Sustainability
91.010.99 Drugi vidiki Other aspects
SIST-TP CEN/TR 17005:2017 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TP CEN/TR 17005:2017
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SIST-TP CEN/TR 17005:2017
CEN/TR 17005
TECHNICAL REPORT
RAPPORT TECHNIQUE
October 2016
TECHNISCHER BERICHT
ICS 91.010.99
English Version
Sustainability of construction works - Additional
environmental impact categories and indicators -
Background information and possibilities - Evaluation of
the possibility of adding environmental impact categories
and related indicators and calculation methods for the
assessment of the environmental performance of buildings

Indicateurs complémentaires pour la déclaration de la Nachhaltigkeit von Bauwerken -

performance environnementale des produits de Hintergrundinformationen zu möglichen, zusätzlichen

construction et pour l'évaluation de la performance Wirkungskategorien und Indikatoren für die Erfassung

environnementale des bâtiments der umweltbezogenen Qualität von Gebäuden

This Technical Report was approved by CEN on 26 August 2016. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee CEN/TC 350.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2016 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TR 17005:2016 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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Contents Page

European foreword ...................................................................................................................................................... 5

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 7

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................. 9

2 The need for additional impact categories ....................................................................................... 10

2.1 Environmental relevance ........................................................................................................................ 10

2.2 Policy relevance .......................................................................................................................................... 13

2.3 Conclusions ................................................................................................................................................... 14

3 Evaluation criteria for additional environmental impact categories for CEN/TC 350 ..... 14

3.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................. 14

3.1.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................... 14

3.1.2 Criteria related to standardization ...................................................................................................... 15

3.1.3 Criteria related to the LCIA models and indicators ....................................................................... 15

3.2 Evaluation framework for additional environmental impact categories for

CEN/TC 350................................................................................................................................................... 16

3.2.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................... 16

3.2.2 Environmental relevance – Standardization (step 1) ................................................................... 17

3.2.3 Relevance for buildings (step 2a) ......................................................................................................... 17

3.2.4 Relevance for construction products (step 2b) ............................................................................... 17

3.2.5 Policy relevance (step 3) ......................................................................................................................... 17

3.2.6 Performance based (step 4a) ................................................................................................................. 17

3.2.7 Quantifiable (step 4b) ............................................................................................................................... 18

3.2.8 Scientific robustness and certainty (step 5) ..................................................................................... 18

3.2.9 Applicability of the life cycle impact assessment method/model (step 6) ........................... 19

3.2.10 Stakeholder acceptance of the impact assessment model (step 7) .......................................... 20

3.3 Compliance criteria of the ILCD handbook ....................................................................................... 20

3.4 Information sources regarding the additional impact categories ........................................... 21

4 The evaluation of additional impact categories .............................................................................. 21

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................... 21

4.2 Human toxicity: Cancer and non-cancer effects .............................................................................. 21

4.2.1 Description ................................................................................................................................................... 21

4.2.2 Relevance of human toxicity (step 1+2+3) ....................................................................................... 25

4.2.3 List of available LCIA methods (step 4) .............................................................................................. 30

4.2.4 Scientific substantiation of available LCIA methods (step 5) ..................................................... 31

4.2.5 Applicability (step 6) ................................................................................................................................ 33

4.2.6 Stakeholder acceptance (step 7) .......................................................................................................... 36

4.2.7 Conclusions on methodology ................................................................................................................. 37

4.2.8 Overall conclusions on human toxicity .............................................................................................. 39

4.3 Ecotoxicity: Terrestrial, freshwater and marine ............................................................................ 39

4.3.1 Description of impact category ............................................................................................................. 39

4.3.2 Relevance of ecotoxicity – standardization (step 1+2+3) ........................................................... 42

4.3.3 List of available LCIA methods (step 4) .............................................................................................. 44

4.3.4 Scientific substantiation of available LCIA methods (step 5) ..................................................... 45

4.3.5 Applicability (step 6) ................................................................................................................................ 47

4.3.6 Stakeholder acceptance (step 7) .......................................................................................................... 50

4.3.7 Conclusions on methodology ................................................................................................................. 50

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4.3.8 Overall conclusions on ecotoxicity ...................................................................................................... 53

4.4 Particulate matter formation ................................................................................................................ 53

4.4.1 Description of impact category ............................................................................................................. 53

4.4.2 Relevance of particulate matter formation (step 1+2+3) ........................................................... 58

4.4.3 List of available LCIA methods (step 4) .............................................................................................. 65

4.4.4 Scientific substantiation of the available LCIA methods (step 5) ............................................. 68

4.4.5 Applicability (step 6) ................................................................................................................................ 70

4.4.6 Stakeholder acceptance (step 7) .......................................................................................................... 72

4.4.7 Conclusions on methodology ................................................................................................................. 72

4.4.8 Overall conclusions on particulate matter ....................................................................................... 73

4.5 Ionizing radiation: human health and ecosystem health ............................................................ 73

4.5.1 Description ................................................................................................................................................... 73

4.5.2 Relevance of ionizing radiation (step 1+2+3) ................................................................................. 77

4.5.3 List of available LCIA methods (step 4) .............................................................................................. 83

4.5.4 Scientific substantiation of the available LCIA methods (step 5) ............................................. 84

4.5.5 Applicability (step 6) ................................................................................................................................ 84

4.5.6 Stakeholder acceptance (step 7) .......................................................................................................... 85

4.5.7 Conclusions on methodology ................................................................................................................. 86

4.5.8 Overall conclusions on ionizing radiation ........................................................................................ 86

4.6 Land use: Occupation and transformation / Biodiversity ........................................................... 87

4.6.1 Description ................................................................................................................................................... 87

4.6.2 Relevance of land use (step 1+2+3) .................................................................................................... 91

4.6.3 List of available LCIA methods (step 4) ........................................................................................... 103

4.6.4 Scientific substantiation of the available LCIA methods (step 5) .......................................... 104

4.6.5 Applicability (step 6) ............................................................................................................................. 108

4.6.6 Stakeholder acceptance (step 7) ....................................................................................................... 111

4.6.7 Conclusions on methodology .............................................................................................................. 111

4.6.8 Overall conclusions on land use ........................................................................................................ 112

4.7 Water scarcity .......................................................................................................................................... 113

4.7.1 Description ................................................................................................................................................ 113

4.7.2 Relevance of water scarcity (step 1+2+3) ...................................................................................... 120

4.7.3 List of available LCIA methods (step 4) ........................................................................................... 122

4.7.4 Scientific substantiation of the available LCIA methods (step 5) .......................................... 124

4.7.5 Applicability (step 6) ............................................................................................................................. 126

4.7.6 Stakeholder acceptance (step 7) ....................................................................................................... 128

4.7.7 Conclusions on methodology .............................................................................................................. 128

4.7.8 Overall conclusions on water scarcity ............................................................................................. 129

5 Overview of intermediate non-LCA indicators ............................................................................. 129

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................ 129

5.2 Land use/biodiversity assessed in BREEAM ................................................................................. 129

5.2.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................ 129

5.2.2 Land Use and Biodiversity ................................................................................................................... 131

5.3 DGNB ............................................................................................................................................................ 133

5.3.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................ 133

5.3.2 Land Use and Biodiversity ................................................................................................................... 134

5.4 HQE ............................................................................................................................................................... 135

Annex A (informative) Possibilities for uptake in standardization process ..................................... 137

A.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................................................. 137

A.2 Structure of the table ............................................................................................................................. 137

Annex B (informative) Recommended methods for life cycle impact assessment within

ILCD Handbook ........................................................................................................................................ 143

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Annex C (informative) Life cycle impact assessment within the ILCD Handbook ........................... 146

Annex D (informative) General criteria and sub-criteria for the analysis of characterization

models within ILCD Handbook ........................................................................................................... 148

Annex E (informative) Description of the general literature sources consulted ............................. 151

Annex F (informative) Illustration of land use types in LCIA methods ............................................... 152

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................. 155

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European foreword

This document (CEN/TR 17005:2016) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 350

“Sustainability of construction works”, the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association.
Figure 1 — Domain of LCA ([14], p. 33)

NOTE 1 One of the main drivers for using LCA, is the prevention of burden shifting.

NOTE 2 If in future, models become available that combine global environmental impacts with health impacts

to the building users due to direct exposure, these might be considered in the context of the CEN/TC 350

framework in future.

Although the EN 15804 standard follows the LCA approach, it also states that additional information on

release of dangerous substances to indoor air, soil and water during the use stage shall be provided

(EN 15804:2012+A1:2013, 7.4). EN 15804:2012+A1:2013, 7.4.1 stipulates the requirements related to

releases to indoor air, and EN 15804:2012+A1:2013, 7.4.2 stipulates the requirements related to

releases to soil and water. Such releases are included in EN 15804 as these have a potential direct

impact/risk for the inhabitants/users of the building.
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Both EN 15804 and EN 15978 contain seven life cycle environmental impact categories. Since their

publication, however, a perceived need has arisen to include in these standards a broader set of

environmental impacts categories due to the following:

— Additional environmental impact categories are currently part of European recommendations and

of national legislation of several Member States.

— Additional environmental indicators are used in current practice (see EN 15643-2:2011, B.2 [3]).

— New research and developments in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methods and the

characterization of environmental impacts.

This Technical Report (TR) has been developed to provide guidance to the working groups of

CEN/TC 350 on the extension of the impact categories in EN 15804 and EN 15978. The TR provides a

framework for the evaluation of environmental impact categories and evaluates the impact categories

human toxicity and ecotoxicity, particulate matter, land use, biodiversity, water scarcity; and ionizing

radiation by implementing the framework developed.

During the preparation of the TR a range of experts, such as developers of impact assessment models,

LCA software developers and experts from the EC-JRC were consulted.

NOTE 3 Although this report is primarily referenced to buildings, the indicators and methods reviewed might

have equal application in other construction works.
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Introduction
List of abbreviations:
CDV Critical Dilution Volume
CF Characterization Factor
EPBD Energy Performance of Buildings Directive
EPD Environmental Product Declaration
ILCD International Reference Life Cycle Data System
LCA Life Cycle Assessment
LCI Life Cycle Inventory
LCIA Life Cycle Impact Assessment
PCR Product Category Rules
PEF Product Environmental Footprint
RA Risk Assessment
TR Technical Report
TSP Total Suspended Particles

The standards EN 15804 [1] and EN 15978 [2] provide a basis for the environmental assessment of

buildings using a life cycle assessment approach.

The EN 15804 standard [1] provides core product category rules (PCR) for Type III environmental

declarations of any construction product and services. An Environmental Product Declaration (EPD) is a

verified document that reports environmental data of products based on life cycle assessment (LCA)

and other relevant information and in accordance with the international standard ISO 14025 (Type III

Environmental Declarations).

The EN 15978 standard [2] specifies the calculation method to assess the environmental performance

of a building, based on LCA (i.e. using EPD for construction products and services) and other quantified

environmental information (i.e. (1) indicators describing resource use based on input flows of the life

cycle inventory (LCI) and (2) indicators describing waste categories and output flows derived from

scenarios and LCI), and gives the means for the reporting and communication of the outcome of the

assessment.

Life cycle Assessment (LCA) is defined as the “compilation and evaluation of the inputs, outputs and the

potential environmental impacts of a product system throughout its life cycle”. (ISO 14040).

In LCA, the modelling is typically made at the global level, resulting in global characterization factors.

Inherent to the modelling, the (current) environmental impact assessment models within LCA do not

cover local impacts/risks due to direct exposure of some persons to a certain emission/hazardous

substance. As it is acknowledged that the variation in population density influences the exposure rate

and hence also the potential health damage, regional characterization factors (based on regional

differences in population density) for some health related impact categories are being developed. The

same is true for ecosystems related impact categories.

As is illustrated in Figure 1, LCA (in current practice) covers a great part of the total environmental

perspective but is clearly restricted to regional and global impacts to the external environment (i.e. it

does not include effects due to indoor exposure of the users of a building). Effects for which there is a

low plausibility that they will occur (e.g. risks from nuclear waste) and local effects from the products

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on the manufacturers or users are disregarded. Recently, research has started to also address health

effects due to indoor emissions on building users with similar approaches as used in LCA [13].

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1 Scope

This Technical Report (TR) has been developed by CEN/TC 350/WG 1 and WG 3 to provide a clear and

structured view on the relevance, robustness and applicability of a predefined set of additional impact

categories and related indicators for the assessment of the environmental performance of construction

works, construction products and building materials.

The TR describes the evaluation criteria that are used to determine, for these impact categories, the

suitability of indicators and calculation method(s) for inclusion in the standards EN 15978 and

EN 15804 (or other CEN/TC 350 standards as appropriate) in terms of their:
a) relevance to:
1) the environment,
2) construction works,
3) construction products, and
4) EU policy;
b) scientific robustness and certainty; and
c) applicability of the impact assessment method(s).
The additional impact categories examined in the TR are:
— human toxicity and ecotoxicity;
— particulate matter;
— land use;
— biodiversity;
— water scarcity; and
— ionizing radiation.

Because EN 15978 and EN 15804 are founded on a life cycle approach, the impact categories, indicators

and methods reviewed are predominantly based on their potential suitability for application in LCA. In

relation to some of the areas of concern, however, where LCA methods might not be sufficiently robust

or developed, some non-LCA based indicators and methods are also considered.

Due to the scope of LCA used in the EN 15804 and EN 15978, impacts to users of buildings due to direct

exposure to harmful emissions fall outside the scope of this TR. This falls under the scope of

CEN/TC 351. Important information related to this aspect found during the development of this TR, is

however mentioned in the TR.

Uncertainty is an important issue in LCA. General assessment of the uncertainty related to impact

assessment models is considered in the evaluation framework of this TR. However, the TR does not lay

down a maximum uncertainty level to be considered acceptable in the context of the CEN standards

EN 15804 and EN 15978, nor does it provide exact figures on uncertainties.

Annex A of the TR provides a description of options that may be considered for incorporating selected

impact categories/indicator in the standards EN 15978 and EN 15804.
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The TR recognizes and takes account of:

— the work done by the European Commission, Joint Research Centre (EC-JRC), in the development of

the International Reference Life Cycle Data System (ILCD) Handbook Recommendations,

— other reports and scientific studies into the methods and application of the indicators reviewed,

— findings of specific activities connected with this work such as of the CEN/TC 350 Workshop, held

in Brussels on 24-25 June 2014.
2 The need for additional impact categories
2.1 Environmental relevance

It is widely recognized that the extraction and combustion of fossil fuels is a dominant cause of the

environmental impact of a building across its life cycle ([23], 22], [24]). This is especially the case for

existing European buildings that were constructed before national and European Energy regulations

were introduced. The use of low efficiency gas and oil heating systems combined with a poorly

insulated building envelop results in a high yearly combustion of fossil fuels and this combined with a

relatively long lifespan of buildings, makes the operational energy use the dominant aspect in the

environmental profile of many existing European buildings.

The extraction and combustion of fossil fuels is responsible for environmental impacts related to:

— Global warming: mainly CO emissions related to the use, production and transport stages

— Depletion of abiotic fossil fuels: extraction of oil, gas and coal related to use, production and

transport processes

— Acidification: SO and NO emissions related to the combustion of fossil fuels related to the

2 x
production or transport phases
— Eutrophication: nitrogen emissions related to the combustion of fossil fuels

— Photochemical ozone creation: emissions of nitrogen oxides related to the combustion of fossil

fuels

— Particulate matter formation: emissions of nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxides and small

particulates

These impact categories except particulate matter formation are already integrated in the current

version of the standards EN 15804 (2012+A1:2013) and EN 15978 (2011).

The increase in heating efficiencies and insulation level, and the growing use of renewable energy will

result in a smaller influence of the operational energy of buildings on its overall environmental profile.

With the 2019-2021 EPBD targets in view, the environmental impacts of buildings of the near future

will be less dependent on their operational energy use and increasingly influenced by the life cycle

impacts of the constituent building products (cf. manufacturing, replacement and/or end-of-life) and

other processes during the use phase, such as water consumption and transport of building users (e.g.

commuting related to the dwelli
...

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