Geographic information -- Content components and encoding rules for imagery and gridded data -- Part 1: Content model

This Technical Specification classifies imagery and regularly spaced gridded thematic data into types
based on attribute property, sensor type and spatial property, and defines an encoding-neutral content
model for the required components for each type of data. It also specifies logical data structures and
the rules for encoding the content components in the structures.
The binding between the content and a specific encoding format will be defined in the subsequent parts
of ISO 19163.
This Technical Specification does not address LiDAR, SONAR data and ungeoreferenced gridded data.
The logical data structures and the rules for encoding the content components will be addressed in the
subsequent parts of ISO 19163.

Information géographique -- Composantes de contenu et règles de codage pour l'imagerie et les données maillées -- Partie 1: Modèle de contenu

Geografske informacije - Komponente vsebin in pravila kodiranja za podobe in mrežne podatke - 1. del: Vzorec vsebine

Ta tehnična specifikacija razvršča podobe in enakomerno razporejene tematske podatke v vrste na podlagi lastnosti atributov, vrste senzorja in prostorske lastnosti, ter določa kodirno nevtralen vzorec vsebine za zahtevane komponente posamezne vrste podatkov. Določa tudi strukture logičnih podatkov in pravila za kodiranje komponent vsebine v strukturah.
Povezava med vsebino in določenim formatom kodiranja bo določena v nadaljnjih delih standarda ISO 19163.
Ta tehnična specifikacija ne obravnava podatkov LiDAR, SONAR in negeoreferenčnih mrežnih podatkov.
Strukture logičnih podatkov in pravila za kodiranje komponent vsebine bodo obravnavana v nadaljnjih delih standarda ISO 19163.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
30-Mar-2017
Publication Date
14-May-2017
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
06-Apr-2017
Due Date
11-Jun-2017
Completion Date
15-May-2017

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TECHNICAL ISO/TS
SPECIFICATION 19163-1
First edition
2016-01-15
Geographic information — Content
components and encoding rules for
imagery and gridded data —
Part 1:
Content model
Information géographique — Composantes de contenu et règles de
codage pour l’imagerie et les données maillées —
Partie 1: Modèle de contenu
Reference number
ISO/TS 19163-1:2016(E)
ISO 2016
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO/TS 19163-1:2016(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2016, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO/TS 19163-1:2016(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Conformance ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

3 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2 UML notations ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6 Related International Standards ......................................................................................................................................................... 5

7 Categories of imagery and gridded data ...................................................................................................................................... 6

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

7.2 Imagery .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.3 Gridded data .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

8 Content component models ...................................................................................................................................................................... 8

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

8.2 Imagery and gridded data ............................................................................................................................................................. 8

8.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

8.2.2 IE_ImageryAndGriddedData .................................................................................................................................. 9

8.2.3 IE_Georectified ................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.2.4 IE_Georeferenceable ..................................................................................................................................................10

8.3 Thematic gridded data ..................................................................................................................................................................10

8.3.1 IE_ThematicGriddedData ......................................................................................................................................10

8.3.2 IE_CategoricalGriddedData ..................................................................................................................................10

8.3.3 IE_NumericalGriddedData ....................................................................................................................................10

8.4 Imagery .......................................................................................................................................................................................................11

8.4.1 IE_Imagery..........................................................................................................................................................................11

8.4.2 IE_FusedImage ................................................................................................................................................................13

8.4.3 IE_SimulatedImage .....................................................................................................................................................13

8.4.4 IE_OpticalImage .............................................................................................................................................................13

8.4.5 IE_MicrowaveData .......................................................................................................................................................13

8.4.6 IE_SARData.........................................................................................................................................................................14

8.4.7 IE_RadiometerData .....................................................................................................................................................15

9 General approach for encoding (informative) ...................................................................................................................16

Annex A (normative) Abstract test suite .......................................................................................................................................................18

Annex B (normative) Data dictionary of content component models ............................................................................21

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................38

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO/TS 19163-1:2016(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical

Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 211, Geographic information/Geomatics.

ISO 19163 consists of the following parts, under the general title Geographic information — Content

components and encoding rules for imagery and gridded data:
— Part 1: Content model [Technical Specification]
Other parts are planned, but are not yet specified.
iv © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TS 19163-1:2016(E)
Introduction

Geographic imagery and gridded thematic data are widely used in the geospatial community and

related fields.

A preliminary work item on imagery and gridded data components, carried out by ISO/TC 211 in 1999

to 2000, provides a summary of the conceptual classification of gridded data based on spatial and

attribute properties and identifies five basic components of imagery and gridded data (ISO/TC 211 N

1017). ISO/TS 19101-2, ISO 19123 and ISO/TS 19129 specify domains and ranges of imagery, grids and

coverages, and their associated relationships. ISO/TS 19129 breaks down the metadata into discovery,

structural, acquisition and quality metadata. However, there are no detailed descriptions on each

category and no clear associations with metadata defined in ISO 19115:2003, ISO 19115-2, ISO/TS 19130

and ISO/TS 19130-2.

Imagery is acquired by remote sensors directly or derived from source imagery. Value-added image

processing can be used to derive physical properties of a remote object from images (ISO/TS 19101-2).

Besides the derived images, imagery can also be integrated with other data sources to produce new

gridded coverage data for a specific theme, called thematic data, which is widely used in various

applications. However, the characteristics of thematic data are not covered by the existing International

Standards and Technical Specifications noted above.

ISO/TS 19130 identifies the type of remote sensors by the measurand of the sensor, e.g. optical

radiation, microwave energy and SONAR (acoustic) energy. Images acquired by optical sensors have

different appearances and characteristics compared with those by a microwave sensor, e.g. SAR data.

The framework defined in ISO/TS 19129 describes imagery, gridded and coverage data at multiple levels,

including an abstract level, a content model level and an encoding level. The first two levels combine

a number of well-defined content structures in accordance with ISO 19123 and define the contents of

continuous quadrilateral gridded coverages with grids of both constant and variable cell sizes. However,

the content model level does not specify the necessary metadata for common understanding when

integrating datasets encoded in different formats. At the encoding level, ISO/TS 19129 does not provide

the explicit encoding rules for mapping content model to machine-independent encoding structure, which

is crucial for the mapping and translation of images in different formats without losing information.

Based on the frameworks defined in ISO/TS 19101-2 and ISO 19123, this Technical Specification specifies

the categories of imagery and gridded data and establishes a corresponding hierarchical content model.

Categories of imagery and gridded data are defined based on thematic and spatial attributes and sensor

types. The content model is then defined to describe the required content components of each category,

including the spatial and attribute structures and the critical metadata entries as well. These metadata

entries are specified as the minimum required metadata information for the purpose of common

understanding. Traditionally, remote sensing data products generally have a header part and a data

part. This Technical Specification describes the minimum content requirements for the header part.

For ease of implementation, this Technical Specification defines encoding rules to map the content

models to XML-based encodings, following the general encoding rules defined in ISO 19118 and the

encoding rules for UML-to-GML application schema defined in ISO 19136:2007, Annex E. Since GMLCOV

schema (OGC 09-146r2) is optimized for handling coverages, the coverage component of the schema can

be based on GMLCOV.

An increasingly large volume of image and gridded data, both natural and synthetic, is being produced

because more remote sensors are becoming available. These data are encoded in diverse formats,

such as GeoTIFF, BIIF, HDF-EOS, JPEG 2000, NetCDF and others as described in ISO/TR 19121. These

encoding formats follow different data models, preventing them from being interoperable. In order to

encode the contents defined in this Technical Specification into these data formats, ISO 19163 has been

split into multiple parts with this Technical Specification defining the content components and general

encoding rules and the subsequent parts defining the binding between the contents and individual

physical data formats.
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved v
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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION ISO/TS 19163-1:2016(E)
Geographic information — Content components and
encoding rules for imagery and gridded data —
Part 1:
Content model
1 Scope

This Technical Specification classifies imagery and regularly spaced gridded thematic data into types

based on attribute property, sensor type and spatial property, and defines an encoding-neutral content

model for the required components for each type of data. It also specifies logical data structures and

the rules for encoding the content components in the structures.

The binding between the content and a specific encoding format will be defined in the subsequent parts

of ISO 19163.

This Technical Specification does not address LiDAR, SONAR data and ungeoreferenced gridded data.

The logical data structures and the rules for encoding the content components will be addressed in the

subsequent parts of ISO 19163.
2 Conformance

This Technical Specification standardizes the categories of imagery and regularly spaced gridded

thematic data as well as their core content models. There is one conformance class for each data category.

Any set of imagery and regularly spaced gridded thematic data claiming conformance to this Technical

Specification shall satisfy the corresponding requirements defined in the abstract test suite in Annex A.

3 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 19103:2015, Geographic information — Conceptual schema language
ISO 19111, Geographic information — Spatial referencing by coordinates
ISO 19115-1, Geographic information — Metadata — Part 1: Fundamentals

ISO 19115-2 , Geographic information — Metadata — Part 2: Extensions for imagery and gridded data

ISO 19123:2005, Geographic information — Schema for coverage geometry and functions

ISO/TS 19101-2:2008, Geographic information — Reference model — Part 2: Imagery

ISO/TS 19130:2010, Geographic information - Imagery sensor models for geopositioning

ISO/TS 19159-1, Geographic information — Calibration and validation of remote sensing imagery sensors

and data — Part 1: Optical sensors

1) At the publication time of this Technical Specification, only ISO 19115-2:2009, which references to

ISO 19115:2003, is available. The new version of ISO 19115-2, which is under revision at the publication time of this

Technical Specification, will refer to ISO 19115-1:2014.
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO/TS 19163-1:2016(E)
4 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
4.1
attribute
named property of an entity

Note 1 to entry: Describes a geometrical, topological, thematic, or other characteristic of an entity.

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 2382:2015, 2121440, modified — Note 1 to entry has been added.]
4.2
binding

specification of a mapping relating the information defined in a content model (4.3) (data and metadata)

to the data format that carries that information
4.3
content model
information view of an application schema

Note 1 to entry: In this Technical Specification, a content model describes the required content components and

their interrelationship of imagery (4.12) and gridded thematic data (4.14).
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 19129:2009, 4.1.2, modified — Note 1 to entry has been added.]
4.4
conversion rule

rule for converting instances in the input data structure to instances in the output data structure

[SOURCE: ISO 19118:2011, 4.7]
4.5
encoding rule

identifiable collection of conversion rules (4.4) that define the encoding for a particular data structure

EXAMPLE XML, ISO 10303-21, ISO/IEC 8211.

Note 1 to entry: An encoding rule specifies the types of data to be converted as well as the syntax, structure and

codes used in the resulting data structure.
[SOURCE: ISO 19118:2011, 4.14]
4.6
fused image
image produced by fusing images from multiple sources
4.7
geopositioning
determining the geographic position of an object
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 19130:2010, 4.36, modified]
4.8
georectified
corrected for positional displacement with respect to the surface of the Earth
[SOURCE: ISO 19115-2:2009, 4.12]
2 © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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ISO/TS 19163-1:2016(E)
4.9
georeferenceable

associated with a geopositioning (4.7) information that can be used to convert grid (4.10) coordinate

values to values of coordinates referenced to an external coordinate reference system related to the

Earth by a datum
4.10
grid

network composed of two or more sets of curves in which the members of each set intersect the

members of the other sets in an algorithmic way
[SOURCE: ISO 19123:2005, 4.1.23, modified]
4.11
gridded data

data whose attribute (4.1) values are associated with positions on a grid (4.10) coordinate system

Note 1 to entry: Gridded data are a subtype of coverage data, which represent attribute values of geographic

features in terms of a spatial grid.
[SOURCE: ISO 19115-2:2009, 4.17, modified — Note 1 to entry has been added.]
4.12
imagery

representation of phenomena as images produced by electronic and/or optical techniques

Note 1 to entry: The term imagery is often used colloquially with various meanings in different contexts. It is

often used to describe any set of gridded, point set or other form of coverage data that can be portrayed.

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 19101-2:2008, 4.14, modified — Note 1 to entry has been added.]
4.13
looks

groups of signal samples in a SAR processor that splits the full synthetic aperture into several sub-

apertures, each representing an independent look of the identical scene

Note 1 to entry: The resulting image formed by incoherent summing of these looks is characterized by reduced

speckle and degraded spatial resolution.
4.14
thematic data

gridded data (4.11) whose attribute (4.1) values describe characteristics of a grid (4.10) coverage feature

in a grid format

Note 1 to entry: Most gridded thematic data are derived from imagery (4.12) data using geophysical/atmospheric

inversion algorithms. Gridded thematic data may also be obtained from other sources such as digitization of

topographic map sheets.
4.15
ungeoreferenced grid

gridded data (4.11) that does not include any information that can be used to determine a cell’s

geographic coordinate values
EXAMPLE A digital photo without georectification information included.
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO/TS 19163-1:2016(E)
5 Symbols and abbreviated terms
5.1 Abbreviated terms
BIIF Basic Image Interchange Format
CRS Coordinate Reference System
DEM Digital Elevation Model
EOS Earth Observing System
HDF Hierarchical Data Format
JPEG200 Joint Photographic Experts Group 2000
netCDF network Common Data Form
SAR Synthetic aperture radar
TIFF Tagged Image File Format
UML Unified Modeling Language
5.2 UML notations

This Technical Specification presents conceptual models of imagery and gridded data, specified in the

Unified Modeling Language (UML). ISO 19103 describes the way in which UML is used in the ISO 19100

family of standards. It differs from standard UML only in the existence and interpretation of some

special stereotypes, in particular, “CodeList”. ISO 19103 specifies the basic data types used in the UML

model. The UML diagrams defined in this Technical Specification represent conceptual models only and

are not intended for automatic encoding within XML Schema.

Annex B contains a data dictionary for the UML models defined in this Technical Specification.

Table 1 lists the prefixes of UML classes used in the referenced ISO standards in this Technical

Specification. IE is the prefix of the UML classes defined in this Technical Specification. In Table 1, the

first column describes the prefix used in the packages of the second column and the third column is the

ISO standard where the package is defined.
2) This International Standard is under preparation.
4 © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO/TS 19163-1:2016(E)
Table 1 — UML package identifiers
Identifier Package International
Standard
EX Extent information ISO 19115-1
LE Lineage extended ISO 19115-2
LI Lineage ISO 19115-1
MD Metadata ISO 19115-1
MI Metadata for imagery ISO 19115-2
SD Sensor data ISO/TS 19130
CV Coverage ISO 19123
CA Calibration and validation of sensor ISO/TS 19159-1
GM Geometry root ISO 19107
IE Content components and encoding rules for imagery and ISO 19163
gridded data
6 Related International Standards

Figure 1 illustrates the relationship between this Technical Specification and other International

Standards related to imagery and gridded data. This Technical Specification fits the reference model

defined in ISO/TS 19101-2 and follows the abstract content framework defined in ISO 19123. CV_Coverage

is chosen as the super-class to establish the content component model of imagery and gridded data.

This Technical Specification refers to metadata related to imagery and gridded data defined in

ISO 19115-1 and ISO 19115-2, the sensor information related to acquisition of imagery defined in

ISO/TS 19130 and the calibration and validation of sensors defined in ISO/TS 19159-1.

This Technical Specification defines an UML schema for the content model which can be bound with any

widely used data formats of imagery and gridded data, such as GeoTIFF, BIIF, JPEG 2000, NetCDF and HDF.

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO/TS 19163-1:2016(E)
ISO 19115-1:2014 Metadata - Fundamentals ISO 19115-2:2009 Metadata - Imagery
ISO 19123:2005 Coverages ISO 19159-1 Calibration and Validation
metadata
metadata
calibration
abstract content on coverage
ISO 19163 Content components and encoding rules
sensor information
standardization requirements
binding binding
ISO 19101-2:2008 Imagery Reference ISO/TS 19130:2010 Sensor Data
binding binding binding
GeoTIFF NetCDF
HDF-EOS JPEG 2000 BIIF
Figure 1 — Relationship with related International Standards
7 Categories of imagery and gridded data
7.1 General

Clause 7 categorizes imagery according to digital sensor types and gridded data according to the

attribute and geometry properties. The required content components of each data category are

specified in UML content models of Clause 8.

The intention of this Technical Specification is not to define a comprehensive classification system

of imagery and gridded data, but to specify the contents of some categories of them. A hierarchical

category framework of imagery and gridded data is defined in Figure 2. The root of the framework is

Coverage defined in ISO 19123. Imagery and gridded data are a subclass of coverage. The two subclasses

of imagery and gridded data, which are imagery data and thematic gridded data, are defined in this

Technical Specification.
6 © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO/TS 19163-1:2016(E)
Coverage Data
Imagery and Gridded Data
Thematic Gridded Data Imagery Data
Numerical Categorical Optical Imagery Synthetic Imagery
Microw av e Data
Thematic Data Thematic Data Data Data
Active Passive Fused Imagery Simulated
Microw av e Data Microw av e Data Data Imagery Data
SAR Data Radiometer Data
Figure 2 — Categories of imagery and gridded data
7.2 Imagery

Imagery is a kind of coverage whose attribute values are numerical representations of the physical

parameters (e.g. radiance) measured by imagery sensors. According to ISO/TS 19101-2, a sensor can

be classified as an electromagnetic energy sensor or a mechanical wave energy sensor based on the

type of energy sensed by the sensor. The former class is further categorized into an optical sensor, a

microwave sensor or a light detection and ranging sensor (LiDAR) according to the measurand of the

sensor (ISO/TS 19130). SONAR is a typical example of mechanical wave energy sensor. These sensors

produce optical, microwave, LiDAR and SONAR imagery data, respectively.

The data acquired by LiDAR and SONAR, which exhibit distinct characteristics that differ from optical

images and microwave data, are not covered by this Technical Specification due to the limit of the scope.

These types of data may be addressed in a future extension or subsequent part of ISO 19163.

Optical images are acquired from visible and infrared sensors by detecting the radiation reflected or

emitted from target objects (ISO/TS 19101-2). Different materials reflect, absorb or emit radiation at

different wavelengths, and accordingly each object type has a spectral signature. Analysing spectral

signatures within remotely sensed images identifies differentiation between these objects. Thus,

images may be classified depending on the number of spectral bands, for example panchromatic,

multispectral and hyperspectral.

Microwave data are classified into active and passive microwave data corresponding to active and

passive microwave sensors. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is a typical active microwave sensor that

uses a series of radar pulses transmitted and received over time from a moving platform to create an

image, as specified by ISO/TS 19130.
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 7
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO/TS 19163-1:2016(E)

Passive microwave sensors measure the energy and/or the phase of microwaves emitted from objects.

Passive microwave data can be used to derive various geophysical quantities, such as rainfall, sea

surface temperature, vertical water vapour, ocean surface wind speed, sea ice parameters, snow

water equivalent and soil surface moisture (ISO/TS 19101-2). There is more than one type of passive

microwave data, but this Technical Specification only specifies the contents of microwave imaging

radiometer data.

In addition to images acquired directly by a certain sensor, image fusion and image simulation

techniques can generate new images from original images, fused image and simulated image. The image

fusion techniques allow the integration of images from different sources. The fused image can have

complementary multisource characteristics. For example, a higher-spatial-resolution panchromatic

image is fused with lower-spatial-resolution multispectral data to provid
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TS ISO/TS 19163-1:2017
01-junij-2017
Geografske informacije - Komponente vsebin in pravila kodiranja za podobe in
mrežne podatke - 1. del: Vzorec vsebine
Geographic information -- Content components and encoding rules for imagery and
gridded data -- Part 1: Content model
Information géographique -- Composantes de contenu et règles de codage pour
l'imagerie et les données maillées -- Partie 1: Modèle de contenu
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO/TS 19163-1:2016
ICS:
07.040 Astronomija. Geodezija. Astronomy. Geodesy.
Geografija Geography
35.240.70 Uporabniške rešitve IT v IT applications in science
znanosti
SIST-TS ISO/TS 19163-1:2017 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST-TS ISO/TS 19163-1:2017
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST-TS ISO/TS 19163-1:2017
TECHNICAL ISO/TS
SPECIFICATION 19163-1
First edition
2016-01-15
Geographic information — Content
components and encoding rules for
imagery and gridded data —
Part 1:
Content model
Information géographique — Composantes de contenu et règles de
codage pour l’imagerie et les données maillées —
Partie 1: Modèle de contenu
Reference number
ISO/TS 19163-1:2016(E)
ISO 2016
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST-TS ISO/TS 19163-1:2017
ISO/TS 19163-1:2016(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2016, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Ch. de Blandonnet 8 • CP 401
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST-TS ISO/TS 19163-1:2017
ISO/TS 19163-1:2016(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Conformance ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

3 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.1 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.2 UML notations ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

6 Related International Standards ......................................................................................................................................................... 5

7 Categories of imagery and gridded data ...................................................................................................................................... 6

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

7.2 Imagery .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

7.3 Gridded data .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 8

8 Content component models ...................................................................................................................................................................... 8

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

8.2 Imagery and gridded data ............................................................................................................................................................. 8

8.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

8.2.2 IE_ImageryAndGriddedData .................................................................................................................................. 9

8.2.3 IE_Georectified ................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.2.4 IE_Georeferenceable ..................................................................................................................................................10

8.3 Thematic gridded data ..................................................................................................................................................................10

8.3.1 IE_ThematicGriddedData ......................................................................................................................................10

8.3.2 IE_CategoricalGriddedData ..................................................................................................................................10

8.3.3 IE_NumericalGriddedData ....................................................................................................................................10

8.4 Imagery .......................................................................................................................................................................................................11

8.4.1 IE_Imagery..........................................................................................................................................................................11

8.4.2 IE_FusedImage ................................................................................................................................................................13

8.4.3 IE_SimulatedImage .....................................................................................................................................................13

8.4.4 IE_OpticalImage .............................................................................................................................................................13

8.4.5 IE_MicrowaveData .......................................................................................................................................................13

8.4.6 IE_SARData.........................................................................................................................................................................14

8.4.7 IE_RadiometerData .....................................................................................................................................................15

9 General approach for encoding (informative) ...................................................................................................................16

Annex A (normative) Abstract test suite .......................................................................................................................................................18

Annex B (normative) Data dictionary of content component models ............................................................................21

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................38

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Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical

Barriers to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 211, Geographic information/Geomatics.

ISO 19163 consists of the following parts, under the general title Geographic information — Content

components and encoding rules for imagery and gridded data:
— Part 1: Content model [Technical Specification]
Other parts are planned, but are not yet specified.
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Introduction

Geographic imagery and gridded thematic data are widely used in the geospatial community and

related fields.

A preliminary work item on imagery and gridded data components, carried out by ISO/TC 211 in 1999

to 2000, provides a summary of the conceptual classification of gridded data based on spatial and

attribute properties and identifies five basic components of imagery and gridded data (ISO/TC 211 N

1017). ISO/TS 19101-2, ISO 19123 and ISO/TS 19129 specify domains and ranges of imagery, grids and

coverages, and their associated relationships. ISO/TS 19129 breaks down the metadata into discovery,

structural, acquisition and quality metadata. However, there are no detailed descriptions on each

category and no clear associations with metadata defined in ISO 19115:2003, ISO 19115-2, ISO/TS 19130

and ISO/TS 19130-2.

Imagery is acquired by remote sensors directly or derived from source imagery. Value-added image

processing can be used to derive physical properties of a remote object from images (ISO/TS 19101-2).

Besides the derived images, imagery can also be integrated with other data sources to produce new

gridded coverage data for a specific theme, called thematic data, which is widely used in various

applications. However, the characteristics of thematic data are not covered by the existing International

Standards and Technical Specifications noted above.

ISO/TS 19130 identifies the type of remote sensors by the measurand of the sensor, e.g. optical

radiation, microwave energy and SONAR (acoustic) energy. Images acquired by optical sensors have

different appearances and characteristics compared with those by a microwave sensor, e.g. SAR data.

The framework defined in ISO/TS 19129 describes imagery, gridded and coverage data at multiple levels,

including an abstract level, a content model level and an encoding level. The first two levels combine

a number of well-defined content structures in accordance with ISO 19123 and define the contents of

continuous quadrilateral gridded coverages with grids of both constant and variable cell sizes. However,

the content model level does not specify the necessary metadata for common understanding when

integrating datasets encoded in different formats. At the encoding level, ISO/TS 19129 does not provide

the explicit encoding rules for mapping content model to machine-independent encoding structure, which

is crucial for the mapping and translation of images in different formats without losing information.

Based on the frameworks defined in ISO/TS 19101-2 and ISO 19123, this Technical Specification specifies

the categories of imagery and gridded data and establishes a corresponding hierarchical content model.

Categories of imagery and gridded data are defined based on thematic and spatial attributes and sensor

types. The content model is then defined to describe the required content components of each category,

including the spatial and attribute structures and the critical metadata entries as well. These metadata

entries are specified as the minimum required metadata information for the purpose of common

understanding. Traditionally, remote sensing data products generally have a header part and a data

part. This Technical Specification describes the minimum content requirements for the header part.

For ease of implementation, this Technical Specification defines encoding rules to map the content

models to XML-based encodings, following the general encoding rules defined in ISO 19118 and the

encoding rules for UML-to-GML application schema defined in ISO 19136:2007, Annex E. Since GMLCOV

schema (OGC 09-146r2) is optimized for handling coverages, the coverage component of the schema can

be based on GMLCOV.

An increasingly large volume of image and gridded data, both natural and synthetic, is being produced

because more remote sensors are becoming available. These data are encoded in diverse formats,

such as GeoTIFF, BIIF, HDF-EOS, JPEG 2000, NetCDF and others as described in ISO/TR 19121. These

encoding formats follow different data models, preventing them from being interoperable. In order to

encode the contents defined in this Technical Specification into these data formats, ISO 19163 has been

split into multiple parts with this Technical Specification defining the content components and general

encoding rules and the subsequent parts defining the binding between the contents and individual

physical data formats.
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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION ISO/TS 19163-1:2016(E)
Geographic information — Content components and
encoding rules for imagery and gridded data —
Part 1:
Content model
1 Scope

This Technical Specification classifies imagery and regularly spaced gridded thematic data into types

based on attribute property, sensor type and spatial property, and defines an encoding-neutral content

model for the required components for each type of data. It also specifies logical data structures and

the rules for encoding the content components in the structures.

The binding between the content and a specific encoding format will be defined in the subsequent parts

of ISO 19163.

This Technical Specification does not address LiDAR, SONAR data and ungeoreferenced gridded data.

The logical data structures and the rules for encoding the content components will be addressed in the

subsequent parts of ISO 19163.
2 Conformance

This Technical Specification standardizes the categories of imagery and regularly spaced gridded

thematic data as well as their core content models. There is one conformance class for each data category.

Any set of imagery and regularly spaced gridded thematic data claiming conformance to this Technical

Specification shall satisfy the corresponding requirements defined in the abstract test suite in Annex A.

3 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 19103:2015, Geographic information — Conceptual schema language
ISO 19111, Geographic information — Spatial referencing by coordinates
ISO 19115-1, Geographic information — Metadata — Part 1: Fundamentals

ISO 19115-2 , Geographic information — Metadata — Part 2: Extensions for imagery and gridded data

ISO 19123:2005, Geographic information — Schema for coverage geometry and functions

ISO/TS 19101-2:2008, Geographic information — Reference model — Part 2: Imagery

ISO/TS 19130:2010, Geographic information - Imagery sensor models for geopositioning

ISO/TS 19159-1, Geographic information — Calibration and validation of remote sensing imagery sensors

and data — Part 1: Optical sensors

1) At the publication time of this Technical Specification, only ISO 19115-2:2009, which references to

ISO 19115:2003, is available. The new version of ISO 19115-2, which is under revision at the publication time of this

Technical Specification, will refer to ISO 19115-1:2014.
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4 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
4.1
attribute
named property of an entity

Note 1 to entry: Describes a geometrical, topological, thematic, or other characteristic of an entity.

[SOURCE: ISO/IEC 2382:2015, 2121440, modified — Note 1 to entry has been added.]
4.2
binding

specification of a mapping relating the information defined in a content model (4.3) (data and metadata)

to the data format that carries that information
4.3
content model
information view of an application schema

Note 1 to entry: In this Technical Specification, a content model describes the required content components and

their interrelationship of imagery (4.12) and gridded thematic data (4.14).
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 19129:2009, 4.1.2, modified — Note 1 to entry has been added.]
4.4
conversion rule

rule for converting instances in the input data structure to instances in the output data structure

[SOURCE: ISO 19118:2011, 4.7]
4.5
encoding rule

identifiable collection of conversion rules (4.4) that define the encoding for a particular data structure

EXAMPLE XML, ISO 10303-21, ISO/IEC 8211.

Note 1 to entry: An encoding rule specifies the types of data to be converted as well as the syntax, structure and

codes used in the resulting data structure.
[SOURCE: ISO 19118:2011, 4.14]
4.6
fused image
image produced by fusing images from multiple sources
4.7
geopositioning
determining the geographic position of an object
[SOURCE: ISO/TS 19130:2010, 4.36, modified]
4.8
georectified
corrected for positional displacement with respect to the surface of the Earth
[SOURCE: ISO 19115-2:2009, 4.12]
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4.9
georeferenceable

associated with a geopositioning (4.7) information that can be used to convert grid (4.10) coordinate

values to values of coordinates referenced to an external coordinate reference system related to the

Earth by a datum
4.10
grid

network composed of two or more sets of curves in which the members of each set intersect the

members of the other sets in an algorithmic way
[SOURCE: ISO 19123:2005, 4.1.23, modified]
4.11
gridded data

data whose attribute (4.1) values are associated with positions on a grid (4.10) coordinate system

Note 1 to entry: Gridded data are a subtype of coverage data, which represent attribute values of geographic

features in terms of a spatial grid.
[SOURCE: ISO 19115-2:2009, 4.17, modified — Note 1 to entry has been added.]
4.12
imagery

representation of phenomena as images produced by electronic and/or optical techniques

Note 1 to entry: The term imagery is often used colloquially with various meanings in different contexts. It is

often used to describe any set of gridded, point set or other form of coverage data that can be portrayed.

[SOURCE: ISO/TS 19101-2:2008, 4.14, modified — Note 1 to entry has been added.]
4.13
looks

groups of signal samples in a SAR processor that splits the full synthetic aperture into several sub-

apertures, each representing an independent look of the identical scene

Note 1 to entry: The resulting image formed by incoherent summing of these looks is characterized by reduced

speckle and degraded spatial resolution.
4.14
thematic data

gridded data (4.11) whose attribute (4.1) values describe characteristics of a grid (4.10) coverage feature

in a grid format

Note 1 to entry: Most gridded thematic data are derived from imagery (4.12) data using geophysical/atmospheric

inversion algorithms. Gridded thematic data may also be obtained from other sources such as digitization of

topographic map sheets.
4.15
ungeoreferenced grid

gridded data (4.11) that does not include any information that can be used to determine a cell’s

geographic coordinate values
EXAMPLE A digital photo without georectification information included.
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5 Symbols and abbreviated terms
5.1 Abbreviated terms
BIIF Basic Image Interchange Format
CRS Coordinate Reference System
DEM Digital Elevation Model
EOS Earth Observing System
HDF Hierarchical Data Format
JPEG200 Joint Photographic Experts Group 2000
netCDF network Common Data Form
SAR Synthetic aperture radar
TIFF Tagged Image File Format
UML Unified Modeling Language
5.2 UML notations

This Technical Specification presents conceptual models of imagery and gridded data, specified in the

Unified Modeling Language (UML). ISO 19103 describes the way in which UML is used in the ISO 19100

family of standards. It differs from standard UML only in the existence and interpretation of some

special stereotypes, in particular, “CodeList”. ISO 19103 specifies the basic data types used in the UML

model. The UML diagrams defined in this Technical Specification represent conceptual models only and

are not intended for automatic encoding within XML Schema.

Annex B contains a data dictionary for the UML models defined in this Technical Specification.

Table 1 lists the prefixes of UML classes used in the referenced ISO standards in this Technical

Specification. IE is the prefix of the UML classes defined in this Technical Specification. In Table 1, the

first column describes the prefix used in the packages of the second column and the third column is the

ISO standard where the package is defined.
2) This International Standard is under preparation.
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Table 1 — UML package identifiers
Identifier Package International
Standard
EX Extent information ISO 19115-1
LE Lineage extended ISO 19115-2
LI Lineage ISO 19115-1
MD Metadata ISO 19115-1
MI Metadata for imagery ISO 19115-2
SD Sensor data ISO/TS 19130
CV Coverage ISO 19123
CA Calibration and validation of sensor ISO/TS 19159-1
GM Geometry root ISO 19107
IE Content components and encoding rules for imagery and ISO 19163
gridded data
6 Related International Standards

Figure 1 illustrates the relationship between this Technical Specification and other International

Standards related to imagery and gridded data. This Technical Specification fits the reference model

defined in ISO/TS 19101-2 and follows the abstract content framework defined in ISO 19123. CV_Coverage

is chosen as the super-class to establish the content component model of imagery and gridded data.

This Technical Specification refers to metadata related to imagery and gridded data defined in

ISO 19115-1 and ISO 19115-2, the sensor information related to acquisition of imagery defined in

ISO/TS 19130 and the calibration and validation of sensors defined in ISO/TS 19159-1.

This Technical Specification defines an UML schema for the content model which can be bound with any

widely used data formats of imagery and gridded data, such as GeoTIFF, BIIF, JPEG 2000, NetCDF and HDF.

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ISO 19115-1:2014 Metadata - Fundamentals ISO 19115-2:2009 Metadata - Imagery
ISO 19123:2005 Coverages ISO 19159-1 Calibration and Validation
metadata
metadata
calibration
abstract content on coverage
ISO 19163 Content components and encoding rules
sensor information
standardization requirements
binding binding
ISO 19101-2:2008 Imagery Reference ISO/TS 19130:2010 Sensor Data
binding binding binding
GeoTIFF NetCDF
HDF-EOS JPEG 2000 BIIF
Figure 1 — Relationship with related International Standards
7 Categories of imagery and gridded data
7.1 General

Clause 7 categorizes imagery according to digital sensor types and gridded data according to the

attribute and geometry properties. The required content components of each data category are

specified in UML content models of Clause 8.

The intention of this Technical Specification is not to define a comprehensive classification system

of imagery and gridded data, but to specify the contents of some categories of them. A hierarchical

category framework of imagery and gridded data is defined in Figure 2. The root of the framework is

Coverage defined in ISO 19123. Imagery and gridded data are a subclass of coverage. The two subclasses

of imagery and gridded data, which are imagery data and thematic gridded data, are defined in this

Technical Specification.
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Coverage Data
Imagery and Gridded Data
Thematic Gridded Data Imagery Data
Numerical Categorical Optical Imagery Synthetic Imagery
Microw av e Data
Thematic Data Thematic Data Data Data
Active Passive Fused Imagery Simulated
Microw av e Data Microw av e Data Data Imagery Data
SAR Data Radiometer Data
Figure 2 — Categories of imagery and gridded data
7.2 Imagery

Imagery is a kind of coverage whose attribute values are numerical representations of the physical

parameters (e.g. radiance) measured by imagery sensors. According to ISO/TS 19101-2, a sensor can

be classified as an electromagnetic energy sensor or a mechanical wave energy sensor based on the

type of energy sensed by the sensor. The former class is further categorized into an optical sensor, a

microwave sensor or a light detection and ranging sensor (LiDAR) according to the measurand of the

sensor (ISO/TS 19130). SONAR is a typical example of mechanical wave energy sensor. These sensors

produce optical, microwave, LiDAR and SONAR imagery data, respectively.

The data acquired by LiDAR and SONAR, which exhibit distinct characteristics that differ from optical

images and microwave data, are not covered by this Technical Specification due to the limit of the scope.

These types of data may be addressed in a future extension or subsequent part of ISO 19163.

Optical images are acquired from visible and infrared sensors by detecting the radiation reflected or

emitted from target objects (ISO/TS 19101-2). Different materials reflect, absorb or emit radiation at

different wavelengths, and accordingly each object type has a spectral signature. Analysing spectral

signatures within remotely sensed images identifies differentiation between these objects. Thus,

images may be classified depending on the number of spectral bands, for example panchromatic,

multispectral and hyperspectral.
Microwave data are classified into active and pa
...

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