Management of terminology resources -- Data category specifications

This document provides guidelines and requirements governing data category specifications for
language resources. It specifies mechanisms for creating, documenting, harmonizing and maintaining
data category specifications in a data category repository. It also describes the structure and content of
data category specifications. The intended audience of this document is researchers and practitioners
in fields of language resource management who use data categories and data category specifications.

Terminologie et autres ressources langagières et ressources de contenu -- Spécifications des catégories de données

Upravljanje terminoloških virov - Specifikacije za podatkovne kategorije

Ta dokument vsebuje smernice in zahteve, ki urejajo specifikacije za podatkovne kategorije za jezikovne vire. Določa mehanizme za ustvarjanje, dokumentiranje, uskladitev in vzdrževanje specifikacij za podatkovne kategorije v zbirki podatkovnih kategorij. Opisuje tudi strukturo in vsebino specifikacij za podatkovne kategorije. Ta dokument je namenjen raziskovalcem in strokovnjakom na področju upravljanja jezikovnih virov, ki uporabljajo podatkovne kategorije in specifikacije za podatkovne kategorije.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
03-Sep-2019
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
01-Aug-2019
Due Date
06-Oct-2019
Completion Date
04-Sep-2019

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 12620
Third edition
2019-05
Management of terminology
resources — Data category
specifications
Gestion des ressources terminologiques — Spécifications des
catégories de données
Reference number
ISO 12620:2019(E)
ISO 2019
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 12620:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 12620:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Data categories and data category specifications .............................................................................................................. 3

5 Data category repositories ......................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6 Requirements for data category specifications .................................................................................................................... 4

7 Requirements for documenting data categories................................................................................................................. 5

7.1 Identifiers and names ....................................................................................................................................................................... 5

7.1.1 Data category specifications .................................................................................................................................. 5

7.1.2 A unique and stable mnemonic identifier .................................................................................................. 5

7.1.3 A unique and persistent identifier (PID) .................................................................................................... 5

7.1.4 A unique canonical data category name ...................................................................................................... 5

7.1.5 Language-specific data category names ...................................................................................................... 6

7.2 Conceptual domains and data category types ............................................................................................................. 6

7.3 Data elementarity ................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

7.4 Subsetting .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

8 Requirements for a data category repository ........................................................................................................................ 7

9 Referencing data categories ..................................................................................................................................................................... 7

10 Harmonizing and vetting data categories .................................................................................................................................. 8

11 Management .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

Annex A (informative) The DatCatInfo Data Category Repository .....................................................................................10

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................13

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 12620:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www .iso .org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 37, Language and terminology,

Subcommittee SC 3, Management of terminology resources.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 12620:2009), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows.

ISO 12620:2009, Terminology and other language and content resources — Specification of data

categories and management of a Data Category Registry for language resources, described a data model

and management features for a Data Category Registry designed for the purpose of standardizing

data category specifications. The current edition of ISO 12620 has been streamlined to eliminate the

standardization function previously built into the data model. It describes requirements for maintaining

a consensus-based, industry-appropriate repository of harmonized data category specifications for use

in language resources.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 12620:2019(E)
Introduction

Data associated with language resources are identified, collected, managed and stored in a wide variety

of environments. Data appearing in language resources are generalized into classes that are referred to

as data categories. Differences in approach for developing different kinds of language resources as well

as differences in technical environments inevitably lead to variations in data category definitions and

data category names. The use of uniform data category names and definitions employed in resources

within the same linguistic domain (for example, among terminological resources, lexicographical

resources, annotated text corpora, etc.) contributes to system coherence and enhances the re-

usability of data. Such uniform use requires access to formal data category specifications. Defining a

clear framework for specifying, managing and using data categories will increase interoperability of

language resources.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 12620:2019(E)
Management of terminology resources — Data category
specifications
1 Scope

This document provides guidelines and requirements governing data category specifications for

language resources. It specifies mechanisms for creating, documenting, harmonizing and maintaining

data category specifications in a data category repository. It also describes the structure and content of

data category specifications. The intended audience of this document is researchers and practitioners

in fields of language resource management who use data categories and data category specifications.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 24619, Language resource management — Persistent identification and sustainable access (PISA)

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
3.1
conceptual domain
permissible content of a data category (3.2)

EXAMPLE In a terminology database, the data category /part of speech/ could have a conceptual domain

consisting of the values: /noun/, /verb/, /adjective/, /adverb/.

Note 1 to entry: The permissible content can be enumerated (such as in a pick list), as in the example, or subject to

formal restrictions such as dates, or free text such as the conceptual domain of /definition/. Although the latter

type is not formally restricted, it is nevertheless subject to adherence to the requirements of its data category

specification, i.e., it contains a true definition and not a note, example, or some other piece of information.

3.1.1
open conceptual domain
conceptual domain (3.1) that has no formal restrictions

Note 1 to entry: An open conceptual domain is frequently associated with data categories that take free text as

their content, such as /definition/.

Note 2 to entry: Some requirements are not machine processable, for instance, to require that /definition/ only

contain definitional information.
3.1.2
closed conceptual domain
conceptual domain (3.1) that is restricted to a set of enumerated values

EXAMPLE The data category /grammatical gender/ can have a conceptual domain consisting of the values

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 12620:2019(E)
/feminine/, /masculine/ and /neuter/.
3.1.3
constrained conceptual domain

conceptual domain (3.1) that is restricted to a constraint or rule specified in a schema-specific language

EXAMPLE The data category /date/ can be constrained by a system setting to certain date formats, or a

data category can be subject to a termbase-specific rule, such as making it mandatory to enter a /source/ for a

/definition/.
3.1.4
simple conceptual domain
conceptual domain (3.1) that has only two values

Note 1 to entry: The two values can be "yes" or "no", "true" or "false", or other such binary representation.

3.2
data category

class of data items that are closely related from a formal or semantic point of view

EXAMPLE /part of speech/, /subject field/, /definition/.

Note 1 to entry: A data category can be viewed as a generalization of the notion of a field in a database.

Note 2 to entry: In running text, such as in this document, data category names are enclosed in forward slashes

(e.g. /part of speech/).
[SOURCE: ISO 30042:2019, 3.8]
3.2.1
open data category
data category (3.2) that has an open conceptual domain (3.1.1)
3.2.2
closed data category
data category (3.2) that has a closed conceptual domain (3.1.2)
3.2.3
constrained data category
data category (3.2) that has a constrained conceptual domain (3.1.3)
3.2.4
simple data category
data category (3.2) that has a simple conceptual domain (3.1.4)
Note 1 to entry: See also pick list value (3.9).
3.3
data category concept

semantic content of a data category (3.2), independent of any specific implementations

3.4
data category name

linguistic representation of a data category (3.2) as it appears in a particular language or in a particular

application or language resource

EXAMPLE The data category name for /part of speech/ is "part of speech" in English, and "partie du

discours" in French.
2 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
ISO 12620:2019(E)
3.5
data category repository
DCR
digital repository of data category specifications (3.7)

Note 1 to entry: Data category repositories are used as references when specifying language resources.

Note 2 to entry: A DCR for language resources is available at www .datcatinfo .net.

3.6
data category selection
DC selection

set of data category specifications (3.7) selected from a data category repository (3.5)

Note 1 to entry: A data category selection can represent the data categories (3.2) used within a research discipline

or a specific application or project.
3.7
data category specification
DC specification
complete descriptive record of a data category (3.2)
3.8
persistent identifier
PID

unique Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) that provides permanent access to a digital object

independently of its physical location or current ownership
EXAMPLE http: //www .datcatinfo .net/datcat/DC -70.

[SOURCE: ISO 24619:2011, 3.2.4, modified — order of terms inverted, definition slightly reworded, note

deleted, example added.]
3.9
pick list value
one of the enumerated or permissible values of a closed data category (3.2.2)

EXAMPLE "singular" and "plural" are pick list values in a field labelled "Grammatical Number".

Note 1 to entry: See also simple data category (3.2.4).

Note 2 to entry: Due to data modelling variance, most types of information that can be represented as pick list

values in a database can also be represented as simple data categories. For example, "Plural" can be implemented

as a checkbox, which, when checked, takes the value "yes" and when unchecked, takes the value "no".

4 Data categories and data category specifications

A data category (DC) is a class of information that forms part of a data collection or annotation scheme

for a given language resource. For example, /definition/ and /part of speech/ are common data

categories in terminological and lexicographical resources. Data category names can appear as the

name of a field in the user interface of a software application, or as a markup element in an annotated

resource.

Some data categories are pertinent to a specific application, research area, or type of resource and not

others. For instance, a /concept identifier/ is characteristic of terminological or ontological resources,

whereas /sense number/ is applicable to lexicographical resources. On the other hand, many data

categories, frequently those of a strictly linguistic nature such as /part of speech/, /grammatical gender/

and /grammatical number/, are common to a wide variety of resources. These data categories may not

always be implemented in the same way in different resources or applications, but each nevertheless

evokes one universal data category concept. For instance, for terminology management, only a small

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 12620:2019(E)

set of values are needed for /part of speech/ (e.g. noun, verb, adjective, adverb), but in lexicographical

resources, many additional values are required (e.g. preposition, pronoun, etc.).

A data category specification (DC specification) provides the complete and formal representation of a

data category (for example, its name, definition, examples, comments, etc.). Data category specifications

can be referenced by the language resources that use them, for instance, through the use of persistent

identifiers that directly resolve to the data category specification from within that resource.

5 Data category repositories

Data category specifications are normally stored in electronic format in a specially-designed database.

This database is called a data category repository (DCR). Today, it is essential for DCRs to be available

on the internet. For instance, a DCR for language resource descriptions, named DatCatInfo, is available

at www .datcatinfo .net (see Annex A).

Researchers and software developers working with language resources benefit greatly from being

able to access a trusted source of information about data categories. Providing a precise description

of the data categories that are used within a given data collection allows for a quick diagnosis of its

compatibility with other data collections or its suitability for use in computer processes. A DCR

containing vetted data category specifications provides users with the information they need

to implement data categories in a manner that is consistent with other users. Consequently, the

interoperability of language resources is greatly enhanced.

Interoperability of language resources is a key factor for supporting innovation and progress in various

focus areas of the language industry, such as terminology management, natural language processing,

and annotation schemes. These areas support important sectors of our economy and social development

such as global communication and trade, knowledge extraction, and content management.

To support research and development in language resources, it should be possible for users of a DCR

to subset collections of data category specifications from the whole DCR for application-specific uses.

These subsets are referred to as data category selections (DC selections). A data category selection

defines, in combination with a data model and optionally additional constraints, a given application-

specific language resource. For example, according to ISO 30042, a selection of terminology-related

data category specifications, together with the metamodel defined in ISO 16642 and some additional

specified constraints, constitutes a TBX data category module. Modules are combined to define a TBX

dialect, which is a TML (Terminology Markup Language) as described in ISO 16642.
6 Requirements for data category specifications

This clause states the requirements that data category specifications shall fulfil in order to support the

effective use of data categories for language resources.
A data category specification shall:
— be available online;
— provide a unique mnemonic identifier of the data categor
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 12620:2019
01-oktober-2019
Upravljanje terminoloških virov - Specifikacije za podatkovne kategorije
Management of terminology resources -- Data category specifications
Terminologie et autres ressources langagières et ressources de contenu --
Spécifications des catégories de données
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 12620:2019
ICS:
01.020 Terminologija (načela in Terminology (principles and
koordinacija) coordination)
35.240.30 Uporabniške rešitve IT v IT applications in information,
informatiki, dokumentiranju in documentation and
založništvu publishing
SIST ISO 12620:2019 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ISO 12620:2019
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST ISO 12620:2019
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 12620
Third edition
2019-05
Management of terminology
resources — Data category
specifications
Gestion des ressources terminologiques — Spécifications des
catégories de données
Reference number
ISO 12620:2019(E)
ISO 2019
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST ISO 12620:2019
ISO 12620:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ISO 12620:2019
ISO 12620:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Data categories and data category specifications .............................................................................................................. 3

5 Data category repositories ......................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6 Requirements for data category specifications .................................................................................................................... 4

7 Requirements for documenting data categories................................................................................................................. 5

7.1 Identifiers and names ....................................................................................................................................................................... 5

7.1.1 Data category specifications .................................................................................................................................. 5

7.1.2 A unique and stable mnemonic identifier .................................................................................................. 5

7.1.3 A unique and persistent identifier (PID) .................................................................................................... 5

7.1.4 A unique canonical data category name ...................................................................................................... 5

7.1.5 Language-specific data category names ...................................................................................................... 6

7.2 Conceptual domains and data category types ............................................................................................................. 6

7.3 Data elementarity ................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

7.4 Subsetting .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

8 Requirements for a data category repository ........................................................................................................................ 7

9 Referencing data categories ..................................................................................................................................................................... 7

10 Harmonizing and vetting data categories .................................................................................................................................. 8

11 Management .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 9

Annex A (informative) The DatCatInfo Data Category Repository .....................................................................................10

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................13

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST ISO 12620:2019
ISO 12620:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following

URL: www .iso .org/iso/foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 37, Language and terminology,

Subcommittee SC 3, Management of terminology resources.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 12620:2009), which has been technically

revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows.

ISO 12620:2009, Terminology and other language and content resources — Specification of data

categories and management of a Data Category Registry for language resources, described a data model

and management features for a Data Category Registry designed for the purpose of standardizing

data category specifications. The current edition of ISO 12620 has been streamlined to eliminate the

standardization function previously built into the data model. It describes requirements for maintaining

a consensus-based, industry-appropriate repository of harmonized data category specifications for use

in language resources.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/members .html.
iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST ISO 12620:2019
ISO 12620:2019(E)
Introduction

Data associated with language resources are identified, collected, managed and stored in a wide variety

of environments. Data appearing in language resources are generalized into classes that are referred to

as data categories. Differences in approach for developing different kinds of language resources as well

as differences in technical environments inevitably lead to variations in data category definitions and

data category names. The use of uniform data category names and definitions employed in resources

within the same linguistic domain (for example, among terminological resources, lexicographical

resources, annotated text corpora, etc.) contributes to system coherence and enhances the re-

usability of data. Such uniform use requires access to formal data category specifications. Defining a

clear framework for specifying, managing and using data categories will increase interoperability of

language resources.
© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST ISO 12620:2019
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST ISO 12620:2019
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 12620:2019(E)
Management of terminology resources — Data category
specifications
1 Scope

This document provides guidelines and requirements governing data category specifications for

language resources. It specifies mechanisms for creating, documenting, harmonizing and maintaining

data category specifications in a data category repository. It also describes the structure and content of

data category specifications. The intended audience of this document is researchers and practitioners

in fields of language resource management who use data categories and data category specifications.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 24619, Language resource management — Persistent identification and sustainable access (PISA)

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https: //www .iso .org/obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http: //www .electropedia .org/
3.1
conceptual domain
permissible content of a data category (3.2)

EXAMPLE In a terminology database, the data category /part of speech/ could have a conceptual domain

consisting of the values: /noun/, /verb/, /adjective/, /adverb/.

Note 1 to entry: The permissible content can be enumerated (such as in a pick list), as in the example, or subject to

formal restrictions such as dates, or free text such as the conceptual domain of /definition/. Although the latter

type is not formally restricted, it is nevertheless subject to adherence to the requirements of its data category

specification, i.e., it contains a true definition and not a note, example, or some other piece of information.

3.1.1
open conceptual domain
conceptual domain (3.1) that has no formal restrictions

Note 1 to entry: An open conceptual domain is frequently associated with data categories that take free text as

their content, such as /definition/.

Note 2 to entry: Some requirements are not machine processable, for instance, to require that /definition/ only

contain definitional information.
3.1.2
closed conceptual domain
conceptual domain (3.1) that is restricted to a set of enumerated values

EXAMPLE The data category /grammatical gender/ can have a conceptual domain consisting of the values

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved 1
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST ISO 12620:2019
ISO 12620:2019(E)
/feminine/, /masculine/ and /neuter/.
3.1.3
constrained conceptual domain

conceptual domain (3.1) that is restricted to a constraint or rule specified in a schema-specific language

EXAMPLE The data category /date/ can be constrained by a system setting to certain date formats, or a

data category can be subject to a termbase-specific rule, such as making it mandatory to enter a /source/ for a

/definition/.
3.1.4
simple conceptual domain
conceptual domain (3.1) that has only two values

Note 1 to entry: The two values can be "yes" or "no", "true" or "false", or other such binary representation.

3.2
data category

class of data items that are closely related from a formal or semantic point of view

EXAMPLE /part of speech/, /subject field/, /definition/.

Note 1 to entry: A data category can be viewed as a generalization of the notion of a field in a database.

Note 2 to entry: In running text, such as in this document, data category names are enclosed in forward slashes

(e.g. /part of speech/).
[SOURCE: ISO 30042:2019, 3.8]
3.2.1
open data category
data category (3.2) that has an open conceptual domain (3.1.1)
3.2.2
closed data category
data category (3.2) that has a closed conceptual domain (3.1.2)
3.2.3
constrained data category
data category (3.2) that has a constrained conceptual domain (3.1.3)
3.2.4
simple data category
data category (3.2) that has a simple conceptual domain (3.1.4)
Note 1 to entry: See also pick list value (3.9).
3.3
data category concept

semantic content of a data category (3.2), independent of any specific implementations

3.4
data category name

linguistic representation of a data category (3.2) as it appears in a particular language or in a particular

application or language resource

EXAMPLE The data category name for /part of speech/ is "part of speech" in English, and "partie du

discours" in French.
2 © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST ISO 12620:2019
ISO 12620:2019(E)
3.5
data category repository
DCR
digital repository of data category specifications (3.7)

Note 1 to entry: Data category repositories are used as references when specifying language resources.

Note 2 to entry: A DCR for language resources is available at www .datcatinfo .net.

3.6
data category selection
DC selection

set of data category specifications (3.7) selected from a data category repository (3.5)

Note 1 to entry: A data category selection can represent the data categories (3.2) used within a research discipline

or a specific application or project.
3.7
data category specification
DC specification
complete descriptive record of a data category (3.2)
3.8
persistent identifier
PID

unique Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) that provides permanent access to a digital object

independently of its physical location or current ownership
EXAMPLE http: //www .datcatinfo .net/datcat/DC -70.

[SOURCE: ISO 24619:2011, 3.2.4, modified — order of terms inverted, definition slightly reworded, note

deleted, example added.]
3.9
pick list value
one of the enumerated or permissible values of a closed data category (3.2.2)

EXAMPLE "singular" and "plural" are pick list values in a field labelled "Grammatical Number".

Note 1 to entry: See also simple data category (3.2.4).

Note 2 to entry: Due to data modelling variance, most types of information that can be represented as pick list

values in a database can also be represented as simple data categories. For example, "Plural" can be implemented

as a checkbox, which, when checked, takes the value "yes" and when unchecked, takes the value "no".

4 Data categories and data category specifications

A data category (DC) is a class of information that forms part of a data collection or annotation scheme

for a given language resource. For example, /definition/ and /part of speech/ are common data

categories in terminological and lexicographical resources. Data category names can appear as the

name of a field in the user interface of a software application, or as a markup element in an annotated

resource.

Some data categories are pertinent to a specific application, research area, or type of resource and not

others. For instance, a /concept identifier/ is characteristic of terminological or ontological resources,

whereas /sense number/ is applicable to lexicographical resources. On the other hand, many data

categories, frequently those of a strictly linguistic nature such as /part of speech/, /grammatical gender/

and /grammatical number/, are common to a wide variety of resources. These data categories may not

always be implemented in the same way in different resources or applications, but each nevertheless

evokes one universal data category concept. For instance, for terminology management, only a small

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set of values are needed for /part of speech/ (e.g. noun, verb, adjective, adverb), but in lexicographical

resources, many additional values are required (e.g. preposition, pronoun, etc.).

A data category specification (DC specification) provides the complete and formal representation of a

data category (for example, its name, definition, examples, comments, etc.). Data category specifications

can be referenced by the language resources that use them, for instance, through the use of persistent

identifiers that directly resolve to the data category specification from within that resource.

5 Data category repositories

Data category specifications are normally stored in electronic format in a specially-designed database.

This database is called a data category repository (DCR). Today, it is essential for DCRs to be available

on the internet. For instance, a DCR for language resource descriptions, named DatCatInfo, is available

at www .datcatinfo .net (see Annex A).

Researchers and software developers working with language resources benefit greatly from being

able to access a trusted source of information about data categories. Providing a precise description

of the data categories that are used within a given data collection allows for a quick diagnosis of its

compatibility with other data collections or its suitability for use in computer processes. A DCR

containing vetted data category specifications provides users with the information they need

to implement data categories in a manner that is consistent with other users. Consequently, the

interoperability of language resources is greatly enhanced.

Interoperability of language resources is a key factor for supporting innovation and progress in various

focus areas of the language industry, such as terminology management, natural language processing,

and annotation schemes. These areas support important sectors of our economy and social development

such as global communication and trade, knowledge extraction, and content management.

To support research and development in language resources, it should be possible for users of a DCR

to subset collections of data category specifications from the whole DCR for application-specific uses.

These subsets are referred to as data category selections (DC selections). A data category selection

defines, in combination with a data model and optionally additional constraints, a given application-

specific language resource. For example, according to ISO 30042, a selection of terminology-related

data category specifications, together with the metamodel
...

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