# SIST EN 60891:2011

(Main)## Procedures for temperature and irradiance corrections to measured I-V characteristics of photovoltaic devices

## Procedures for temperature and irradiance corrections to measured I-V characteristics of photovoltaic devices

This standard defines procedures to be followed for temperature and irradiance corrections to the measured I-V (current-voltage) characteristics of photovoltaic devices. It also defines the procedures used to determine factors relevant for these corrections. Requirements for I-V measurement of photovoltaic devices are laid down in IEC 60904-1.

## Verfahren zur Umrechung von gemessenen Strom-Spannungs-Kennlinien von photovoltaischen Bauelementen auf andere Temperaturen und Bestrahlungsstärken (IEC 60891:2009)

## Procédures pour les corrections en fonction de la température et de l'éclairement à appliquer aux caractéristiques I-V mesurées des dispositifs photovoltaïques

La CEI 60891:2009 définit des procédures à suivre pour les corrections en fonction de la température et de l'éclairement à appliquer aux caractéristiques I-V (courant-tension) mesurées des dispositifs photovoltaïques. Elle définit également les procédures utilisées pour déterminer les facteurs appropriés pour ces corrections. Les exigences pour la mesure I-V des dispositifs photovoltaïques sont données dans la CEI 60904-1. Les principales modifications techniques par rapport à l'édition précédente sont les suivantes: - extension de la procédure de transposition de l'édition 1 au changement d'éclairement pendant la mesure I-V; - ajout de deux nouvelles procédures de transposition; - révision de la procédure utilisée pour déterminer les coefficients de température pour inclure les modules PV; - définition d'une nouvelle procédure pour déterminer la résistance-série interne; - définition d'une nouvelle procédure pour déterminer le facteur de correction de la courbe.

## Postopki za temperaturno in sevalno korekcijo izmerjenih karakteristik I-U fotonapetostnih naprav (IEC 60891:2009 (EQV))

Ta standard določa postopke, ki jim je treba slediti za temperaturno in sevalno korekcijo izmerjenih karakteristik I-U (tok-napetost) fotonapetostnih naprav. Prav tako določa postopke, uporabljene za določanje pomembnih faktorjev za te korekcije. Zahteve za meritve fotonapetostnih naprav I-U so podane v IEC 60904-1.

### General Information

### RELATIONS

### Standards Content (sample)

SLOVENSKI STANDARD

SIST EN 60891:2011

01-marec-2011

1DGRPHãþD

SIST EN 60891:2001

Postopki za temperaturno in sevalno korekcijo izmerjenih karakteristik I-U

fotonapetostnih naprav (IEC 60891:2009 (EQV))

Procedures for temperature and irradiance corrections to measured I-V characteristics of

photovoltaic devices9HUIDKUHQ]XU8PUHFKXQJYRQJHPHVVHQHQ6WURP6SDQQXQJV.HQQOLQLHQYRQ

SKRWRYROWDLVFKHQ%DXHOHPHQWHQDXIDQGHUH7HPSHUDWXUHQXQG%HVWUDKOXQJVVWlUNHQ

,(&

Procédures pour les corrections en fonction de la température et de l'éclairement à

appliquer aux caractéristiques I-V mesurées des dispositifs photovoltaïquesTa slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 60891:2010

ICS:

27.160 6RQþQDHQHUJLMD Solar energy engineering

SIST EN 60891:2011 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------SIST EN 60891:2011

---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------

SIST EN 60891:2011

EUROPEAN STANDARD

EN 60891

NORME EUROPÉENNE

March 2010

EUROPÄISCHE NORM

ICS 27.160 Supersedes EN 60891:1994

English version

Photovoltaic devices -

Procedures for temperature and irradiance corrections

to measured I-V characteristics

(IEC 60891:2009)

Dispositifs photovoltaïques - Verfahren zur Umrechung

Procédures pour les corrections von gemessenen Strom-Spannungs-

en fonction de la température Kennlinien von photovoltaischen

et de l'éclairement à appliquer Bauelementen auf andere Temperaturen

aux caractéristiques I-V mesurées und Bestrahlungsstärken

(CEI 60891:2009) (IEC 60891:2009)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2010-03-01. CENELEC members are bound to comply

with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard

the status of a national standard without any alteration.Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on

application to the Central Secretariat or to any CENELEC member.This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other

language made by translation under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified

to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the official versions.CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus,

the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia,

Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.CENELEC

European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization

Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique

Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung

Central Secretariat: Avenue Marnix 17, B - 1000 Brussels

© 2010 CENELEC - All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC members.

Ref. No. EN 60891:2010 E---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------

SIST EN 60891:2011

EN 60891:2010 - 2 -

Foreword

The text of document 82/581/FDIS, future edition 2 of IEC 60891, prepared by IEC TC 82, Solar

photovoltaic energy systems, was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and was approved by

CENELEC as EN 60891 on 2010-03-01.This European Standard supersedes EN 60891:1994.

The main technical changes with regard to the EN 60891:1994 are as follows:

– extends existing translation procedure to irradiance change during I-V measurement;

– adds 2 new translation procedures;– revises procedure for determination of temperature coefficients to include PV modules;

– defines new procedure for determination of internal series resistance;– defines new procedure for determination of curve correction factor.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN and CENELEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights.The following dates were fixed:

– latest date by which the EN has to be implemented

at national level by publication of an identical

national standard or by endorsement (dop) 2010-12-01

– latest date by which the national standards conflicting

with the EN have to be withdrawn (dow) 2013-03-01

Annex ZA has been added by CENELEC.

__________

Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 60891:2009 was approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard without any modification.In the official version, for Bibliography, the following note has to be added for the standard indicated:

IEC 60904-5 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60904-5.__________

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------

SIST EN 60891:2011

- 3 - EN 60891:2010

Annex ZA

(normative)

Normative references to international publications

with their corresponding European publications

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.NOTE When an international publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant EN/HD

applies.Publication Year Title EN/HD Year

IEC 60904-1 - Photovoltaic devices - EN 60904-1 -

Part 1: Measurement of photovoltaic

current-voltage characteristics

IEC 60904-2 - Photovoltaic devices - EN 60904-2 -

Part 2: Requirements for reference solar

devices

IEC 60904-7 - Photovoltaic devices - EN 60904-7 -

Part 7: Computation of the spectral mismatch

correction for measurements of photovoltaic

devices

IEC 60904-9 - Photovoltaic devices - EN 60904-9 -

Part 9: Solar simulator performance

requirements

IEC 60904-10 - Photovoltaic devices - EN 60904-10 -

Part 10: Methods of linearity measurement

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------

SIST EN 60891:2011

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------

SIST EN 60891:2011

IEC 60891

Edition 2.0 2009-12

INTERNATIONAL

STANDARD

NORME

INTERNATIONALE

Photovoltaic devices – Procedures for temperature and irradiance corrections to

measured I-V characteristics

Dispositifs photovoltaïques – Procédures pour les corrections en fonction de la

température et de l’éclairement à appliquer aux caractéristiques I-V mesurées

INTERNATIONAL

ELECTROTECHNICAL

COMMISSION

COMMISSION

ELECTROTECHNIQUE

PRICE CODE

INTERNATIONALE

CODE PRIX

ICS 27.160 ISBN 978-2-88910-316-4

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission

Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------

SIST EN 60891:2011

– 2 – 60891 © IEC:2009

CONTENTS

FOREWORD...........................................................................................................................3

1 Scope...............................................................................................................................5

2 Normative references .......................................................................................................5

3 Correction procedures ......................................................................................................5

3.1 General ...................................................................................................................5

3.2 Correction procedure 1............................................................................................6

3.3 Correction procedure 2............................................................................................7

3.4 Correction procedure 3............................................................................................8

4 Determination of temperature coefficients.......................................................................13

4.1 General .................................................................................................................13

4.2 Apparatus..............................................................................................................13

4.3 Procedure in natural sunlight.................................................................................14

4.4 Procedure with a solar simulator ...........................................................................15

4.5 Calculation of temperature coefficients..................................................................15

5 Determination of internal series resistance R and R′ ...................................................15

S S5.1 General .................................................................................................................15

5.2 Correction procedure 1..........................................................................................16

5.3 Correction procedure 2..........................................................................................17

6 Determination of the curve correction factor κ and κ′ ......................................................18

6.1 General .................................................................................................................18

6.2 Procedure .............................................................................................................18

7 Reporting .......................................................................................................................19

Bibliography..........................................................................................................................21

Figure 1 – Example of the correction of the I-V characteristics by Equations (6) and (7) .......10

Figure 2 – Schematic diagram of the relation of G and T which can be chosen in the

3 3simultaneous correction for irradiance and temperature, for a fixed set of T , G , T ,

1 1 2by Equations (8) and (9)............................................................................................11

and GFigure 3 – Schematic diagram of the processes for correcting the I-V characteristics to

various ranges of irradiance and temperature based on three measuredcharacteristics ......................................................................................................................12

Figure 4 – Schematic diagram of the processes for correcting the I-V characteristics to

various ranges of irradiance and temperature based on four measured characteristics .........13

Figure 5 – Positions for measuring the temperature of the test module behind the cells ........14

Figure 6 – Determination of internal series resistance...........................................................16

Figure 7 – Determination of V irradiance correction factor and internal seriesresistance .............................................................................................................................18

Figure 8 – Determination of curve correction factor...............................................................19

---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------SIST EN 60891:2011

60891 © IEC:2009 – 3 –

INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION

____________

PHOTOVOLTAIC DEVICES – PROCEDURES FOR TEMPERATURE AND

IRRADIANCE CORRECTIONS TO MEASURED I-V CHARACTERISTICS

FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 60891 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 82: Solar

photovoltaic energy systems.This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition issued in 1987 and its Amendment 1

(1992) and constitutes a technical revision.The main technical changes with regard the previous edition are as follows:

– extends edition 1 translation procedure to irradiance change during I-V measurement;

– adds 2 new translation procedures;– revises procedure for determination of temperature coefficients to include PV modules;

– defines new procedure for determination of internal series resistance;– defines new procedure for determination of curve correction factor.

---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------

SIST EN 60891:2011

– 4 – 60891 © IEC:2009

The text of this standard is based on the following documents:

FDIS Report on voting

82/581/FDIS 82/588/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the maintenance result date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in

the data related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be

• reconfirmed,• withdrawn,

• replaced by a revised edition, or

• amended.

---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------

SIST EN 60891:2011

60891 © IEC:2009 – 5 –

PHOTOVOLTAIC DEVICES – PROCEDURES FOR TEMPERATURE AND

IRRADIANCE CORRECTIONS TO MEASURED I-V CHARACTERISTICS

1 Scope

This standard defines procedures to be followed for temperature and irradiance corrections to

the measured I-V (current-voltage) characteristics of photovoltaic devices. It also defines the

procedures used to determine factors relevant for these corrections. Requirements for I-V

measurement of photovoltaic devices are laid down in IEC 60904-1.NOTE 1 The photovoltaic devices include a single solar cell with or without a protective cover, a sub-assembly of

solar cells, or a module. A different set of relevant parameters for I-V correction applies for each type of device.

Although the determination of temperature coefficients for a module (or sub-assembly of cells) may be calculated

from single cell measurements, it should be noted that the internal series resistance and curve correction factor

should be separately measured for a module or subassembly of cells.NOTE 2 The term “test specimen” is used to denote any of these devices.

NOTE 3 Care should be taken regarding the use of I-V correction parameters. The parameters are valid for the

PV device for which they have been measured. Variations may occur within a production lot or the type class.

2 Normative referencesThe following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document.

For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition

of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.IEC 60904-1, Photovoltaic devices – Part 1: Measurements of photovoltaic current-voltage

characteristicsIEC 60904-2, Photovoltaic devices – Part 2: Requirements for reference solar devices

IEC 60904-7, Photovoltaic devices – Part 7: Computation of the spectral mismatch correction

for measurements of photovoltaic devicesIEC 60904-9, Photovoltaic devices – Part 9: Solar simulator performance requirements

IEC 60904-10, Photovoltaic devices – Part 10: Methods of linearity measurement3 Correction procedures

3.1 General

Three procedures for correcting measured current-voltage characteristics to other conditions

of temperature and irradiance (such as STC) can be applied. The first is identical to the

procedure given in Edition 1 of this standard, but the equation has been rewritten for easier

understanding. The second procedure is an alternative algebraic correction method which

yields better results for large irradiance corrections (>20 %). Both procedures require that

correction parameters of the PV device are known. If not known they need to be determined

prior to performing the correction. The third procedure is an interpolation method which does

not require correction parameters as input: It can be applied when a minimum of three

current-voltage curves have been measured for the test device. These three current-voltage

curves span the temperature and irradiance range for which the correction method is

applicable.---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------

SIST EN 60891:2011

– 6 – 60891 © IEC:2009

All methods are applicable to linear devices as defined in IEC 60904-10.

NOTE 1 An estimate on the translation accuracy is required (see Clause 7).

NOTE 2 All PV devices should be linear within a limited range of irradiances and device temperature. Details are

described in IEC 61853-1.Common to all procedures is that I-V characteristics of the PV device are to be measured in

accordance with IEC 60904-1.Usually irradiance G shall be calculated from the measured short circuit current (I ) of the

PV reference device as defined in IEC 60904-2, and its calibration value at STC (I ). A

RC,STCcorrection should be applied to account for the temperature of the reference device T using

the specified relative temperature coefficient of the reference device (1/°C) which is given at

25 °C and 1 000 W/m .1 000 Wm ⋅I

G = ⋅[]1− α ⋅()T − 25 °C

RC RC

RC,STC

The PV reference device shall either be spectrally matched to the test specimen, or a spectral

mismatch correction shall be performed in conformance with IEC 60904-7. The reference

device shall be linear in short-circuit current, as defined in IEC 60904-10 over the irradiance

range of interest.3.2 Correction procedure 1

The measured current-voltage characteristic shall be corrected to standard test conditions or

other selected temperature and irradiance values by applying the following equations:

⎛ ⎞⎜ ⎟

I = I + I ⋅ −1 + α ⋅()T − T (1)

2 1 SC 2 1

⎜ ⎟

⎝ 1 ⎠

V = V − R ⋅()I − I − κ ⋅ I ⋅(T − T) + β ⋅(T − T) (2)

2 1 S 2 1 2 2 1 2 1

where:

I , V are coordinates of points on the measured characteristics;

1 1

I , V are coordinates of the corresponding points on the corrected characteristic;

2 2G is the irradiance measured with the reference device;

G is the irradiance at the standard or other desired irradiance;

T is the measured temperature of the test specimen;

T is the standard or other desired temperature;

I is the measured short-circuit current of the test specimen at G and T ;

SC 1 1

α and β are the current and voltage temperature coefficients of the test specimen in the

standard or target irradiance for correction and within the temperature range ofinterest;

R is the internal series resistance of the test specimen;

κ is a curve correction factor.

---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------

SIST EN 60891:2011

60891 © IEC:2009 – 7 –

NOTE 1 As the data point V will be shifted off the current axis when translating from lower to higher irradiance,

oc1the translated V has to be determined by linear extrapolation from at least 3 data points near and below V or

oc2 oc1the original IV curve has to be measured sufficiently far beyond V .

oc1

NOTE 2 The units of all correction parameters should be consistent.

NOTE 3 If the test specimen is a module the cell I-V correction parameters can be derived from the

interconnection circuit. These cell parameters may be used to calculate the module I-V correction parameters for

other module types using the same cells.NOTE 4 For crystalline silicon PV devices α is normally positive and β negative.

Procedures for determination of the I-V correction parameters of the test specimen are

described in sections 4 to 6.Equation (1) is only applicable for I-V curves measured at irradiances which are constant

during the acquisition of the entire I-V curve. For pulsed solar simulators with decaying

irradiance or any other kind of irradiance fluctuations during I-V measurement Equation (1) is

not applicable as such. In this case, each measured I-V curve has to be corrected to an

equivalent I-V curve at constant irradiance which requires an additional scaling factor in front

of I . For practical reasons this scaling factor is related to the irradiance corresponding to

measured I . For non-constant irradiance Equation (1) will become the following translation

equation.′ ⎛ ⎞

G G

1 2

⎜ ⎟

I = I + ⋅ I ⋅ −1 + α ⋅()T − T (3)

2 1 SC 2 1

⎜ ⎟

G G '

SC ⎝ 1 ⎠

where G is the irradiance value at the time of I measurement and G is the irradiance

SC SCmeasured at time of data acquisition of individual I-V data points.

3.3 Correction procedure 2

This procedure is based on the simplified one-diode model of PV devices. The semi-empirical

translation equations contain 5 I-V correction parameters which can be determined by

measurement of I-V curves at different temperature and irradiance conditions. Besides the

temperature coefficients for short circuit current (α) and open circuit voltage (β) an additional

temperature coefficient (κ′) is commonly used which accounts for changes of the internal

series resistance (and fill factor) with temperature.The correction procedure is defined by the following equations for current and voltage:

I = I ⋅()1+ α ⋅()T − T ⋅ (4)2 1 rel 2 1

⎛ ⎞

⎛ ⎞

⎜ ⎟

⎜ ⎟ ′ ′

V = V + V ⋅ β ⋅()T − T + a ⋅ln − R ⋅()I − I − κ ⋅ I ⋅(T − T) (5)

2 1 OC1 rel 2 1 S 2 1 2 2 1

⎜ ⎟

⎜ ⎟

⎝ 1⎠

⎝ ⎠

where:

I , V are coordinates of points on the measured I-V characteristic;

1 1

I , V are coordinates of the corresponding points on the corrected I-V curve;

2 2

G is the irradiance as measured with the reference device;

G is the target irradiance for the corrected I-V characteristic;

T is the measured temperature of the test specimen;

---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------

SIST EN 60891:2011

– 8 – 60891 © IEC:2009

T is the target temperature of the test specimen;

V the open circuit voltage at test conditions;

OC1

α and β are the relative current and voltage temperature coefficients of the test specimen

rel relmeasured at 1 000 W/m . They are related to short circuit current and open circuit

voltage at STC;a is the irradiance correction factor for open circuit voltage which is linked with the diode

thermal voltage D of the pn junction and the number of cells n serially connected in

the module;R′ is the internal series resistance of the test specimen;

κ′ is interpreted as temperature coefficient of the internal series resistance R′

NOTE 1 A typical value for the irradiance correction factor a is 0,06.NOTE 2 Care should be taken that the numerical values for ′ for procedure 2 may be different to ′ of

R RS S

correction procedure 1.

3.4 Correction procedure 3

3.4.1 General

This procedure is based on the linear interpolation or extrapolation of two measured I-V

characteristics. It uses a minimum of two I-V characteristics, and requires no correction

parameters or fitting parameters. The measured current-voltage characteristics shall be

corrected to standard test conditions or other selected temperature and irradiance values by

applying the following equations:V = V + a ⋅()V −V (6)

3 1 2 1

I = I + a ⋅()I − I (7)

3 1 2 1

The pair of (I ,V ) and (I , V ) should be chosen so that I – I = I – I :

1 1 2 2 2 1 SC2 SC1

where:

I , V are coordinates of points on the measured characteristics at an irradiance G and

1 1 1temperature T .

I , V are coordinates of points on the measured characteristics at an irradiance G and

2 2 2temperature T .

I , V are coordinates of the corresponding points on the corrected characteristics at an

3 3irradiance G and temperature T .

3 3

I , I are the measured short-circuit current of the test specimen.

SC1 SC2

a is a constant for the interpolation, which has the relation with the irradiance and

temperature as follows.G = G + a ⋅ (G − G )

(8)

3 1 2 1

T = T + a ⋅ (T − T )

. (9)

3 1 2 1

---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------

SIST EN 60891:2011

60891 © IEC:2009 – 9 –

This method should be applicable to most PV technologies. Equations (6) to (9) can be used

for the irradiance correction, temperature correction, and simultaneous correction of

irradiance and temperature.3.4.2 Correction for the irradiance and temperature from two measured I-V

characteristics

The procedure to correct the I-V characteristics to the irradiance and temperature (G , T )

3 3from two I-V characteristics measured at the irradiances and temperatures of (G , T ) and (G ,

1 1 2T ) is as follows (Figures 1(a) and 1(b)).

a) Measure the two I-V characteristics at the irradiances and temperatures of G , T and G ,

1 1 2T , respectively (solid lines in Figure 1(a)). Find the values of I and I .

2 SC1 SC2

b) Calculate a by Equation (8) or (9). For example, when the two measured I-V curves were

made at:G = 1 000 W/m and T = 50 °C

1 1

G = 500 W/m and T = 40 °C.

2 2

And the irradiance of interest is G = 800 W/m :

Then using Equation (8) a = 0,4.

And using Equation (9) T = 46 °C.

c) Choose a point (V , I ) on the I-V characteristic 1. Find a point (V , I ) on the I-V

1 1 2 2– I = I – I is satisfied (Figure 1(b)).

characteristic 2, so that the relation I

2 1 SC2 SC1

d) Calculate V and I by Equations (6) and (7).

3 3

e) Select multiple sets of data points (V , I ) on the I-V characteristics 1, and calculate (V , I )

1 1 3 3for each by the procedures (c) and (d).

f) The I-V characteristics 3 at the irradiance G and temperature T are given by the set of

3 3data points (V , I ) (broken line in Figure 1(b)).

3 3

Figures 1(a) and 1(b) show an example of an irradiance correction. Figures 1(c) shows an

example of a temperature correction. Figure 1(d) shows a simultaneous correction of

irradiance and temperature. When 0 < a < 1, the procedure is interpolation. Otherwise, the

procedure is extrapolation.It should be noted that when G , G , T and T are fixed, G and T cannot be chosen

1 2 1 2 3 3

independently, because they have the relationships given in Equations (8) and (9) (Figure 2).

For example, when G = 1 000 W/m , T = 20 °C, G = 0 W/m , T = 60 °C (dark I-V curve at

1 1 2 260°C), and you wish to have the new curve at G = 750 W/m , a is calculated to be 0,25 by

Equation (8). Therefore, T should be 30 °C from Equation (9).---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------

SIST EN 60891:2011

– 10 – 60891 © IEC:2009

a) b)

G , T G , T

1 1 1 1

I I

sc1 sc1

(V , I )

1 1

I –I

sc1 sc2

I –I

sc1 sc2

G , T

3 3

I –I

sc1 sc2

G , T G , T

2 2 2 2

I I

sc2 sc2

(V , I )

2 2

Voltage Voltage

IEC 2414/09 IEC 2415/09

G , T

I –I

1 1

sc1 sc2

c) I d)

sc1

sc1

G , T

2 2

I –I

sc1 sc2

sc2

G , T

1 1

I –I

G , T sc1 sc2

3 3

G ,

**...**

## Questions, Comments and Discussion

## Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.