Geographic information -- Imagery sensor models for geopositioning -- Part 2: SAR, InSAR, lidar and sonar

This Technical Specification supports exploitation of remotely sensed images. It specifies the sensor models and metadata for geopositioning images remotely sensed by Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), LIght Detection And Ranging (lidar), and Sound Navigation And Ranging (sonar) sensors. The specification also defines the metadata needed for the aerial triangulation of airborne and spaceborne images. This Technical Specification specifies the detailed information that shall be provided for a sensor description of SAR, InSAR, lidar and sonar sensors with the associated physical and geometric information necessary to rigorously construct a Physical Sensor Model. For the case where precise geoposition information is needed, this Technical Specification identifies the mathematical formulae for rigorously constructing Physical Sensor Models that relate two-dimensional image space to threedimensional ground space and the calculation of the associated propagated error. This Technical Specification does not specify either how users derive geoposition data or the format or content of the data the users generate.

Information géographique -- Modèles de capteurs d'images de géopositionnement -- Partie 2: SAR, InSAR, lidar et sonar

L'ISO/TS 19130-2:2014 prend en charge l'exploitation des images de t�l�d�tection. Elle sp�cifie les mod�les de capteurs et les m�tadonn�es pour la g�olocalisation des images de t�l�d�tection des capteurs radar � synth�se d'ouverture (SAR), radar interf�rom�trique � synth�se d'ouverture (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar - InSAR), t�l�d�tection par laser (lidar) et sonar. Elle d�finit �galement les m�tadonn�es n�cessaires � l'a�rotriangulation des images a�roport�es et spatioport�es.
L'ISO/TS 19130-2:2014 donne les informations d�taill�es qui doivent �tre fournies pour la description des capteurs de SAR, InSAR, lidar et sonar, ainsi que les informations physiques et g�om�triques associ�es n�cessaires � la construction rigoureuse d'un mod�le physique de capteur. Pour les cas o� des informations de g�olocalisation pr�cises sont n�cessaires, la pr�sente Sp�cification technique identifie les formules math�matiques permettant la construction rigoureuse de mod�les physiques de capteurs qui mettent en relation l'espace-image en deux dimensions et l'espace-sol en trois dimensions en int�grant le calcul de l'erreur de propagation associ�e.
L'ISO/TS 19130-2:2014 ne pr�cise ni comment les utilisateurs d�rivent les donn�es de g�olocalisation, ni le format ou le contenu des donn�es qu'ils g�n�rent.

Geografske informacije - Modeli zaznavanja podob za geopozicioniranje - 2. del: SAR, InSAR, lidar in sonar

Ta tehnična specifikacija podpira uporabo podob, zaznanih na daljavo. Določa modele zaznavanja in metapodatke za slike geopozicioniranja, ki jih na daljavo zaznavajo senzorji radarja s sintetično odprtino (SAR), interferometričnega radarja s sintetično odprtino (InSAR), svetlobnega zaznavanja in merjenja (lidar) ter naprave za navigacijo in določanje razdalje s pomočjo zvoka (sonar). Specifikacija določa tudi metapodatke, ki so potrebni za zračno triangulacijo slik iz zraka in vesolja. Ta tehnična specifikacija določa podrobne informacije, ki jih je treba zagotoviti za opis senzorjev naprav SAR, InSAR, lidar in sonar, skupaj s povezanimi fizičnimi in geometrijskimi informacijami, potrebnimi za natančno konstruiranje modela fizičnega senzorja. V primeru, ko so potrebne natančne informacije o geopoziciji, ta tehnična specifikacija navaja matematične formule za natančno konstruiranje modelov fizičnih senzorjev, ki povezujejo dvodimenzionalni slikovni prostor s tridimenzionalnim zemeljskim prostorom, in izračun pripadajoče razširjene napake. Ta tehnična specifikacija ne določa natančno, kako uporabniki pridobivajo podatke o geopoziciji, niti ne določa oblike ali vsebine podatkov, ki jih uporabniki ustvarijo.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
21-Nov-2019
Publication Date
08-Dec-2019
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
26-Nov-2019
Due Date
31-Jan-2020
Completion Date
09-Dec-2019

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TECHNICAL ISO/TS
SPECIFICATION 19130-2
First edition
2014-01-15
Geographic information — Imagery
sensor models for geopositioning —
Part 2:
SAR, InSAR, lidar and sonar
Information géographique — Modèles de capteurs d’images de
géopositionnement —
Partie 2: SAR, InSAR, lidar et sonar
Reference number
ISO/TS 19130-2:2014(E)
ISO 2014
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TS 19130-2:2014(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2014

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
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Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/TS 19130-2:2014(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Conformance ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

3 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Symbols and abbreviations ....................................................................................................................................................................12

5.1 Symbols ......................................................................................................................................................................................................12

5.2 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................17

5.3 Notation .....................................................................................................................................................................................................18

6 Sensor Model Extensions ..........................................................................................................................................................................19

6.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................................................................................................................19

6.2 SE_SensorModel ..................................................................................................................................................................................19

6.3 SE_Dynamics ..........................................................................................................................................................................................19

6.4 SE_PlatformDynamics ....................................................................................................................................................................20

7 Refinement of SAR physical sensor model ..............................................................................................................................20

7.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................................................................................................................20

7.2 SE_SAROperation ...............................................................................................................................................................................21

8 Interferometric SAR .......................................................................................................................................................................................22

8.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................................................................................................................22

8.2 InSAR geometry ..................................................................................................................................................................................22

8.3 Interferometric SAR operation...............................................................................................................................................24

9 Lidar physical sensor model .................................................................................................................................................................26

9.1 Description of sensor .....................................................................................................................................................................26

9.2 Information required for geolocating ..............................................................................................................................27

10 Sonar physical sensor model ................................................................................................................................................................28

10.1 Description of sensor .....................................................................................................................................................................28

10.2 Information required for geolocating ..............................................................................................................................32

11 Aerial triangulation ........................................................................................................................................................................................36

11.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................................................................................................................36

11.2 SE_AerialTriangulation .................................................................................................................................................................37

11.3 SE_ATObservations ...........................................................................................................................................................................37

11.4 SE_ATOtherResults ...........................................................................................................................................................................38

11.5 SE_ATUnknowns .................................................................................................................................................................................39

Annex A (normative) Conformance and testing .....................................................................................................................................40

Annex B (normative) Data dictionary ..............................................................................................................................................................42

Annex C (informative) Synthetic aperture radar sensor model metadata profile supporting

precise geopositioning ................................................................................................................................................................................74

Annex D (informative) Lidar sensor model metadata profile supporting precise geopositioning ..98

Annex E (informative) Sonar sensor model metadata profile supporting

precise geopositioning ............................................................................................................................................................................129

Bibliography .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................151

© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/TS 19130-2:2014(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2. www.iso.org/directives

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of any

patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or on

the ISO list of patent declarations received. www.iso.org/patents

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical

Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC ISO/TC 211, Geographic information/Geomatics.

ISO/TS 19130 consists of the following parts, under the general title Geographic information — Imagery

sensor models for geopositioning:
— Geographic information — Imagery sensor models for geopositioning

— Part 2: Geographic information — Imagery sensor models for geopositioning — Part 2: SAR, InSAR,

lidar and sonar
iv © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TS 19130-2:2014(E)
Introduction

The purpose of this Technical Specification is to specify the geolocation information that an imagery data

provider shall supply in order for the user to be able to find the earth location of the data using a detailed

physical sensor model for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), Light Detection And Ranging (lidar) and

Sound Navigation And Ranging (sonar). The intent is to standardize sensor descriptions and specify the

minimum geolocation metadata requirements for data providers and geopositioning imagery systems.

Observations in this document are the generic meaning of the word; observations are not in the meaning

of ISO 19156 observations.

Vast amounts of data from imaging systems have been collected, processed and distributed by government

mapping and remote sensing agencies and by commercial data vendors. In order for this data to be useful

in extraction of geographic information, further processing of the data are needed. Geopositioning, which

determines the ground coordinates of an object from image coordinates, is a fundamental processing

step. Because of the diversity of sensor types and the lack of a common sensor model standard, data

from different producers may contain different parametric information, lack parameters required to

describe the sensor that produces the data, or lack ancillary information necessary for geopositioning

and analysing the data. Often, a separate software package must be developed to deal with data from

each individual sensor or data producer. Standard sensor models and geolocation metadata allow

agencies or vendors to develop generalized software products that are applicable to data from multiple

data producers or from multiple sensors. With such standards, different producers can describe the

geolocation information of their data in the same way, thus promoting interoperability of data between

application systems and facilitating data exchange.

Part 1 provided a location model and metadata relevant to all sensors. It also included metadata specific

to whiskbroom, pushbroom, and frame sensors, and some metadata for Synthetic Aperture Radar

(SAR) sensors. In addition, it provided metadata for functional fit geopositioning, whether the function

was part of a correspondence model or a true replacement model. It also provided a schema for these

metadata elements. Comments on Part 1 stated that metadata needed to be specified for additional

sensors. The technology of such sensors has now become sufficiently mature that standardization is

now possible. This Technical Specification extends the specification of the set of metadata elements

required for geolocation by providing physical sensor models for LIght Detection And Ranging (lidar)

and SOund Navigation And Ranging (sonar), and it presents a more detailed set of elements for SAR.

This Technical Specification also defines the metadata needed for the aerial triangulation of airborne

and spaceborne images. This Technical Specification also provides a schema for all of these metadata

elements.
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved v
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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION ISO/TS 19130-2:2014(E)
Geographic information — Imagery sensor models for
geopositioning —
Part 2:
SAR, InSAR, lidar and sonar
1 Scope

This Technical Specification supports exploitation of remotely sensed images. It specifies the sensor

models and metadata for geopositioning images remotely sensed by Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR),

Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), LIght Detection And Ranging (lidar), and SOund

Navigation And Ranging (sonar) sensors. The specification also defines the metadata needed for the

aerial triangulation of airborne and spaceborne images.

This Technical Specification specifies the detailed information that shall be provided for a sensor

description of SAR, InSAR, lidar and sonar sensors with the associated physical and geometric

information necessary to rigorously construct a Physical Sensor Model. For the case where precise

geoposition information is needed, this Technical Specification identifies the mathematical formulae

for rigorously constructing Physical Sensor Models that relate two-dimensional image space to three-

dimensional ground space and the calculation of the associated propagated error.

This Technical Specification does not specify either how users derive geoposition data or the format or

content of the data the users generate.
2 Conformance

This Technical Specification specifies 5 conformance classes. There is one conformance class for

each type of sensor. Any set of geopositioning information claiming conformance to this Technical

Specification shall satisfy the requirements for at least one conformance class as specified in Table 1.

The requirements for each class are shown by the presence of an X in the boxes for all clauses in the

application test suite (ATS) required for that class. If the requirement is conditional, the box contains a

C. The conditions are defined in the corresponding UML models.
Table 1 — Conformance classes
Section of this part of ISO 19130
A.1.1 A.1.2 A.1.3 A.2 A.3 A.4 A.5 A.6
SAR X C X
InSAR X C X
Conformance
Lidar X X X X
Class
Sonar X X X X
Aerial triangulation X C X
3 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO/TS 19130-2:2014(E)
ISO/TS 19103:2005, Geographic information — Conceptual schema language
ISO 19107:2003, Geographic information — Spatial schema
ISO 19108:2002, Geographic information — Temporal schema
ISO 19111:2007, Geographic information — Spatial referencing by coordinates
ISO 19115-1:2014, Geographic information — Metadata — Part 1: Fundamentals

ISO 19115-2:2009, Geographic information — Metadata — Part 2: Extensions for imagery and gridded data

ISO 19123:2005, Geographic information — Schema for coverage geometry and functions

ISO 19157:2013, Geographic information — Data quality

ISO/TS 19130:2010, Geographic information — Imagery sensor models for geopositioning

4 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
4.1
active sensor
sensor (4.66) that generates the energy that it uses to perform the sensing
4.2
active sonar

type of active sensor (4.1) that transmits sound waves into the water and receives the returned waves

echoed from objects in the water
4.3
adjustable model parameters

model parameters that can be refined using available additional information, such as ground control

points, to improve or enhance modeling corrections
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 19130:2010, 4.2]
4.4
ARP
aperture reference point
3D location of the centre of the synthetic aperture
Note 1 to entry: It is usually expressed in ECEF coordinates in metres.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 19130:2010, 4.4]
4.5
area recording
instantaneously recording an image in a single frame (4.22)
4.6
attitude

orientation of a body, described by the angles between the axes of that body’s coordinate system and the

axes of an external coordinate system
[SOURCE: ISO 19116:2004, 4.2]
2 © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TS 19130-2:2014(E)
4.7
attribute
named property of an entity
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 2382-17:1999, 17.02.12]
4.8
azimuth resolution
resolution (4.60) in the cross-range direction

Note 1 to entry: This is usually measured in terms of the impulse response of the SAR sensor (4.66) and processing

system. It is a function of the size of the synthetic aperture, or alternatively the dwell time (e.g. larger aperture -

> longer dwell time - > better resolution).
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 19130:2010, 4.7]
4.9
beam width
useful angular width of the beam of electromagnetic energy

Note 1 to entry: For SAR, beam width is usually measured in radians and is the angular width between two points

that have 1/2 of the power (3 dB below) of the centre of the beam. It is a property of the antenna. Power emitted

outside of this angle is too little to provide a usable return (4.62).

Note 2 to entry: Angle, measured in a horizontal plane, between the directions on either side of the axis at which

the intensity (4.37) of a beam of energy drops to a specified fraction of the value it has on the axis.

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 19130:2010, 4.8, modified — Notes 1 and 2 have been added.]
4.10
broadside

direction orthogonal to the velocity vector (4.81) and parallel to the plane tangent to the Earth’s

ellipsoid at the nadir point of the ARP (4.4)
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 19130:2010, 4.9]
4.11
complex image
first-level product produced by processing SAR Phase History Data (4.48)
4.12
datum

parameter or set of parameters that define the position of the origin, the scale, and the orientation of a

coordinate system
[SOURCE: ISO 19111:2007, 4.14]
4.13
depression angle

vertical angle from the platform horizontal plane to the slant range direction (4.56), usually measured

at the ARP (4.4)
Note 1 to entry: Approximately the complement of the look angle (4.42).
4.14
Differential Global Navigational Satellite System

enhancement to Global Positioning System that uses GNSS and DGNSS to broadcast the difference

between the positions indicated by the satellite systems and the known fixed positions

© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO/TS 19130-2:2014(E)
4.15
Doppler angle
angle between the velocity vector (4.81) and the range vector (4.58)
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 19130:2010, 4.19]
4.16
Doppler shift
wavelength change resulting from relative motion of source and detector

Note 1 to entry: In the SAR context, it is the frequency shift imposed on a radar signal due to relative motion

between the transmitter (4.79) and the object being illuminated.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 19130:2010, 4.20]
4.17
draught

vertical distance, at any section of a vessel from the surface of the water to the bottom of the keel

[SOURCE: IHO Hydrographic Dictionary, S-32, Fifth Edition]
4.18
easting

distance in a coordinate system, eastwards (positive) or westwards (negative) from a north-south

reference line
[SOURCE: ISO 19111:2007, 4.16]
4.19
field of regard
total angular extent over which the field of view (FOV) (4.20) may be positioned

Note 1 to entry: The field of regard is the area that is potentially able to be viewed by a system at an instant in

time. It is determined by the system’s FOV and the range (4.54) of directions in which the system is able to point.

[SOURCE: Adapted from the Manual of Photogrammetry]
4.20
field of view
FOV
instantaneous region seen by a sensor (4.66), provided in angular measure

Note 1 to entry: In the airborne case, this would be swath (4.75) width for a linear array, ground footprint for an

area array, and for a whiskbroom scanner it refers to the swath width.
[SOURCE: Manual of Photogrammetry]
4.21
first return

first reflected signal that is detected by a 3D imaging system, time of flight (TOF) type, for a given

sampling position and a given emitted pulse
[SOURCE: Adapted from STM E2544]
4.22
frame

data collected by the receiver (4.59) as a result of all returns (4.62) from a single emitted pulse

Note 1 to entry: A complete 3D data sample of the world produced by a lidar (4.40) taken at a certain time, place,

and orientation. A single lidar frame is also referred to as a range (4.54) image.

[SOURCE: Adapted from NISTIR 7117]
4 © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TS 19130-2:2014(E)
4.23
geiger mode

photon counting mode for lidar (4.40) systems, where the detector is biased and becomes sensitive to

individual photons

Note 1 to entry: These detectors exist in the form of arrays and are bonded with electronic circuitry. The electronic

circuitry produces a measurement corresponding to the time at which the current was generated; resulting in a

direct time-of-flight measurement. A lidar that employs this detector technology typically illuminates a large scene

with a single pulse. The direct time-of-flight measurements are then combined with platform location/attitude

(4.6) data along with pointing information to produce a three-dimensional product of the illuminated scene of

interest. Additional processing is applied which removes existing noise present in the data to produce a visually

exploitable data set.
[SOURCE: Adapted from Albota 2002]
4.24
geodetic coordinate system

coordinate system in which position is specified by geodetic latitude, geodetic longitude and (in the

three-dimensional case) ellipsoidal height
[SOURCE: ISO 19111:2007, 4.18]
4.25
geodetic datum

datum (4.12) describing the relationship of a two- or three-dimensional coordinate system to the Earth

Note 1 to entry: In most cases, the geodetic datum includes an ellipsoid description (ISO/TS 19130:2010)

Note 2 to entry: The term and this Technical Specification may be applicable to some other celestial bodies.

[SOURCE: ISO 19111:2007, 4.24, modified — Notes 1 and 2 have been added.]
4.26
geographic coordinates
longitude, latitude and height of a ground or elevated point

Note 1 to entry: Geographic coordinates are related to a coordinate reference system or compound coordinate

reference system. Depth equals negative height.
4.27
geographic information

information concerning phenomena implicitly or explicitly associated with a location relative to the

Earth
[SOURCE: ISO 19101:2002, 4.16]
4.28
geolocating

geopositioning an object using a Physical Sensor Model (4.68) or a True Replacement Model

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 19130:2010, 4.34]
4.29
grazing angle

vertical angle from the local surface tangent plane to the slant range direction (4.56)

Note 1 to entry: It is usually measured at the GRP and approximately the complement of the incident angle (4.35)

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 19130:2010, 4.39, modified — Note 1 to entry has been added.]
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 5
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ISO/TS 19130-2:2014(E)
4.30
hydrophone

component of the sonar system which receives the sound echo and converts it to an electric

signal
4.31
heave

oscillatory rise and fall of a ship due to the entire hull being lifted by the force of the sea

[SOURCE: IHO Hydrographic Dictionary S-32, Fifth Edition]
4.32
hydrographic swath

strip or lane on the ground scanned by a multi-beam sounder when the survey vessel proceeds

along its course
[SOURCE: IHO Hydrographic Dictionary S-32, Fifth Edition]
4.33
image coordinates
coordinates with respect to a Cartesian coordinate system of an image

Note 1 to entry: The image coordinates can be in pixels or in a measure of length (linear measure).

4.34
image formation

process by which an image is generated from collected Phase History Data (4.48) in a SAR system

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 19130:2010, 4.51]
4.35
incident angle

vertical angle between the line from the detected element to the sensor (4.66) and the local surface

normal (tangent plane normal)
Note 1 to entry: It is approximately the complement of the grazing angle (4.29).
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 19130:2010, 4.57, modified — Note 1 to entry has been added.]
4.36
instantaneous field of view

instantaneous region seen by a single detector element, measured in angular space

[SOURCE: Manual of Photogrammetry]
4.37
intensity
power per unit solid angle from a point source into a particular direction

Note 1 to entry: Typically for lidar (4.40), sufficient calibration has not been done to calculate absolute intensity, so

relative intensity is usually reported. In linear mode (4.41) systems, this value is typically provided as an integer,

resulting from a mapping of the return’s (4.62) signal power to an integer value via a lookup table.

4.38
last return

last reflected signal that is detected by a 3D imaging system, time-of-flight (TOF) type, for a given

sampling position and a given emitted pulse
[SOURCE: Adapted from ASTM E2544]
6 © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TS 19130-2:2014(E)
4.39
layover

visual effect in SAR images of ambiguity among returns (4.62) from scatterers at different heights that

fall into the same range-Doppler-time bin

Note 1 to entry: The effect makes buildings “lay over” onto the ground toward the sensor (4.66)velocity vector

(4.81), akin to perspective views in projective imagery.
4.40
lidar
light detection and ranging

system consisting of 1) a photon source (frequently, but not necessarily, a laser), 2) a photon detection

system, 3) a timing circuit, and 4) optics for both the source and the receiver (4.59) that uses emitted

laser light to measure ranges (4.54) to and/or properties of solid objects, gases, or particulates in the

atmosphere

Note 1 to entry: Time of flight (TOF) lidars use short laser pulses and precisely record the time each laser pulse

was emitted and the time each reflected return(s) (4.62) is received in order to calculate the distance(s) to the

scatterer(s) encountered by the emitted pulse. For topographic lidar (4.80), these time-of-flight measurements

are then combined with precise platform location/attitude (4.6) data along with pointing data to produce a three-

dimensional product of the illuminated scene of interest.
4.41
linear mode

lidar (4.40) system in which output photocurrent is proportional to the input optical incident intensity

(4.37)

Note 1 to entry: A lidar system which employs this technology typically uses processing techniques to develop the

time-of-flight measurements from the full waveform that is reflected from the targets in the illuminated scene of

interest. These time-of-flight measurements are then combined with precise platform location/attitude (4.6) data

along with pointing data to produce a three-dimensional product of the illuminated scene of interest.

[SOURCE: Adapted from Aull et al., 2002]
4.42
look angle
vertical angle from the platform down
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TS ISO/TS 19130-2:2020
01-januar-2020
Geografske informacije - Modeli zaznavanja podob za geopozicioniranje - 2. del:
SAR, InSAR, lidar in sonar

Geographic information -- Imagery sensor models for geopositioning -- Part 2: SAR,

InSAR, lidar and sonar
Information géographique -- Modèles de capteurs d'images de géopositionnement --
Partie 2: SAR, InSAR, lidar et sonar
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO/TS 19130-2:2014
ICS:
07.040 Astronomija. Geodezija. Astronomy. Geodesy.
Geografija Geography
35.240.70 Uporabniške rešitve IT v IT applications in science
znanosti
SIST-TS ISO/TS 19130-2:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TS ISO/TS 19130-2:2020
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SIST-TS ISO/TS 19130-2:2020
TECHNICAL ISO/TS
SPECIFICATION 19130-2
First edition
2014-01-15
Geographic information — Imagery
sensor models for geopositioning —
Part 2:
SAR, InSAR, lidar and sonar
Information géographique — Modèles de capteurs d’images de
géopositionnement —
Partie 2: SAR, InSAR, lidar et sonar
Reference number
ISO/TS 19130-2:2014(E)
ISO 2014
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SIST-TS ISO/TS 19130-2:2020
ISO/TS 19130-2:2014(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2014

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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SIST-TS ISO/TS 19130-2:2020
ISO/TS 19130-2:2014(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Conformance ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

3 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Symbols and abbreviations ....................................................................................................................................................................12

5.1 Symbols ......................................................................................................................................................................................................12

5.2 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................17

5.3 Notation .....................................................................................................................................................................................................18

6 Sensor Model Extensions ..........................................................................................................................................................................19

6.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................................................................................................................19

6.2 SE_SensorModel ..................................................................................................................................................................................19

6.3 SE_Dynamics ..........................................................................................................................................................................................19

6.4 SE_PlatformDynamics ....................................................................................................................................................................20

7 Refinement of SAR physical sensor model ..............................................................................................................................20

7.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................................................................................................................20

7.2 SE_SAROperation ...............................................................................................................................................................................21

8 Interferometric SAR .......................................................................................................................................................................................22

8.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................................................................................................................22

8.2 InSAR geometry ..................................................................................................................................................................................22

8.3 Interferometric SAR operation...............................................................................................................................................24

9 Lidar physical sensor model .................................................................................................................................................................26

9.1 Description of sensor .....................................................................................................................................................................26

9.2 Information required for geolocating ..............................................................................................................................27

10 Sonar physical sensor model ................................................................................................................................................................28

10.1 Description of sensor .....................................................................................................................................................................28

10.2 Information required for geolocating ..............................................................................................................................32

11 Aerial triangulation ........................................................................................................................................................................................36

11.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................................................................................................................36

11.2 SE_AerialTriangulation .................................................................................................................................................................37

11.3 SE_ATObservations ...........................................................................................................................................................................37

11.4 SE_ATOtherResults ...........................................................................................................................................................................38

11.5 SE_ATUnknowns .................................................................................................................................................................................39

Annex A (normative) Conformance and testing .....................................................................................................................................40

Annex B (normative) Data dictionary ..............................................................................................................................................................42

Annex C (informative) Synthetic aperture radar sensor model metadata profile supporting

precise geopositioning ................................................................................................................................................................................74

Annex D (informative) Lidar sensor model metadata profile supporting precise geopositioning ..98

Annex E (informative) Sonar sensor model metadata profile supporting

precise geopositioning ............................................................................................................................................................................129

Bibliography .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................151

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Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2. www.iso.org/directives

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of any

patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or on

the ISO list of patent declarations received. www.iso.org/patents

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical

Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC ISO/TC 211, Geographic information/Geomatics.

ISO/TS 19130 consists of the following parts, under the general title Geographic information — Imagery

sensor models for geopositioning:
— Geographic information — Imagery sensor models for geopositioning

— Part 2: Geographic information — Imagery sensor models for geopositioning — Part 2: SAR, InSAR,

lidar and sonar
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Introduction

The purpose of this Technical Specification is to specify the geolocation information that an imagery data

provider shall supply in order for the user to be able to find the earth location of the data using a detailed

physical sensor model for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), Light Detection And Ranging (lidar) and

Sound Navigation And Ranging (sonar). The intent is to standardize sensor descriptions and specify the

minimum geolocation metadata requirements for data providers and geopositioning imagery systems.

Observations in this document are the generic meaning of the word; observations are not in the meaning

of ISO 19156 observations.

Vast amounts of data from imaging systems have been collected, processed and distributed by government

mapping and remote sensing agencies and by commercial data vendors. In order for this data to be useful

in extraction of geographic information, further processing of the data are needed. Geopositioning, which

determines the ground coordinates of an object from image coordinates, is a fundamental processing

step. Because of the diversity of sensor types and the lack of a common sensor model standard, data

from different producers may contain different parametric information, lack parameters required to

describe the sensor that produces the data, or lack ancillary information necessary for geopositioning

and analysing the data. Often, a separate software package must be developed to deal with data from

each individual sensor or data producer. Standard sensor models and geolocation metadata allow

agencies or vendors to develop generalized software products that are applicable to data from multiple

data producers or from multiple sensors. With such standards, different producers can describe the

geolocation information of their data in the same way, thus promoting interoperability of data between

application systems and facilitating data exchange.

Part 1 provided a location model and metadata relevant to all sensors. It also included metadata specific

to whiskbroom, pushbroom, and frame sensors, and some metadata for Synthetic Aperture Radar

(SAR) sensors. In addition, it provided metadata for functional fit geopositioning, whether the function

was part of a correspondence model or a true replacement model. It also provided a schema for these

metadata elements. Comments on Part 1 stated that metadata needed to be specified for additional

sensors. The technology of such sensors has now become sufficiently mature that standardization is

now possible. This Technical Specification extends the specification of the set of metadata elements

required for geolocation by providing physical sensor models for LIght Detection And Ranging (lidar)

and SOund Navigation And Ranging (sonar), and it presents a more detailed set of elements for SAR.

This Technical Specification also defines the metadata needed for the aerial triangulation of airborne

and spaceborne images. This Technical Specification also provides a schema for all of these metadata

elements.
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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION ISO/TS 19130-2:2014(E)
Geographic information — Imagery sensor models for
geopositioning —
Part 2:
SAR, InSAR, lidar and sonar
1 Scope

This Technical Specification supports exploitation of remotely sensed images. It specifies the sensor

models and metadata for geopositioning images remotely sensed by Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR),

Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), LIght Detection And Ranging (lidar), and SOund

Navigation And Ranging (sonar) sensors. The specification also defines the metadata needed for the

aerial triangulation of airborne and spaceborne images.

This Technical Specification specifies the detailed information that shall be provided for a sensor

description of SAR, InSAR, lidar and sonar sensors with the associated physical and geometric

information necessary to rigorously construct a Physical Sensor Model. For the case where precise

geoposition information is needed, this Technical Specification identifies the mathematical formulae

for rigorously constructing Physical Sensor Models that relate two-dimensional image space to three-

dimensional ground space and the calculation of the associated propagated error.

This Technical Specification does not specify either how users derive geoposition data or the format or

content of the data the users generate.
2 Conformance

This Technical Specification specifies 5 conformance classes. There is one conformance class for

each type of sensor. Any set of geopositioning information claiming conformance to this Technical

Specification shall satisfy the requirements for at least one conformance class as specified in Table 1.

The requirements for each class are shown by the presence of an X in the boxes for all clauses in the

application test suite (ATS) required for that class. If the requirement is conditional, the box contains a

C. The conditions are defined in the corresponding UML models.
Table 1 — Conformance classes
Section of this part of ISO 19130
A.1.1 A.1.2 A.1.3 A.2 A.3 A.4 A.5 A.6
SAR X C X
InSAR X C X
Conformance
Lidar X X X X
Class
Sonar X X X X
Aerial triangulation X C X
3 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.
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ISO/TS 19103:2005, Geographic information — Conceptual schema language
ISO 19107:2003, Geographic information — Spatial schema
ISO 19108:2002, Geographic information — Temporal schema
ISO 19111:2007, Geographic information — Spatial referencing by coordinates
ISO 19115-1:2014, Geographic information — Metadata — Part 1: Fundamentals

ISO 19115-2:2009, Geographic information — Metadata — Part 2: Extensions for imagery and gridded data

ISO 19123:2005, Geographic information — Schema for coverage geometry and functions

ISO 19157:2013, Geographic information — Data quality

ISO/TS 19130:2010, Geographic information — Imagery sensor models for geopositioning

4 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
4.1
active sensor
sensor (4.66) that generates the energy that it uses to perform the sensing
4.2
active sonar

type of active sensor (4.1) that transmits sound waves into the water and receives the returned waves

echoed from objects in the water
4.3
adjustable model parameters

model parameters that can be refined using available additional information, such as ground control

points, to improve or enhance modeling corrections
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 19130:2010, 4.2]
4.4
ARP
aperture reference point
3D location of the centre of the synthetic aperture
Note 1 to entry: It is usually expressed in ECEF coordinates in metres.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 19130:2010, 4.4]
4.5
area recording
instantaneously recording an image in a single frame (4.22)
4.6
attitude

orientation of a body, described by the angles between the axes of that body’s coordinate system and the

axes of an external coordinate system
[SOURCE: ISO 19116:2004, 4.2]
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4.7
attribute
named property of an entity
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 2382-17:1999, 17.02.12]
4.8
azimuth resolution
resolution (4.60) in the cross-range direction

Note 1 to entry: This is usually measured in terms of the impulse response of the SAR sensor (4.66) and processing

system. It is a function of the size of the synthetic aperture, or alternatively the dwell time (e.g. larger aperture -

> longer dwell time - > better resolution).
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 19130:2010, 4.7]
4.9
beam width
useful angular width of the beam of electromagnetic energy

Note 1 to entry: For SAR, beam width is usually measured in radians and is the angular width between two points

that have 1/2 of the power (3 dB below) of the centre of the beam. It is a property of the antenna. Power emitted

outside of this angle is too little to provide a usable return (4.62).

Note 2 to entry: Angle, measured in a horizontal plane, between the directions on either side of the axis at which

the intensity (4.37) of a beam of energy drops to a specified fraction of the value it has on the axis.

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 19130:2010, 4.8, modified — Notes 1 and 2 have been added.]
4.10
broadside

direction orthogonal to the velocity vector (4.81) and parallel to the plane tangent to the Earth’s

ellipsoid at the nadir point of the ARP (4.4)
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 19130:2010, 4.9]
4.11
complex image
first-level product produced by processing SAR Phase History Data (4.48)
4.12
datum

parameter or set of parameters that define the position of the origin, the scale, and the orientation of a

coordinate system
[SOURCE: ISO 19111:2007, 4.14]
4.13
depression angle

vertical angle from the platform horizontal plane to the slant range direction (4.56), usually measured

at the ARP (4.4)
Note 1 to entry: Approximately the complement of the look angle (4.42).
4.14
Differential Global Navigational Satellite System

enhancement to Global Positioning System that uses GNSS and DGNSS to broadcast the difference

between the positions indicated by the satellite systems and the known fixed positions

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4.15
Doppler angle
angle between the velocity vector (4.81) and the range vector (4.58)
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 19130:2010, 4.19]
4.16
Doppler shift
wavelength change resulting from relative motion of source and detector

Note 1 to entry: In the SAR context, it is the frequency shift imposed on a radar signal due to relative motion

between the transmitter (4.79) and the object being illuminated.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 19130:2010, 4.20]
4.17
draught

vertical distance, at any section of a vessel from the surface of the water to the bottom of the keel

[SOURCE: IHO Hydrographic Dictionary, S-32, Fifth Edition]
4.18
easting

distance in a coordinate system, eastwards (positive) or westwards (negative) from a north-south

reference line
[SOURCE: ISO 19111:2007, 4.16]
4.19
field of regard
total angular extent over which the field of view (FOV) (4.20) may be positioned

Note 1 to entry: The field of regard is the area that is potentially able to be viewed by a system at an instant in

time. It is determined by the system’s FOV and the range (4.54) of directions in which the system is able to point.

[SOURCE: Adapted from the Manual of Photogrammetry]
4.20
field of view
FOV
instantaneous region seen by a sensor (4.66), provided in angular measure

Note 1 to entry: In the airborne case, this would be swath (4.75) width for a linear array, ground footprint for an

area array, and for a whiskbroom scanner it refers to the swath width.
[SOURCE: Manual of Photogrammetry]
4.21
first return

first reflected signal that is detected by a 3D imaging system, time of flight (TOF) type, for a given

sampling position and a given emitted pulse
[SOURCE: Adapted from STM E2544]
4.22
frame

data collected by the receiver (4.59) as a result of all returns (4.62) from a single emitted pulse

Note 1 to entry: A complete 3D data sample of the world produced by a lidar (4.40) taken at a certain time, place,

and orientation. A single lidar frame is also referred to as a range (4.54) image.

[SOURCE: Adapted from NISTIR 7117]
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4.23
geiger mode

photon counting mode for lidar (4.40) systems, where the detector is biased and becomes sensitive to

individual photons

Note 1 to entry: These detectors exist in the form of arrays and are bonded with electronic circuitry. The electronic

circuitry produces a measurement corresponding to the time at which the current was generated; resulting in a

direct time-of-flight measurement. A lidar that employs this detector technology typically illuminates a large scene

with a single pulse. The direct time-of-flight measurements are then combined with platform location/attitude

(4.6) data along with pointing information to produce a three-dimensional product of the illuminated scene of

interest. Additional processing is applied which removes existing noise present in the data to produce a visually

exploitable data set.
[SOURCE: Adapted from Albota 2002]
4.24
geodetic coordinate system

coordinate system in which position is specified by geodetic latitude, geodetic longitude and (in the

three-dimensional case) ellipsoidal height
[SOURCE: ISO 19111:2007, 4.18]
4.25
geodetic datum

datum (4.12) describing the relationship of a two- or three-dimensional coordinate system to the Earth

Note 1 to entry: In most cases, the geodetic datum includes an ellipsoid description (ISO/TS 19130:2010)

Note 2 to entry: The term and this Technical Specification may be applicable to some other celestial bodies.

[SOURCE: ISO 19111:2007, 4.24, modified — Notes 1 and 2 have been added.]
4.26
geographic coordinates
longitude, latitude and height of a ground or elevated point

Note 1 to entry: Geographic coordinates are related to a coordinate reference system or compound coordinate

reference system. Depth equals negative height.
4.27
geographic information

information concerning phenomena implicitly or explicitly associated with a location relative to the

Earth
[SOURCE: ISO 19101:2002, 4.16]
4.28
geolocating

geopositioning an object using a Physical Sensor Model (4.68) or a True Replacement Model

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 19130:2010, 4.34]
4.29
grazing angle

vertical angle from the local surface tangent plane to the slant range direction (4.56)

Note 1 to entry: It is usually measured at the GRP and approximately the complement of the incident angle (4.35)

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 19130:2010, 4.39, modified — Note 1 to entry has been added.]
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4.30
hydrophone

component of the sonar system which receives the sound echo and converts it to an electric

signal
4.31
heave

oscillatory rise and fall of a ship due to the entire hull being lifted by the force of the sea

[SOURCE: IHO Hydrographic Dictionary S-32, Fifth Edition]
4.32
hydrographic swath

strip or lane on the ground scanned by a multi-beam sounder when the survey vessel proceeds

along its course
[SOURCE: IHO Hydrographic Dictionary S-32, Fifth Edition]
4.33
image coordinates
coordinates with respect to a Cartesian coordinate system of an image

Note 1 to entry: The image coordinates can be in pixels or in a measure of length (linear measure).

4.34
image formation

process by which an image is generated from collected Phase History Data (4.48) in a SAR system

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 19130:2010, 4.51]
4.35
incident angle

vertical angle between the line from the detected element to the sensor (4.66) and the local surface

normal (tangent plane normal)
Note 1 to entry: It is approximately the complement of the grazing angle (4.29).
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 19130:2010, 4.57, modified — Note 1 to entry has been added.]
4.36
instantaneous field of view

instantaneous region seen by a single detector element, measured in angular space

[SOURCE: Manual of Photogrammetry]
4.37
intensity
power per unit solid angle from a point source into a particular direction

Note 1 to entry: Typically for lidar (4.40), sufficient calibration has not been done to calculate absolute intensity, so

relative intensity is usually reported. In linear mode (4.41) systems, this value is typically provided as an integer,

resulting from a mapping of the return’s (4.62) signal power to an integer value via a lookup table.

4.38
last return

last reflected signal that is detected by a 3D imaging system, time-of-flight (TOF) type, for a given

sampling position and a given emitted pulse
[SOURCE: Adapted from ASTM E2544]
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4.39
layover

visual effect in SAR images of ambiguity among returns (4.62) from scatterers at different heights that

fall into the same range-Doppler-time bin

Note 1 to entry: The effect makes buildings “lay over” onto the ground toward the sensor (4.66)velocity vector

(4.81), akin to perspective views in projective imagery.
4.40
lidar
light detection and ranging

system consisting of 1) a photon source (frequently, but not necessarily, a laser), 2) a photon detection

system, 3) a timing circuit, and 4) optics for both the source and the receiver (4.59) that

...

SPÉCIFICATION ISO/TS
TECHNIQUE 19130-2
Première édition
2014-01-15
Information géographique —
Modèles de capteurs d’images de
géopositionnement —
Partie 2:
SAR, InSAR, lidar et sonar
Geographic information — Imagery sensor models for
geopositioning —
Part 2: SAR, InSAR, lidar and sonar
Numéro de référence
ISO/TS 19130-2:2014(F)
ISO 2014
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ISO/TS 19130-2:2014(F)
DOCUMENT PROTÉGÉ PAR COPYRIGHT
© ISO 2014

Droits de reproduction réservés. Sauf indication contraire, aucune partie de cette publication ne peut être reproduite ni utilisée

sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun procédé, électronique ou mécanique, y compris la photocopie, l’affichage sur

l’internet ou sur un Intranet, sans autorisation écrite préalable. Les demandes d’autorisation peuvent être adressées à l’ISO à

l’adresse ci-après ou au comité membre de l’ISO dans le pays du demandeur.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Publié en Suisse
ii © ISO 2014 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO/TS 19130-2:2014(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Domaine d’application ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Conformité .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

3 Références normatives ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Termes et définitions ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Symboles et abréviations ..........................................................................................................................................................................12

5.1 Symboles ...................................................................................................................................................................................................12

5.2 Abréviations ...........................................................................................................................................................................................17

5.3 Notation .....................................................................................................................................................................................................18

6 Extensions de modèle de capteur ....................................................................................................................................................19

6.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................................................................................................................19

6.2 SE_SensorModel ..................................................................................................................................................................................19

6.3 SE_Dynamics ..........................................................................................................................................................................................20

6.4 SE_PlatformDynamics ....................................................................................................................................................................20

7 Affinement du modèle physique de capteur SAR .............................................................................................................21

7.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................................................................................................................21

7.2 SE_SAROperation ...............................................................................................................................................................................22

8 SAR Interférométrique ................................................................................................................................................................................22

8.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................................................................................................................22

8.2 Géométrie InSAR ................................................................................................................................................................................23

8.3 Fonctionnement du SAR interférométrique ...............................................................................................................25

9 Modèle physique de capteur lidar ...................................................................................................................................................26

9.1 Description du capteur .................................................................................................................................................................26

9.2 Informations requises pour géolocalisation...............................................................................................................27

10 Modèle physique de capteur sonar ................................................................................................................................................28

10.1 Description du capteur .................................................................................................................................................................28

10.2 Informations requises pour géolocalisation...............................................................................................................32

11 Aérotriangulation .............................................................................................................................................................................................36

11.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................................................................................................................36

11.2 SE_AerialTriangulation .................................................................................................................................................................37

11.3 SE_ATObservations ...........................................................................................................................................................................37

11.4 SE_ATOtherResults ...........................................................................................................................................................................38

11.5 SE_ATUnknowns .................................................................................................................................................................................39

Annexe A (normative) Conformité et test .....................................................................................................................................................40

Annexe B (normative) Dictionnaire de données ...................................................................................................................................42

Annexe C (informative) Profil de métadonnées de modèle de capteur de radar à synthèse

d’ouverture prenant en charge une géolocalisation précis ..................................................................................73

Annexe D (informative) Profil de métadonnées de modèle de capteur lidar prenant en charge une

géolocalisation précis ..................................................................................................................................................................................98

Annexe E (informative) Profil de métadonnées de modèle de capteur sonar prenant en charge une

géolocalisation précise ...........................................................................................................................................................................129

Bibliographie .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................151

© ISO 2014 – Tous droits réservés iii
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ISO/TS 19130-2:2014(F)
Avant-propos

L’ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d’organismes

nationaux de normalisation (comités membres de l’ISO). L’élaboration des Normes internationales est

en général confiée aux comités techniques de l’ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude

a le droit de faire partie du comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales,

gouvernementales et non gouvernementales, en liaison avec l’ISO participent également aux travaux.

L’ISO collabore étroitement avec la Commission électrotechnique internationale (IEC) en ce qui concerne

la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les procédures utilisées pour élaborer le présent document et celles destinées à sa mise à jour sont

décrites dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 1. Il convient, en particulier de prendre note des différents

critères d’approbation requis pour les différents types de documents ISO. Le présent document a été

rédigé conformément aux règles de rédaction données dans les Directives ISO/IEC, Partie 2 (voir www.

iso.org/directives).

L’attention est appelée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l’objet de

droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L’ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable

de ne pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence. Les détails concernant les

références aux droits de propriété intellectuelle ou autres droits analogues identifiés lors de l’élaboration

du document sont indiqués dans l’Introduction et/ou dans la liste des déclarations de brevets reçues par

l’ISO (voir www.iso.org/brevets).

Les appellations commerciales éventuellement mentionnées dans le présent document sont données

pour information, par souci de commodité, à l’intention des utilisateurs et ne sauraient constituer un

engagement.

Pour une explication de la signification des termes et expressions spécifiques de l’ISO liés à l’évaluation de

la conformité, ou pour toute information au sujet de l’adhésion de l’ISO aux principes de l’OMC concernant

les obstacles techniques au commerce (OTC), voir le lien suivant: Avant-propos — Informations

supplémentaires.

Le comité chargé de l’élaboration du présent document est l’ISO/TC 211, Information

géographique/Géomatique.

L’ISO/TS 19130 comprend les parties suivantes, présentées sous le titre général Information

géographique — Modèles de capteurs d’images pour la géolocalisation:

— Information géographique — Modèles de capteurs d’images pour la géolocalisation

— Partie 2: Information géographique — Modèles de capteurs d’images pour la géolocalisation — Partie 2:

SAR, InSAR, lidar et sonar
iv © ISO 2014 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO/TS 19130-2:2014(F)
Introduction

La présente Spécification technique a pour but de spécifier les informations de géolocalisation qu’un

fournisseur de données d’imagerie doit fournir pour permettre à l’utilisateur de trouver la position

terrestre des données au moyen d’un modèle physique de capteur détaillé pour radar à synthèse

d’ouverture (Synthetic Aperture Radar - SAR), télédétection par laser (LIght Detection And Ranging -

lidar) et sonar (SOund Navigation And Ranging). L’objectif est de normaliser les descriptions des capteurs

et de spécifier les exigences minimales de métadonnées de géolocalisation pour les fournisseurs de

données et les systèmes de géolocalisation d’imagerie. Le terme «observation» dans ce document

s’entend au sens générique du mot, et non au sens donné dans l’ISO 19156.

De grandes quantités de données provenant de systèmes d’imagerie ont été acquises, traitées

et distribuées par des agences gouvernementales de cartographie et de télédétection et par des

fournisseurs de données commerciales. Afin que ces données soient utiles pour l’extraction d’information

géographique, un traitement supplémentaire des données est nécessaire. La géolocalisation, qui

détermine les coordonnées au sol d’un objet à partir des coordonnées d’image, constitue une étape

fondamentale du traitement. En raison de la diversité des types de capteur et de l’absence de modèle

commun de capteur standard, des données de producteurs différents peuvent contenir des informations

paramétriques différentes, ou être dépourvues des paramètres nécessaires à la description du capteur

qui génère les données ou des informations accessoires requises pour la géolocalisation et l’analyse des

données. Il arrive fréquemment qu’il faille élaborer un logiciel spécifique pour traiter les données en

provenance de chaque capteur ou producteur de données. Les standards de modèles de capteurs et de

métadonnées de géolocalisation permettent aux agences ou aux fournisseurs de développer des logiciels

globaux applicables aux données de plusieurs producteurs de données ou de plusieurs capteurs. Sur la

base de ces standards, des producteurs différents peuvent décrire les informations de géolocalisation

de leurs données de la même manière, favorisant ainsi l’interopérabilité des données entre les systèmes

d’application et facilitant l’échange de données.

La Partie 1 fournit un modèle de localisation et des métadonnées concernant tous les capteurs. Elle

comprend également des métadonnées spécifiques aux capteurs à balayage transversal, aux capteurs

en peigne et aux capteurs à trame, et certaines métadonnées pour les capteurs de radar à synthèse

d’ouverture (SAR). De plus, elle fournit les métadonnées de la fonction de géolocalisation par ajustement

fonctionnel, que cette fonction fasse partie d’un modèle de correspondance ou d’un modèle de

remplacement vrai. Elle fournit également un schéma pour ces éléments de métadonnées. Il était stipulé

dans les commentaires sur la Partie 1 que des métadonnées devaient être spécifiées pour d’autres

types de capteurs. La technologie de ces capteurs a maintenant atteint un stade de maturité suffisant

pour que la normalisation soit possible. La présente Spécification technique élargit la spécification de

l’ensemble d’éléments de métadonnées requis pour la géolocalisation en fournissant des modèles de

capteurs physiques pour le lidar et le sonar, et présente un ensemble plus détaillé d’éléments pour le SAR.

Elle définit également les métadonnées nécessaires à l’aérotriangulation des images de télédétection

aériennes et spatiales aéroportées et spatioportées. La présente Spécification technique fournit en

outre un schéma pour tous ces éléments de métadonnées.
© ISO 2014 – Tous droits réservés v
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SPÉCIFICATION TECHNIQUE ISO/TS 19130-2:2014(F)
Information géographique — Modèles de capteurs
d’images de géopositionnement —
Partie 2:
SAR, InSAR, lidar et sonar
1 Domaine d’application

La présente Spécification technique prend en charge l’exploitation des images de télédétection. Elle

spécifie les modèles de capteurs et les métadonnées pour la géolocalisation des images de télédétection

des capteurs radar à synthèse d’ouverture (SAR), radar interférométrique à synthèse d’ouverture

(Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar - InSAR), télédétection par laser (lidar) et sonar. Elle définit

également les métadonnées nécessaires à l’aérotriangulation des images aéroportées et spatioportées.

La présente Spécification technique donne les informations détaillées qui doivent être fournies pour

la description des capteurs de SAR, InSAR, lidar et sonar, ainsi que les informations physiques et

géométriques associées nécessaires à la construction rigoureuse d’un modèle physique de capteur.

Pour les cas où des informations de géolocalisation précises sont nécessaires, la présente Spécification

technique identifie les formules mathématiques permettant la construction rigoureuse de modèles

physiques de capteurs qui mettent en relation l’espace-image en deux dimensions et l’espace-sol en trois

dimensions en intégrant le calcul de l’erreur de propagation associée.

La présente Spécification technique ne précise ni comment les utilisateurs dérivent les données de

géolocalisation, ni le format ou le contenu des données qu’ils génèrent.
2 Conformité

La présente Spécification technique spécifie cinq classes de conformité. Il existe une classe de conformité

pour chaque type de capteur. Chaque ensemble d’informations de géolocalisation revendiquant une

conformité à la présente Spécification technique doit satisfaire aux exigences d’au moins une classe

de conformité comme spécifié dans le Tableau 1. Les exigences de chaque classe sont indiquées par la

présence d’un X dans les cases correspondant à tous les paragraphes de la suite de tests d’application

(application test suite - ATS) requise pour cette classe. Si l’exigence est conditionnelle, un C est inscrit

dans la case. Les conditions sont définies dans le modèle UML correspondant.
Tableau 1 — Classes de conformité
Paragraphe de la présente partie de l’ISO 19130
A.1.1 A.1.2 A.1.3 A.2 A.3 A.4 A.5 A.6
SAR X C X
InSAR X C X
Classe de
Lidar X X X X
conformité
Sonar X X X X
Aérotriangulation X C X
3 Références normatives

Les documents ci-après, dans leur intégralité ou non, sont des références normatives indispensables à

l’application du présent document. Pour les références datées, seule l’édition citée s’applique. Pour les

© ISO 2014 – Tous droits réservés 1
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ISO/TS 19130-2:2014(F)

références non datées, la dernière édition du document de référence s’applique (y compris les éventuels

amendements).
ISO/TS 19103:2005, Information géographique — Langage de schéma conceptuel
ISO 19107:2003, Information géographique — Schéma spatial
ISO 19108:2002, Information géographique — Schéma temporel

ISO 19111:2007, Information géographique — Système de références spatiales par coordonnées

ISO 19115-1:2014, Information géographique — Métadonnées — Partie 1: Principes de base

ISO 19115-2:2009, Information géographique — Métadonnées — Partie 2: Extensions pour les images et les

matrices

ISO 19123:2005, Information géographique — Schéma de la géométrie et des fonctions de couverture

ISO 19157:2013, Information géographique — Qualité des données

ISO/TS 19130:2010, Information géographique — Modèles de capteurs d’images de géolocalisation

4 Termes et définitions

Pour les besoins du présent document, les termes et définitions suivants s’appliquent.

4.1
capteur actif
capteur (4.66) qui génère l’énergie qu’il utilise pour la détection
4.2
sonar actif

type de capteur actif (4.1) qui transmet des ondes sonores dans l’eau et reçoit les ondes renvoyées par

des objets se trouvant dans l’eau
4.3
paramètres ajustables du modèle

paramètres du modèle qui peuvent être affinés à l’aide d’informations supplémentaires disponibles,

telles que les points de contrôle au sol, en vue d’améliorer ou de renforcer les corrections de modélisation

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 19130:2010, 4.2]
4.4
ARP
point de référence d’ouverture
centre d’intégration
localisation en 3D du centre de l’antenne synthétique ou de l’intégration

Note 1 à l’article: Est généralement exprimée en coordonnées géocentriques à axes fixes (ECEF) en mètres.

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 19130:2010, 4.4]
4.5
enregistrement de zone
enregistrement instantané d’une image dans une trame (4.22) unique
4.6
attitude

orientation d’un corps, décrite par les angles entre les axes du système de coordonnées de ce corps et les

axes d’un système de coordonnées externe
[SOURCE: ISO 19116:2004, 4.2]
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ISO/TS 19130-2:2014(F)
4.7
attribut
propriété dénommée d’une entité
[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 2382-17:1999, 17.02.12]
4.8
résolution azimutale
limite derésolution (4.60) dans le sens transversal

Note 1 à l’article: Est généralement mesurée en termes de réponse impulsionnelle du capteur (4.66) SAR et du

système de traitement. Est fonction de la taille de l’ouverture synthétique, ou à défaut du temps d’observation

(par exemple: ouverture plus grande - > temps d’observation plus long - > meilleure résolution).

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 19130:2010, 4.7]
4.9
largeur de faisceau
largeur angulaire utile du faisceau d’énergie électromagnétique

Note 1 à l’article: Pour le SAR, la largeur de faisceau est généralement mesurée en radians, et correspond à la

dimension angulaire entre les deux directions pour lesquelles la puissance est divisée par deux par rapport au

centre du faisceau (en dessous de 3 dB). Il s’agit d’une propriété de l’antenne. La puissance émise en dehors de cet

angle est trop faible pour donner un retour (4.62) utilisable.

Note 2 à l’article: Angle, mesuré dans un plan horizontal, entre les directions des deux côtés de l’axe auquel

l’intensité (4.37) d’un faisceau d’énergie décroît à une fraction spécifiée de sa valeur sur l’axe.

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 19130:2010, 4.8, modifié – Les notes 1 et 2 ont été ajoutées.]
4.10
rayonnement transversal

direction orthogonale au vecteur de vitesse (4.81) et parallèle au plan tangent à l’ellipsoïde

terrestre au point nadir de l’ARP (4.4)
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 19130:2010, 4.9]
4.11
image complexe

produit de premier niveau du traitement des données brutes (4.48) SAR «Phase History Data»

4.12
référentiel

paramètre ou ensemble de paramètres qui définit la position de l’origine, l’échelle et l’orientation d’un

système de coordonnées
[SOURCE: ISO 19111:2007, 4.14]
4.13
angle de dépression

angle vertical entre le plan horizontal de la plate-forme et la direction de visée oblique (4.56), généralement

mesuré à l’ARP (4.4)

Note 1 à l’article: Approximativement le complément de l’angle de prise de vue (4.42).

4.14
système mondial différentiel de navigation par satellite

amélioration du système mondial de localisation qui utilise le GNSS et le DGNSS pour diffuser la différence

entre les positions indiquées par les systèmes à satellites et les positions fixes connues

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ISO/TS 19130-2:2014(F)
4.15
angle Doppler
angle entre le vecteur vitesse (4.81) et le vecteur distance (4.58)
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 19130:2010, 4.19]
4.16
décalage Doppler

changement de longueur d’onde dû au mouvement relatif de l’objet détecté et le détecteur

Note 1 à l’article: Dans le contexte du SAR, il s’agit du décalage de fréquence du signal radar dû au mouvement

relatif entre l’émetteur (4.79) et l’objet éclairé.
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 19130:2010, 4.20]
4.17
tirant d’eau

distance verticale dans chaque section d’un navire, entre la surface de l’eau et le bas de la quille

[SOURCE: IHO Hydrographic Dictionary, S-32, Fifth Edition]
4.18
abscisse

distance dans un système de coordonnées, vers l’est (positif) ou vers l’ouest (négatif) à partir d’une ligne

de référence Nord-Sud
[SOURCE: ISO 19111:2007, 4.16]
4.19
champ de vision

étendue angulaire totale sur laquelle le champ observé (FOV) (4.20) peut être positionné

Note 1 à l’article: Le champ de vision est la zone potentiellement visible par un système à un moment donné. Il

est déterminé par le FOV du système et par la gamme (4.54) de directions sur lesquelles le système peut s’aligner.

[SOURCE: Adapté de Manual of Photogrammetry]
4.20
champ de visée
FOV
région instantanée vue par un capteur (4.66), donné en mesure angulaire

Note 1 à l’article: Dans le cas aéroporté, il s’agirait d’une largeur de fauchée (4.75) pour un réseau linéaire, d’une

empreinte au sol pour un réseau zonal, et d’une largeur de fauchée pour un analyseur à balayage transversal.

[SOURCE: Manual of Photogrammetry]
4.21
premier retour

premier signal réfléchi détecté par un système d’imagerie 3D du type temps de vol (TOF), pour une

position d’échantillonnage donnée et impulsion émise donnée
[SOURCE: Adapté de ASTM E2544]
4.22
trame

données recueillies par le récepteur (4.59) suite à tous les retours (4.62) d’une seule impulsion

émise

Note 1 à l’article: Un échantillonnage complet de données 3D du monde produit par un lidar (4.40) prélevé à un

moment donné, à un endroit donné, et à une orientation donnée. Une trame lidar simple est également appelée

image-distance (4.54).
4 © ISO 2014 – Tous droits réservés
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ISO/TS 19130-2:2014(F)
[SOURCE: Adapté de NISTIR 7117]
4.23
mode Geiger

mode de comptage de photons pour systèmes lidar (4.40), dans lequel le détecteur est configuré et

devient sensible aux photons individuels

Note 1 à l’article: Ces détecteurs existent sous forme de réseau et sont reliés avec des circuits électroniques.

Les circuits électroniques donnent une mesure qui correspond à l’instant auquel le courant a été produit, avec

pour résultat une mesure directe de temps de vol. Un lidar qui utilise cette technologie de détecteur éclaire en

règle générale une zone importante avec une seule impulsion. Les mesures directes de temps de vol sont ensuite

combinées aux données de localisation de plate-forme/attitude (4.6), avec les informations de pointage, afin de

produire un produit à trois dimensions de la zone d’intérêt éclairée. Un traitement supplémentaire est appliqué

afin d’éliminer le bruit présent dans les données pour produire un lot de données visuellement exploitable.

[SOURCE: Adapté d’Albota 2002]
4.24
système de coordonnées géodésique

système de coordonnées dans lequel la position est spécifiée par la latitude géodésique, la longitude

géodésique et (dans le cas tridimensionnel) la hauteur ellipsoïdale
[SOURCE: ISO 19111:2007, 4.18]
4.25
référentiel géodésique

référentiel (4.12) décrivant la relation entre un système de coordonnées à deux ou trois dimensions et

la Terre

Note 1 à l’article: Dans la plupart des cas, la référence géodésique comprend une description de l’ellipsoïde

(ISO/TS 19130:2010).

Note 2 à l’article: Ce terme et cette Spécification technique peuvent être applicables à d’autres corps célestes.

[SOURCE: ISO 19111:2007, 4.24, modifié – Les notes 1 et 2 ont été ajoutées.]
4.26
coordonnées géographiques
longitude, latitude et hauteur d’un point du terrain ou surélevé

Note 1 à l’article: Les coordonnées géographiques sont liées à un système de coordonnées de référence simple ou

composé. La profondeur («depth») est comptée positivement vers le bas par convention par rapport au zéro des

cartes marines (et non l’inverse pour la hauteur).
4.27
information géographique

information concernant un phénomène implicitement ou explicitement associé à une localisation relative

à la Terre
[SOURCE: ISO 19101:2002, 4.16]
4.28
géolocalisation

géolocalisation d’un objet à l’aide d’un modèle de capteur (4.68) physique ou d’un modèle de remplacement

vrai
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 19130:2010, 4.34]
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ISO/TS 19130-2:2014(F)
4.29
angle de dépression

angle mesuré dans le plan vertical entre le plan tangent à la surface locale et la direction de visée

oblique (4.56)

Note 1 à l’article: Ceci est généralement mesuré au GRP et est le complément de l’angle d’incidence (4.35).

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 19130:2010, 4.39, modifié – La Note 1 à l’article a été ajoutée.]

4.30
hydrophone

composant du système sonar qui reçoit l’écho sonore et le convertit en signal électrique

4.31
houle

montée et descente oscillatoire d’un navire dues au soulèvement de l’ensemble de la coque par la mer

[SOURCE: IHO Hydrographic Dictionary, S-32, Fifth Edition]
4.32
fauchée hydrographique

bande ou couloir de fond balayé par la sonde multi-faisceau pendant que le navire hydrographique

poursuit sa route.
[SOURCE: IHO Hydrographic Dictionary, S-32, Fifth Edition]
4.33
coordonnées d’image
coordonnées par rapport au système de coordonnées cartésiennes d’une image

Note 1 à l’article: Les coordonnées d’image peuvent être en pixels ou dans une mesure de longueur (mesure

linéaire).
4.34
formation d’image

processus par lequel une image est générée à partir des données brutes (4.48) ou démodulées

recueillies dans un système SAR
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 19130:2010, 4.51]
4.35
angle d’incidence

angle mesuré dans le plan vertical entre le vecteur distance pour l’élément détecté par le capteur (4.66)

et la normale à la surface locale (normale au plan tangent)
Note 1 à l’article: C’est le complément de l’angle de dépression (4.29).

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 19130:2010, 4.57, modifié – La Note 1 à l’article a été ajoutée.]

4.36
champ de visée in
...

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