Reconfigurable Radio Systems (RRS) - Mobile Device (MD) information models and protocols - Part 4: Radio Programming Interface (RPI)

The scope of the present document is to define the Radio Programming Interface (RPI) for mobile device
reconfiguration. The work is based on the Use Cases defined in ETSI TR 102 944 [i.1], on the system requirements
defined in ETSI EN 302 969 [1] and on the radio reconfiguration related architecture for mobile devices defined in
ETSI EN 303 095 [i.2]. Furthermore, the present document complements the mobile device information models and
protocols related to the Multiradio Interface ETSI EN 303 146-1 [i.3], to the Reconfigurable Radio Frequency Interface
ETSI EN 303 146-2 [i.4] and to the Unified Radio Application Interface ETSI EN 303 146-3 [i.5].

Reconfigurable Radio Systems (RRS) - Mobile Device Information Models and Protocols - Part 1: Multiradio Interface (MURI)

Radijski sistemi z možnostjo preoblikovanja (RRS) - Informacijski modeli in protokoli za mobilne naprave (MD) - 4. del: Radijski programski vmesnik (RPI)

Področje uporabe tega dokumenta zajema opredelitev radijskega programskega vmesnika (RPI) za mobilne naprave z možnostjo preoblikovanja. Delo temelji na primerih uporabe, opredeljenih v standardu ETSI TR 102 944 [i.1], sistemskih zahtevah,
opredeljenih v standardu ETSI EN 302 969 [1], ter preoblikovanju radia glede na arhitekturo za mobilne naprave, opredeljeno v standardu ETSI EN 303 095 [i.2]. Poleg tega ta dokument dopolnjuje informacijske modele in protokole za mobilne naprave, ki se nanašajo na večradijski vmesnik iz standarda ETSI EN 303 146-1 [i.3], spremenljivi radiofrekvenčni vmesnik iz standarda ETSI EN 303 146-2 [i.4] in enotni radijski aplikacijski vmesnik iz standarda ETSI EN 303 146-3 [i.5].

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
31-Mar-2017
Publication Date
16-May-2017
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
04-May-2017
Due Date
09-Jul-2017
Completion Date
17-May-2017

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 303 146-4 V1.1.2:2017
01-junij-2017
Radijski sistemi z možnostjo preoblikovanja (RRS) - Informacijski modeli in
protokoli za mobilne naprave (MD) - 4. del: Radijski programski vmesnik (RPI)
Reconfigurable Radio Systems (RRS) - Mobile Device (MD) information models and
protocols - Part 4: Radio Programming Interface (RPI)

Reconfigurable Radio Systems (RRS) - Mobile Device Information Models and Protocols

- Part 1: Multiradio Interface (MURI)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ETSI EN 303 146-4 V1.1.2 (2017-04)
ICS:
33.060.01 Radijske komunikacije na Radiocommunications in
splošno general
35.200 Vmesniška in povezovalna Interface and interconnection
oprema equipment
SIST EN 303 146-4 V1.1.2:2017 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 303 146-4 V1.1.2:2017
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN 303 146-4 V1.1.2:2017
ETSI EN 303 146-4 V1.1.2 (2017-04)
EUROPEAN STANDARD
Reconfigurable Radio Systems (RRS);
Mobile Device (MD) information models and protocols;
Part 4: Radio Programming Interface (RPI)
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN 303 146-4 V1.1.2:2017
2 ETSI EN 303 146-4 V1.1.2 (2017-04)
Reference
REN/RRS-0214
Keywords
architecture, mobile, radio, SDR, software,
system
ETSI
650 Route des Lucioles
F-06921 Sophia Antipolis Cedex - FRANCE
Tel.: +33 4 92 94 42 00 Fax: +33 4 93 65 47 16
Siret N° 348 623 562 00017 - NAF 742 C
Association à but non lucratif enregistrée à la
Sous-Préfecture de Grasse (06) N° 7803/88
Important notice
The present document can be downloaded from:
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ETSI
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN 303 146-4 V1.1.2:2017
3 ETSI EN 303 146-4 V1.1.2 (2017-04)
Contents

Intellectual Property Rights ................................................................................................................................ 4

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................. 4

Modal verbs terminology .................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope ........................................................................................................................................................ 5

2 References ................................................................................................................................................ 5

2.1 Normative references ......................................................................................................................................... 5

2.2 Informative references ........................................................................................................................................ 5

3 Definitions and abbreviations ................................................................................................................... 6

3.1 Definitions .......................................................................................................................................................... 6

3.2 Abbreviations ..................................................................................................................................................... 7

4 Introduction .............................................................................................................................................. 8

5 System Requirement Mapping ............................................................................................................... 10

6 Radio Virtual Machine specification ...................................................................................................... 10

6.1 Concept of RVM .............................................................................................................................................. 10

6.2 Elementary RVM (eRVM) ............................................................................................................................... 11

6.3 RVM Hierarchy ................................................................................................................................................ 15

6.4 Data types ......................................................................................................................................................... 17

6.4.1 Types and Values ........................................................................................................................................ 17

6.4.2 Run-Time Data ........................................................................................................................................... 17

6.5 Arithmetic......................................................................................................................................................... 17

6.6 Exceptions ........................................................................................................................................................ 17

6.7 Control, Synchronization and Execution .......................................................................................................... 17

6.8 Operations with Memory .................................................................................................................................. 18

6.9 RVM run-time environment ............................................................................................................................. 18

7 Configcodes for RVM ............................................................................................................................ 19

7.0 Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................... 19

7.1 Configcodes generation .................................................................................................................................... 19

7.2 Binary format for Configcodes ......................................................................................................................... 20

7.3 XML schema for Configcodes ......................................................................................................................... 24

8 Radio Library ......................................................................................................................................... 30

8.0 Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................... 30

8.1 Reference Radio Library .................................................................................................................................. 30

8.2 Native Radio Library ........................................................................................................................................ 31

9 Loading, Linking and Initialization ........................................................................................................ 32

10 Compiling for RVM (Front-End Compilation) ...................................................................................... 33

Annex A (informative): Mapping between XML and Binary ............................................................ 34

Annex B (informative): SFB Candidate ............................................................................................... 35

Annex C (informative): Replacement of selected components of an existing RAT .......................... 37

Annex D (informative): Introducing new SFBs ................................................................................... 38

History .............................................................................................................................................................. 39

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN 303 146-4 V1.1.2:2017
4 ETSI EN 303 146-4 V1.1.2 (2017-04)
Intellectual Property Rights

IPRs essential or potentially essential to the present document may have been declared to ETSI. The information

pertaining to these essential IPRs, if any, is publicly available for ETSI members and non-members, and can be found

in ETSI SR 000 314: "Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs); Essential, or potentially Essential, IPRs notified to ETSI in

respect of ETSI standards", which is available from the ETSI Secretariat. Latest updates are available on the ETSI Web

server (https://ipr.etsi.org/).

Pursuant to the ETSI IPR Policy, no investigation, including IPR searches, has been carried out by ETSI. No guarantee

can be given as to the existence of other IPRs not referenced in ETSI SR 000 314 (or the updates on the ETSI Web

server) which are, or may be, or may become, essential to the present document.
Foreword

This European Standard (EN) has been produced by ETSI Technical Committee Reconfigurable Radio Systems (RRS).

The present document is part 4 of a multi-part deliverable. Full details of the entire series can be found in part 1 [i.3].

National transposition dates
Date of adoption of this EN: 10 April 2017
Date of latest announcement of this EN (doa): 31 July 2017
Date of latest publication of new National Standard
or endorsement of this EN (dop/e): 31 January 2018
Date of withdrawal of any conflicting National Standard (dow): 31 January 2018
Modal verbs terminology

In the present document "shall", "shall not", "should", "should not", "may", "need not", "will", "will not", "can" and

"cannot" are to be interpreted as described in clause 3.2 of the ETSI Drafting Rules (Verbal forms for the expression of

provisions).

"must" and "must not" are NOT allowed in ETSI deliverables except when used in direct citation.

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN 303 146-4 V1.1.2:2017
5 ETSI EN 303 146-4 V1.1.2 (2017-04)
1 Scope

The scope of the present document is to define the Radio Programming Interface (RPI) for mobile device

reconfiguration. The work is based on the Use Cases defined in ETSI TR 102 944 [i.1], on the system requirements

defined in ETSI EN 302 969 [1] and on the radio reconfiguration related architecture for mobile devices defined in

ETSI EN 303 095 [i.2]. Furthermore, the present document complements the mobile device information models and

protocols related to the Multiradio Interface ETSI EN 303 146-1 [i.3], to the Reconfigurable Radio Frequency Interface

ETSI EN 303 146-2 [i.4] and to the Unified Radio Application Interface ETSI EN 303 146-3 [i.5].

2 References
2.1 Normative references

References are either specific (identified by date of publication and/or edition number or version number) or

non-specific. For specific references, only the cited version applies. For non-specific references, the latest version of the

referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

Referenced documents which are not found to be publicly available in the expected location might be found at

https://docbox.etsi.org/Reference/.

NOTE: While any hyperlinks included in this clause were valid at the time of publication, ETSI cannot guarantee

their long term validity.

The following referenced documents are necessary for the application of the present document.

[1] ETSI EN 302 969 (V1.2.1): "Reconfigurable Radio Systems (RRS); Radio Reconfiguration related

Requirements for Mobile Devices".
2.2 Informative references

References are either specific (identified by date of publication and/or edition number or version number) or

non-specific. For specific references, only the cited version applies. For non-specific references, the latest version of the

referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE: While any hyperlinks included in this clause were valid at the time of publication, ETSI cannot guarantee

their long term validity.

The following referenced documents are not necessary for the application of the present document but they assist the

user with regard to a particular subject area.

[i.1] ETSI TR 102 944: "Reconfigurable Radio Systems (RRS); Use Cases for Baseband Interfaces for

Unified Radio Applications of Mobile Device".

[i.2] ETSI EN 303 095 (V1.2.1): "Reconfigurable Radio Systems (RRS); Radio Reconfiguration related

Architecture for Mobile Devices".

[i.3] ETSI EN 303 146-1: "Reconfigurable Radio Systems (RRS); Mobile Device Information Models

and Protocols; Part 1: Multiradio Interface (MURI)".

[i.4] ETSI EN 303 146-2: "Reconfigurable Radio Systems (RRS); Mobile Device (MD) information

models and protocols; Part 2: Reconfigurable Radio Frequency Interface (RRFI)".

[i.5] ETSI EN 303 146-3: "Reconfigurable Radio Systems (RRS); Mobile Device (MD) information

models and protocols; Part 3: Unified Radio Application Interface (URAI)".
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN 303 146-4 V1.1.2:2017
6 ETSI EN 303 146-4 V1.1.2 (2017-04)
3 Definitions and abbreviations
3.1 Definitions

For the purposes of the present document, the following terms and definitions apply:

Abstract Processing Element (APE): abstracts computational resource that executes any computations downloaded

from Radio Library

NOTE: APE is connected with input and output DOs. APE is reactive. Any computations are started if all input

DOs are filled with real data.

basic operations: operations either provided by the Radio Library and/or UDFB Set to eRVM or by the Radio Library

and/or RVM/eRVM Configcodes to RVM

NOTE: Each Basic Operation is mapped to a corresponding APE in the case of eRVM or mapped to a

corresponding APE or RVM/eRVM in the case of RVM.

data flow chart: reactive data flow computational model consisting of data and operators where data are connected

with operators

NOTE: Operators abstract computations. They are triggered by full data. Results of operator computations are

written in connected output data if they are empty.
Data Object (DO): typeless token abstracting any type of data

NOTE: DO provides a container for storing data. It can be empty if no data in the container or it can be full if

there is data in the container. DO is allocated in the infinite and flat memory. Any RVM has access to this

memory. One or a few APEs from RVM can be connected with DO. DO acknowledges connected APEs

about its status whether it empty or full.

dynamic operation: operation that is performed by allocating the computational resources during run-time for each

APE required executing the given operation

NOTE 1: The resources are deallocated upon completion of the corresponding operation.

NOTE 2: Dynamic operation is available only in the case of MDRC-7 defined in ETSI EN 302 969 [1]. In other

words, dynamic operation is needed when RA requires the dynamic resource sharing.

native radio library: library providing platform-specific description of each SFB that represents the target platform

hardware
port configuration: specification of the number of APEs inputs and outputs

radio library authority: authority empowered to decide which components can be registered as new SFBs

NOTE: Any suitable organization can take the role of a Radio Library Authority. The choice of the organization

is beyond the scope of the present document.

Radio Virtual Machine (RVM): abstract machine that supports reactive and concurrent executions

NOTE: A RVM may be implemented as a controlled execution environment that allows the selection of a trade-

off between flexibility of base band code development and required (re-)certification efforts.

Radio Virtual Machine Runtime Environment (RVM RE): software that allows running Radio Applications that

might be Configcodes or executable codes
reference radio library: library providing normative definition of each SFB

NOTE: There may be multiple such Reference Radio Libraries. For a given RA, a unique Reference Radio

Library is used.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN 303 146-4 V1.1.2:2017
7 ETSI EN 303 146-4 V1.1.2 (2017-04)

Software Intermediate Representation (SWIR): RA representation as data flow chart

NOTE: SWIR file contains information on all terminal objects, their parameters (cost, implement function, size,

etc.) and connections (links, access type, source and destination).

terminal operation: operation that will always be executed without any other interruption

NOTE 1: Furthermore, terminal operation cannot be decomposed into smaller operations.

NOTE 2: "Terminal operations" are equivalent to "atomic operations", but additionally it indicates that a hierarchy

is being used in which the "terminal operations" are on the lowest level of hierarchy and they can be part

of another operation.
3.2 Abbreviations
For the purposes of the present document, the following abbreviations apply:
AOT Ahead-Of-Time
APE Abstract Processing Element
ASF Abstract Switch Fabric
CC Configcodes Counter
CSL Communication Services Layer
CU Control Unit
DO Data Object
eRVM Elementary RVM
eSFB Elementary SFB
FB Functional Block
FBRI FB Reusability Index
FFT Fast Fourier Transform
HD Hardware Dimension
HW Hardware
ID Identification
IFFT Inverse Fast Fourier Transform
IR Intermediate Representation
JIT Just-In-Time
LCF Last Configuration Flag
MD Mobile Device
MURI MUltiRadio Interface
NAF Next Address Flag
NAPE Number of Abstract Processing Elements
NCAO Next Configcode Address Offset
NDO Number of Data Objects
RA Radio Application
RAP Radio Application Package
RAT Radio Access Technology
RCF Radio Control Framework
RE Runtime Environment
RF Radio Frequency
RLA Radio Library Authority
ROS Radio Operating System
RPI Radio Programming Interface
RRFI Reconfigurable Radio Frequency Interface
RVM Radio Virtual Machine
RVM RE RVM Runtime Environment
SD Software Dimension
SFB Standard Functional Block
SWIR SoftWare Intermediate Representation
UDFB User Defined Functional Block
UML Unified Modeling Language
URA Unified Radio Applications
URAI Unified Radio Applications Interface
XML eXtensible Markup Language
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST EN 303 146-4 V1.1.2:2017
8 ETSI EN 303 146-4 V1.1.2 (2017-04)
4 Introduction

A reconfigurable MD is capable of running multiple radios simultaneously and of changing the set of radios by loading

new Radio Application Package (RAP). All Radio Applications (RAs) are called Unified Radio Applications (URAs)

when they exhibit a common behaviour from the reconfigurable MD's point of view [i.2]. In order to run multiple

URAs, the reconfigurable MD will include Communication Services Layer (CSL), Radio Control Framework (RCF),

Radio Platform and 4 sets of interfaces for their interconnection.
Figure 4.1: Four sets of interfaces for Reconfigurable MD

Figure 4.1 illustrates the Reconfigurable MD architecture with the 4 sets of interfaces, i.e.:

• MURI for interfacing CSL and RCF [i.2];
• RRFI for interfacing URA and RF Transceiver [i.3];
• URAI for interfacing URA and RCF [i.2];
• RPI for allowing an independent and uniform production of RAs.
The present document defines RPI.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST EN 303 146-4 V1.1.2:2017
9 ETSI EN 303 146-4 V1.1.2 (2017-04)
<>
IMURI
<>
IRR F I
R adioComput er
<>
IRPI
<>
IURAI
Figure 4.2: UML class diagram for Radio Computer interfaces

Figure 4.2 illustrates UML class diagram for Radio Computer interfaces. The reconfigurable MD may be seen as a

Radio Computer where individual URAs are engineered as software entities [i.2].
The present document is organized as follows:
• Clause 5 describes the system requirement mapping.
• Clause 6 describes the radio virtual machine specification.
• Clause 7 describes the Configcodes for RVM.
• Clause 8 describes the radio library structure.
• Clause 9 describes the load, linking and initialization.
• Clause 10 describes the compiling for RVM.
• Annex A describes the mapping between Binary and XML.
• Annex B describes SFB Candidates.
• Annex C describes the replacement of selected components of an existing RAT.

While UML is used for defining the information model and protocol related to RPI, other modelling languages could

be used as well.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST EN 303 146-4 V1.1.2:2017
10 ETSI EN 303 146-4 V1.1.2 (2017-04)
5 System Requirement Mapping

The Radio Programming Interface and its related components described in the present document shall support the

system requirements shown in table 5.1 referring to clause 6 of ETSI EN 302 969 [1]. This is achieved by introducing

the entities/components/units given in the 1 column of table 5.1.
Table 5.1: Mapping of Radio Programming Interface and its related components to
the system requirements described in ETSI EN 302 969 [1]
Entity/Component/Unit System Requirements [1] Comments

Radio Programming R-FUNC-MDR-04 The requirement shall be as described in clause 6.4.4 of ETSI

Interface EN 302 969 [1].

Radio Virtual Machine R-FUNC-MDR-13 The requirement shall be as described in clause 6.4.13 of

ETSI EN 302 969 [1].
R-FUNC-MDR-14 The requirement shall be as described in clause 6.4.14 of
ETSI EN 302 969 [1].
R-FUNC-MDR-15 The requirement shall be as described in clause 6.4.15 of
ETSI EN 302 969 [1].

Radio Library R-FUNC-FB-06 A library extension shall be supported. The requirement shall

be as described in clause 6.3.6 of ETSI EN 302 969 [1].
6 Radio Virtual Machine specification
6.1 Concept of RVM

As introduced in ETSI EN 303 095 [i.2], the Radio Virtual Machine (RVM) is an Abstract Machine which is capable of

executing Configcodes and it is independent of the hardware. The implementation of a RVM is target Radio Computer

specific and it shall have access to the Back-end Compiler (on the platform itself or externally as described in ETSI

EN 303 095 [i.2], clause 4.4.1) for Just-in-Time (JIT) or Ahead-of-Time (AOT) compilation of Configcodes.

This clause describes the concept of RVM. As mentioned above, the RVM is an abstract machine, which executes a

particular algorithm presented as a data flow chart. In other words, the RVM is the result of replacing all operators and

tokens in the particular data flow chart with Abstract Processing Elements (APEs) and Data Objects (DOs),

respectively. Each APE executes computations marked by the replaced operator identifier. These computations are

taken from the Radio Library.

Figure 6.1 illustrates a conceptual view of RVM processing. This process requires APE, DO and Radio Library, of

which the definitions are as follows:

• APE abstracts a computational resource corresponding to the operation in a particular data flow chart.

• DO abstracts a memory resource. In other words, DO is an abstracted memory for storing data used during the

procedure of Radio processing.

• Reference/Native Radio Library includes normative definitions/native implementation of all Standard

Functional Blocks (SFBs) [i.2] for front-end/back-end compilation. Note that the computations included in the

Radio Library are represented in terms of normative definitions or native implementations of SFBs depending

upon whether the Radio Library is used for front-end or back-end compilation, respectively.

NOTE 1: User Defined Functional Blocks (UDFBs) will be created through combination of SFBs and represented

as a data flow chart to be executed in the RVM. Alternatively, a UDFB is implemented as a stand-alone

module/function which can be mapped:
i) into one APE (i.e. this UDFB can be considered atomic); or

ii) into an eRVM/RVM (i.e. not atomic). UDFBs are not in general included into the Radio Library,

but they are part of the Radio Application Package.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST EN 303 146-4 V1.1.2:2017
11 ETSI EN 303 146-4 V1.1.2 (2017-04)

The RVM begins to work immediately after some DOs initialization. All APEs shall execute computations

asynchronously and concurrently. An individual APE shall execute the allocated operator if all the corresponding input

DOs are full. APEs shall access DOs with operations "read", "read-erase", or "write". After reading input data from

DOs, the APE shall execute the allocated operator and, if output DOs are empty, then the APE shall write processed

data. Any full output DO shall block the corresponding writing operation. The RVM shall execute computations until

reaching the state when all APEs become inactive. In this state, there are not enough full DOs, which can activate the

inactive operators. The result of computations are full DOs, which cannot activate the inactive operators.

NOTE 2: An Output DO can become an Input DO for a subsequent operator. Then, this input DO can activate the

subsequent operator.

NOTE 3: The state or operation of a given APE is independent on the state of other APEs. I.e. each APE is atomic.

Figure 6.1: Conceptual Diagram of Radio Virtual Machine Processing
6.2 Elementary RVM (eRVM)

This clause describes the eRVM which shall consist of components of Basic Operations, Program memory, Control

Unit (CU), Abstract Switch Fabric (ASF) as well as APEs and DOs, of which the definitions are as follows. eRVM shall

not contain another eRVM or RVM.
• Basic Operations shall include operators either provided:
i) from Radio Library as SFBs and/or;
ii) from UDFB set as UDFBs, each of which is mapped onto one single APE.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
SIST EN 303 146-4 V1.1.2:2017
12 ETSI EN 303 146-4 V1.1.2 (2017-04)

NOTE 1: Since UDFBs might be implemented as a stand-alone module/function which can be mapped into one

APE, in this case, Basic Operations include operators provided by UDFB Set as well as by Radio Library

as SFBs. Note that those UDFBs are atomic.

NOTE 2: For a RVM, the SFB or UDFB can be mapped onto an APE or RVM or eRVM. In the eRVM case, the

mapping to RVM or eRVM is not possible since it is the lowest level of hierarchy as it will be introduced

in clause 6.3.

NOTE 3: From an execution perspective, there is no difference between SFBs and UDFBs.

• Program memory shall be provided with Configcodes which determine the eRVM configuration.

• CU shall generate Initialization and Set-up instructions for APEs, DOs and ASF based on decoding

Configcodes stored in the Program memory.

• ASF shall connect APEs and DOs in accordance with CU signals. One DO can be connected with multiple

APEs. One APE can be connected with multiple DOs. DO from other eRVMs can be connected with ASF

through external data ports.

Figure 6.2 illustrates a block diagram of eRVM. Basic Operations in eRVM consist of operations provided by the Radio

Library and/orUDFB Set.

NOTE 1: A target platform may or may not provide accelerators for some/all SFBs and/or UDFBs.

NOTE 2: Three cases can be considered:
i) RAP includes only SFBs;
ii) RAP includes only UDFBs;
iii) RAP includes SFBs and UDFBs.

NOTE 3: Furthermore, and independent of the upper note, Basic Operations may include:

i) SFBs only;
ii) UDFBs only; or
iii) SFBs and UDFBs.
Figure 6.2: Elementary RVM
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
SIST EN 303 146-4 V1.1.2:2017
13 ETSI EN 303 146-4 V1.1.2 (2017-04)
The Data path of an eRVM shall consist of the following blocks:
• DOs;
• APEs;
• ASF.

Each DO shall have a unique number and for this purpose the DOs shall be represented as DO , DO , …, DO , where N

1 2 N
is a sufficiently large number. The structure of DO is shown in figure 6.3.
in it fu ll / e mp t y
st at u s
config DO
se t
...

ETSI EN 303 146-4 V1.1.2 (2017-04)
EUROPEAN STANDARD
Reconfigurable Radio Systems (RRS);
Mobile Device (MD) information models and protocols;
Part 4: Radio Programming Interface (RPI)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
2 ETSI EN 303 146-4 V1.1.2 (2017-04)
Reference
REN/RRS-0214
Keywords
architecture, mobile, radio, SDR, software,
system
ETSI
650 Route des Lucioles
F-06921 Sophia Antipolis Cedex - FRANCE
Tel.: +33 4 92 94 42 00 Fax: +33 4 93 65 47 16
Siret N° 348 623 562 00017 - NAF 742 C
Association à but non lucratif enregistrée à la
Sous-Préfecture de Grasse (06) N° 7803/88
Important notice
The present document can be downloaded from:
http://www.etsi.org/standards-search

The present document may be made available in electronic versions and/or in print. The content of any electronic and/or

print versions of the present document shall not be modified without the prior written authorization of ETSI. In case of any

existing or perceived difference in contents between such versions and/or in print, the only prevailing document is the

print of the Portable Document Format (PDF) version kept on a specific network drive within ETSI Secretariat.

Users of the present document should be aware that the document may be subject to revision or change of status.

Information on the current status of this and other ETSI documents is available at

https://portal.etsi.org/TB/ETSIDeliverableStatus.aspx

If you find errors in the present document, please send your comment to one of the following services:

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Copyright Notification

No part may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying

and microfilm except as authorized by written permission of ETSI.

The content of the PDF version shall not be modified without the written authorization of ETSI.

The copyright and the foregoing restriction extend to reproduction in all media.
© European Telecommunications Standards Institute 2017.
All rights reserved.
TM TM TM

DECT , PLUGTESTS , UMTS and the ETSI logo are Trade Marks of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members.

3GPP and LTE™ are Trade Marks of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members and

of the 3GPP Organizational Partners.
oneM2M logo is protected for the benefit of its Members

GSM® and the GSM logo are Trade Marks registered and owned by the GSM Association.

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
3 ETSI EN 303 146-4 V1.1.2 (2017-04)
Contents

Intellectual Property Rights ................................................................................................................................ 4

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................. 4

Modal verbs terminology .................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope ........................................................................................................................................................ 5

2 References ................................................................................................................................................ 5

2.1 Normative references ......................................................................................................................................... 5

2.2 Informative references ........................................................................................................................................ 5

3 Definitions and abbreviations ................................................................................................................... 6

3.1 Definitions .......................................................................................................................................................... 6

3.2 Abbreviations ..................................................................................................................................................... 7

4 Introduction .............................................................................................................................................. 8

5 System Requirement Mapping ............................................................................................................... 10

6 Radio Virtual Machine specification ...................................................................................................... 10

6.1 Concept of RVM .............................................................................................................................................. 10

6.2 Elementary RVM (eRVM) ............................................................................................................................... 11

6.3 RVM Hierarchy ................................................................................................................................................ 15

6.4 Data types ......................................................................................................................................................... 17

6.4.1 Types and Values ........................................................................................................................................ 17

6.4.2 Run-Time Data ........................................................................................................................................... 17

6.5 Arithmetic......................................................................................................................................................... 17

6.6 Exceptions ........................................................................................................................................................ 17

6.7 Control, Synchronization and Execution .......................................................................................................... 17

6.8 Operations with Memory .................................................................................................................................. 18

6.9 RVM run-time environment ............................................................................................................................. 18

7 Configcodes for RVM ............................................................................................................................ 19

7.0 Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................... 19

7.1 Configcodes generation .................................................................................................................................... 19

7.2 Binary format for Configcodes ......................................................................................................................... 20

7.3 XML schema for Configcodes ......................................................................................................................... 24

8 Radio Library ......................................................................................................................................... 30

8.0 Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................... 30

8.1 Reference Radio Library .................................................................................................................................. 30

8.2 Native Radio Library ........................................................................................................................................ 31

9 Loading, Linking and Initialization ........................................................................................................ 32

10 Compiling for RVM (Front-End Compilation) ...................................................................................... 33

Annex A (informative): Mapping between XML and Binary ............................................................ 34

Annex B (informative): SFB Candidate ............................................................................................... 35

Annex C (informative): Replacement of selected components of an existing RAT .......................... 37

Annex D (informative): Introducing new SFBs ................................................................................... 38

History .............................................................................................................................................................. 39

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
4 ETSI EN 303 146-4 V1.1.2 (2017-04)
Intellectual Property Rights

IPRs essential or potentially essential to the present document may have been declared to ETSI. The information

pertaining to these essential IPRs, if any, is publicly available for ETSI members and non-members, and can be found

in ETSI SR 000 314: "Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs); Essential, or potentially Essential, IPRs notified to ETSI in

respect of ETSI standards", which is available from the ETSI Secretariat. Latest updates are available on the ETSI Web

server (https://ipr.etsi.org/).

Pursuant to the ETSI IPR Policy, no investigation, including IPR searches, has been carried out by ETSI. No guarantee

can be given as to the existence of other IPRs not referenced in ETSI SR 000 314 (or the updates on the ETSI Web

server) which are, or may be, or may become, essential to the present document.
Foreword

This European Standard (EN) has been produced by ETSI Technical Committee Reconfigurable Radio Systems (RRS).

The present document is part 4 of a multi-part deliverable. Full details of the entire series can be found in part 1 [i.3].

National transposition dates
Date of adoption of this EN: 10 April 2017
Date of latest announcement of this EN (doa): 31 July 2017
Date of latest publication of new National Standard
or endorsement of this EN (dop/e): 31 January 2018
Date of withdrawal of any conflicting National Standard (dow): 31 January 2018
Modal verbs terminology

In the present document "shall", "shall not", "should", "should not", "may", "need not", "will", "will not", "can" and

"cannot" are to be interpreted as described in clause 3.2 of the ETSI Drafting Rules (Verbal forms for the expression of

provisions).

"must" and "must not" are NOT allowed in ETSI deliverables except when used in direct citation.

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
5 ETSI EN 303 146-4 V1.1.2 (2017-04)
1 Scope

The scope of the present document is to define the Radio Programming Interface (RPI) for mobile device

reconfiguration. The work is based on the Use Cases defined in ETSI TR 102 944 [i.1], on the system requirements

defined in ETSI EN 302 969 [1] and on the radio reconfiguration related architecture for mobile devices defined in

ETSI EN 303 095 [i.2]. Furthermore, the present document complements the mobile device information models and

protocols related to the Multiradio Interface ETSI EN 303 146-1 [i.3], to the Reconfigurable Radio Frequency Interface

ETSI EN 303 146-2 [i.4] and to the Unified Radio Application Interface ETSI EN 303 146-3 [i.5].

2 References
2.1 Normative references

References are either specific (identified by date of publication and/or edition number or version number) or

non-specific. For specific references, only the cited version applies. For non-specific references, the latest version of the

referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

Referenced documents which are not found to be publicly available in the expected location might be found at

https://docbox.etsi.org/Reference/.

NOTE: While any hyperlinks included in this clause were valid at the time of publication, ETSI cannot guarantee

their long term validity.

The following referenced documents are necessary for the application of the present document.

[1] ETSI EN 302 969 (V1.2.1): "Reconfigurable Radio Systems (RRS); Radio Reconfiguration related

Requirements for Mobile Devices".
2.2 Informative references

References are either specific (identified by date of publication and/or edition number or version number) or

non-specific. For specific references, only the cited version applies. For non-specific references, the latest version of the

referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE: While any hyperlinks included in this clause were valid at the time of publication, ETSI cannot guarantee

their long term validity.

The following referenced documents are not necessary for the application of the present document but they assist the

user with regard to a particular subject area.

[i.1] ETSI TR 102 944: "Reconfigurable Radio Systems (RRS); Use Cases for Baseband Interfaces for

Unified Radio Applications of Mobile Device".

[i.2] ETSI EN 303 095 (V1.2.1): "Reconfigurable Radio Systems (RRS); Radio Reconfiguration related

Architecture for Mobile Devices".

[i.3] ETSI EN 303 146-1: "Reconfigurable Radio Systems (RRS); Mobile Device Information Models

and Protocols; Part 1: Multiradio Interface (MURI)".

[i.4] ETSI EN 303 146-2: "Reconfigurable Radio Systems (RRS); Mobile Device (MD) information

models and protocols; Part 2: Reconfigurable Radio Frequency Interface (RRFI)".

[i.5] ETSI EN 303 146-3: "Reconfigurable Radio Systems (RRS); Mobile Device (MD) information

models and protocols; Part 3: Unified Radio Application Interface (URAI)".
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
6 ETSI EN 303 146-4 V1.1.2 (2017-04)
3 Definitions and abbreviations
3.1 Definitions

For the purposes of the present document, the following terms and definitions apply:

Abstract Processing Element (APE): abstracts computational resource that executes any computations downloaded

from Radio Library

NOTE: APE is connected with input and output DOs. APE is reactive. Any computations are started if all input

DOs are filled with real data.

basic operations: operations either provided by the Radio Library and/or UDFB Set to eRVM or by the Radio Library

and/or RVM/eRVM Configcodes to RVM

NOTE: Each Basic Operation is mapped to a corresponding APE in the case of eRVM or mapped to a

corresponding APE or RVM/eRVM in the case of RVM.

data flow chart: reactive data flow computational model consisting of data and operators where data are connected

with operators

NOTE: Operators abstract computations. They are triggered by full data. Results of operator computations are

written in connected output data if they are empty.
Data Object (DO): typeless token abstracting any type of data

NOTE: DO provides a container for storing data. It can be empty if no data in the container or it can be full if

there is data in the container. DO is allocated in the infinite and flat memory. Any RVM has access to this

memory. One or a few APEs from RVM can be connected with DO. DO acknowledges connected APEs

about its status whether it empty or full.

dynamic operation: operation that is performed by allocating the computational resources during run-time for each

APE required executing the given operation

NOTE 1: The resources are deallocated upon completion of the corresponding operation.

NOTE 2: Dynamic operation is available only in the case of MDRC-7 defined in ETSI EN 302 969 [1]. In other

words, dynamic operation is needed when RA requires the dynamic resource sharing.

native radio library: library providing platform-specific description of each SFB that represents the target platform

hardware
port configuration: specification of the number of APEs inputs and outputs

radio library authority: authority empowered to decide which components can be registered as new SFBs

NOTE: Any suitable organization can take the role of a Radio Library Authority. The choice of the organization

is beyond the scope of the present document.

Radio Virtual Machine (RVM): abstract machine that supports reactive and concurrent executions

NOTE: A RVM may be implemented as a controlled execution environment that allows the selection of a trade-

off between flexibility of base band code development and required (re-)certification efforts.

Radio Virtual Machine Runtime Environment (RVM RE): software that allows running Radio Applications that

might be Configcodes or executable codes
reference radio library: library providing normative definition of each SFB

NOTE: There may be multiple such Reference Radio Libraries. For a given RA, a unique Reference Radio

Library is used.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
7 ETSI EN 303 146-4 V1.1.2 (2017-04)

Software Intermediate Representation (SWIR): RA representation as data flow chart

NOTE: SWIR file contains information on all terminal objects, their parameters (cost, implement function, size,

etc.) and connections (links, access type, source and destination).

terminal operation: operation that will always be executed without any other interruption

NOTE 1: Furthermore, terminal operation cannot be decomposed into smaller operations.

NOTE 2: "Terminal operations" are equivalent to "atomic operations", but additionally it indicates that a hierarchy

is being used in which the "terminal operations" are on the lowest level of hierarchy and they can be part

of another operation.
3.2 Abbreviations
For the purposes of the present document, the following abbreviations apply:
AOT Ahead-Of-Time
APE Abstract Processing Element
ASF Abstract Switch Fabric
CC Configcodes Counter
CSL Communication Services Layer
CU Control Unit
DO Data Object
eRVM Elementary RVM
eSFB Elementary SFB
FB Functional Block
FBRI FB Reusability Index
FFT Fast Fourier Transform
HD Hardware Dimension
HW Hardware
ID Identification
IFFT Inverse Fast Fourier Transform
IR Intermediate Representation
JIT Just-In-Time
LCF Last Configuration Flag
MD Mobile Device
MURI MUltiRadio Interface
NAF Next Address Flag
NAPE Number of Abstract Processing Elements
NCAO Next Configcode Address Offset
NDO Number of Data Objects
RA Radio Application
RAP Radio Application Package
RAT Radio Access Technology
RCF Radio Control Framework
RE Runtime Environment
RF Radio Frequency
RLA Radio Library Authority
ROS Radio Operating System
RPI Radio Programming Interface
RRFI Reconfigurable Radio Frequency Interface
RVM Radio Virtual Machine
RVM RE RVM Runtime Environment
SD Software Dimension
SFB Standard Functional Block
SWIR SoftWare Intermediate Representation
UDFB User Defined Functional Block
UML Unified Modeling Language
URA Unified Radio Applications
URAI Unified Radio Applications Interface
XML eXtensible Markup Language
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
8 ETSI EN 303 146-4 V1.1.2 (2017-04)
4 Introduction

A reconfigurable MD is capable of running multiple radios simultaneously and of changing the set of radios by loading

new Radio Application Package (RAP). All Radio Applications (RAs) are called Unified Radio Applications (URAs)

when they exhibit a common behaviour from the reconfigurable MD's point of view [i.2]. In order to run multiple

URAs, the reconfigurable MD will include Communication Services Layer (CSL), Radio Control Framework (RCF),

Radio Platform and 4 sets of interfaces for their interconnection.
Figure 4.1: Four sets of interfaces for Reconfigurable MD

Figure 4.1 illustrates the Reconfigurable MD architecture with the 4 sets of interfaces, i.e.:

• MURI for interfacing CSL and RCF [i.2];
• RRFI for interfacing URA and RF Transceiver [i.3];
• URAI for interfacing URA and RCF [i.2];
• RPI for allowing an independent and uniform production of RAs.
The present document defines RPI.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
9 ETSI EN 303 146-4 V1.1.2 (2017-04)
<>
IMURI
<>
IRR F I
R adioComput er
<>
IRPI
<>
IURAI
Figure 4.2: UML class diagram for Radio Computer interfaces

Figure 4.2 illustrates UML class diagram for Radio Computer interfaces. The reconfigurable MD may be seen as a

Radio Computer where individual URAs are engineered as software entities [i.2].
The present document is organized as follows:
• Clause 5 describes the system requirement mapping.
• Clause 6 describes the radio virtual machine specification.
• Clause 7 describes the Configcodes for RVM.
• Clause 8 describes the radio library structure.
• Clause 9 describes the load, linking and initialization.
• Clause 10 describes the compiling for RVM.
• Annex A describes the mapping between Binary and XML.
• Annex B describes SFB Candidates.
• Annex C describes the replacement of selected components of an existing RAT.

While UML is used for defining the information model and protocol related to RPI, other modelling languages could

be used as well.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
10 ETSI EN 303 146-4 V1.1.2 (2017-04)
5 System Requirement Mapping

The Radio Programming Interface and its related components described in the present document shall support the

system requirements shown in table 5.1 referring to clause 6 of ETSI EN 302 969 [1]. This is achieved by introducing

the entities/components/units given in the 1 column of table 5.1.
Table 5.1: Mapping of Radio Programming Interface and its related components to
the system requirements described in ETSI EN 302 969 [1]
Entity/Component/Unit System Requirements [1] Comments

Radio Programming R-FUNC-MDR-04 The requirement shall be as described in clause 6.4.4 of ETSI

Interface EN 302 969 [1].

Radio Virtual Machine R-FUNC-MDR-13 The requirement shall be as described in clause 6.4.13 of

ETSI EN 302 969 [1].
R-FUNC-MDR-14 The requirement shall be as described in clause 6.4.14 of
ETSI EN 302 969 [1].
R-FUNC-MDR-15 The requirement shall be as described in clause 6.4.15 of
ETSI EN 302 969 [1].

Radio Library R-FUNC-FB-06 A library extension shall be supported. The requirement shall

be as described in clause 6.3.6 of ETSI EN 302 969 [1].
6 Radio Virtual Machine specification
6.1 Concept of RVM

As introduced in ETSI EN 303 095 [i.2], the Radio Virtual Machine (RVM) is an Abstract Machine which is capable of

executing Configcodes and it is independent of the hardware. The implementation of a RVM is target Radio Computer

specific and it shall have access to the Back-end Compiler (on the platform itself or externally as described in ETSI

EN 303 095 [i.2], clause 4.4.1) for Just-in-Time (JIT) or Ahead-of-Time (AOT) compilation of Configcodes.

This clause describes the concept of RVM. As mentioned above, the RVM is an abstract machine, which executes a

particular algorithm presented as a data flow chart. In other words, the RVM is the result of replacing all operators and

tokens in the particular data flow chart with Abstract Processing Elements (APEs) and Data Objects (DOs),

respectively. Each APE executes computations marked by the replaced operator identifier. These computations are

taken from the Radio Library.

Figure 6.1 illustrates a conceptual view of RVM processing. This process requires APE, DO and Radio Library, of

which the definitions are as follows:

• APE abstracts a computational resource corresponding to the operation in a particular data flow chart.

• DO abstracts a memory resource. In other words, DO is an abstracted memory for storing data used during the

procedure of Radio processing.

• Reference/Native Radio Library includes normative definitions/native implementation of all Standard

Functional Blocks (SFBs) [i.2] for front-end/back-end compilation. Note that the computations included in the

Radio Library are represented in terms of normative definitions or native implementations of SFBs depending

upon whether the Radio Library is used for front-end or back-end compilation, respectively.

NOTE 1: User Defined Functional Blocks (UDFBs) will be created through combination of SFBs and represented

as a data flow chart to be executed in the RVM. Alternatively, a UDFB is implemented as a stand-alone

module/function which can be mapped:
i) into one APE (i.e. this UDFB can be considered atomic); or

ii) into an eRVM/RVM (i.e. not atomic). UDFBs are not in general included into the Radio Library,

but they are part of the Radio Application Package.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
11 ETSI EN 303 146-4 V1.1.2 (2017-04)

The RVM begins to work immediately after some DOs initialization. All APEs shall execute computations

asynchronously and concurrently. An individual APE shall execute the allocated operator if all the corresponding input

DOs are full. APEs shall access DOs with operations "read", "read-erase", or "write". After reading input data from

DOs, the APE shall execute the allocated operator and, if output DOs are empty, then the APE shall write processed

data. Any full output DO shall block the corresponding writing operation. The RVM shall execute computations until

reaching the state when all APEs become inactive. In this state, there are not enough full DOs, which can activate the

inactive operators. The result of computations are full DOs, which cannot activate the inactive operators.

NOTE 2: An Output DO can become an Input DO for a subsequent operator. Then, this input DO can activate the

subsequent operator.

NOTE 3: The state or operation of a given APE is independent on the state of other APEs. I.e. each APE is atomic.

Figure 6.1: Conceptual Diagram of Radio Virtual Machine Processing
6.2 Elementary RVM (eRVM)

This clause describes the eRVM which shall consist of components of Basic Operations, Program memory, Control

Unit (CU), Abstract Switch Fabric (ASF) as well as APEs and DOs, of which the definitions are as follows. eRVM shall

not contain another eRVM or RVM.
• Basic Operations shall include operators either provided:
i) from Radio Library as SFBs and/or;
ii) from UDFB set as UDFBs, each of which is mapped onto one single APE.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
12 ETSI EN 303 146-4 V1.1.2 (2017-04)

NOTE 1: Since UDFBs might be implemented as a stand-alone module/function which can be mapped into one

APE, in this case, Basic Operations include operators provided by UDFB Set as well as by Radio Library

as SFBs. Note that those UDFBs are atomic.

NOTE 2: For a RVM, the SFB or UDFB can be mapped onto an APE or RVM or eRVM. In the eRVM case, the

mapping to RVM or eRVM is not possible since it is the lowest level of hierarchy as it will be introduced

in clause 6.3.

NOTE 3: From an execution perspective, there is no difference between SFBs and UDFBs.

• Program memory shall be provided with Configcodes which determine the eRVM configuration.

• CU shall generate Initialization and Set-up instructions for APEs, DOs and ASF based on decoding

Configcodes stored in the Program memory.

• ASF shall connect APEs and DOs in accordance with CU signals. One DO can be connected with multiple

APEs. One APE can be connected with multiple DOs. DO from other eRVMs can be connected with ASF

through external data ports.

Figure 6.2 illustrates a block diagram of eRVM. Basic Operations in eRVM consist of operations provided by the Radio

Library and/orUDFB Set.

NOTE 1: A target platform may or may not provide accelerators for some/all SFBs and/or UDFBs.

NOTE 2: Three cases can be considered:
i) RAP includes only SFBs;
ii) RAP includes only UDFBs;
iii) RAP includes SFBs and UDFBs.

NOTE 3: Furthermore, and independent of the upper note, Basic Operations may include:

i) SFBs only;
ii) UDFBs only; or
iii) SFBs and UDFBs.
Figure 6.2: Elementary RVM
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
13 ETSI EN 303 146-4 V1.1.2 (2017-04)
The Data path of an eRVM shall consist of the following blocks:
• DOs;
• APEs;
• ASF.

Each DO shall have a unique number and for this purpose the DOs shall be represented as DO , DO , …, DO , where N

1 2 N
is a sufficiently large number. The structure of DO is shown in figure 6.3.
in it fu ll / e mp t y
st at u s
config DO
se t
exce ption
ds data
Figure 6.3: DO and its interfaces
Each DO shall be configured by a config instruction which consists of:

• init field initializes DO according to the specific initialization procedure (depending on implementation);

• set field is an instruction which sets up the DO attributes such as DO_ID, access time, size, etc. (as shown in

clause 6.2).
DO shall communicate with APEs through ASF interface which consists of:
• data status (ds) signal to indicate whether the DO is full or empty;
• data lines directed to or from DO to read or write data to or from APEs.

Status interface shall provide the status information of DO to CU and consists of:

• full/empty describes whether DO is full of data or empty;
• exception describes the reason of fail when an APE operates with the DO.

Each APE shall have a unique number and shall be represented as APE , APE , …, APE , where M is a sufficiently

1 2 M
large number. The structure of APE is shown in figure 6.4.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
14 ETSI EN 303 146-4 V1.1.2 (2017-04)
init
set
config
APE exce pt ion st atus
ds data ds data
...
1 N
t t
r r
o o
Figure 6.4: APE and its interfaces
APEs shall be configured by the config instruction which consists of:
• init field brings the op code operation from Basic Operations;

• set field sets up APE attributes such as the number of ports, port types, the execu

...

Draft ETSI EN 303 146-4 V1.1.1 (2017-01)
EUROPEAN STANDARD
Reconfigurable Radio Systems (RRS);
Mobile Device (MD) information models and protocols;
Part 4: Radio Programming Interface (RPI)
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
2 Draft ETSI EN 303 146-4 V1.1.1 (2017-01)
Reference
REN/RRS-0214
Keywords
architecture, mobile, radio, SDR, software,
system
ETSI
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Important notice
The present document can be downloaded from:
http://www.etsi.org/standards-search

The present document may be made available in electronic versions and/or in print. The content of any electronic and/or

print versions of the present document shall not be modified without the prior written authorization of ETSI. In case of any

existing or perceived difference in contents between such versions and/or in print, the only prevailing document is the

print of the Portable Document Format (PDF) version kept on a specific network drive within ETSI Secretariat.

Users of the present document should be aware that the document may be subject to revision or change of status.

Information on the current status of this and other ETSI documents is available at

https://portal.etsi.org/TB/ETSIDeliverableStatus.aspx

If you find errors in the present document, please send your comment to one of the following services:

https://portal.etsi.org/People/CommiteeSupportStaff.aspx
Copyright Notification

No part may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying

and microfilm except as authorized by written permission of ETSI.

The content of the PDF version shall not be modified without the written authorization of ETSI.

The copyright and the foregoing restriction extend to reproduction in all media.
© European Telecommunications Standards Institute 2017.
All rights reserved.
TM TM TM

DECT , PLUGTESTS , UMTS and the ETSI logo are Trade Marks of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members.

3GPP and LTE™ are Trade Marks of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members and

of the 3GPP Organizational Partners.

GSM® and the GSM logo are Trade Marks registered and owned by the GSM Association.

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
3 Draft ETSI EN 303 146-4 V1.1.1 (2017-01)
Contents

Intellectual Property Rights ................................................................................................................................ 4

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................. 4

Modal verbs terminology .................................................................................................................................... 4

1 Scope ........................................................................................................................................................ 5

2 References ................................................................................................................................................ 5

2.1 Normative references ......................................................................................................................................... 5

2.2 Informative references ........................................................................................................................................ 5

3 Definitions and abbreviations ................................................................................................................... 6

3.1 Definitions .......................................................................................................................................................... 6

3.2 Abbreviations ..................................................................................................................................................... 7

4 Introduction .............................................................................................................................................. 8

5 System Requirement Mapping ................................................................................................................. 9

6 Radio Virtual Machine specification ...................................................................................................... 10

6.1 Concept of RVM .............................................................................................................................................. 10

6.2 Elementary RVM (eRVM) ............................................................................................................................... 11

6.3 RVM Hierarchy ................................................................................................................................................ 15

6.4 Data types ......................................................................................................................................................... 16

6.4.1 Types and Values ........................................................................................................................................ 16

6.4.2 Run-Time Data ........................................................................................................................................... 16

6.5 Arithmetic......................................................................................................................................................... 17

6.6 Exceptions ........................................................................................................................................................ 17

6.7 Control, Synchronization and Execution .......................................................................................................... 17

6.8 Operations with Memory .................................................................................................................................. 18

6.9 RVM run-time environment ............................................................................................................................. 18

7 Configcodes for RVM ............................................................................................................................ 18

7.0 Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................... 18

7.1 Configcodes generation .................................................................................................................................... 18

7.2 Binary format for Configcodes ......................................................................................................................... 20

7.3 XML schema for Configcodes ......................................................................................................................... 23

8 Radio Library ......................................................................................................................................... 29

8.0 Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................... 29

8.1 Reference Radio Library .................................................................................................................................. 30

8.2 Native Radio Library ........................................................................................................................................ 31

9 Loading, Linking and Initialization ........................................................................................................ 31

10 Compiling for RVM (Front-End Compilation) ...................................................................................... 32

Annex A (informative): Mapping between XML and Binary ............................................................ 33

Annex B (informative): SFB Candidate ............................................................................................... 34

Annex C (informative): Replacement of selected components of an existing RAT .......................... 36

Annex D (informative): Introducing new SFBs ................................................................................... 37

History .............................................................................................................................................................. 38

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
4 Draft ETSI EN 303 146-4 V1.1.1 (2017-01)
Intellectual Property Rights

IPRs essential or potentially essential to the present document may have been declared to ETSI. The information

pertaining to these essential IPRs, if any, is publicly available for ETSI members and non-members, and can be found

in ETSI SR 000 314: "Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs); Essential, or potentially Essential, IPRs notified to ETSI in

respect of ETSI standards", which is available from the ETSI Secretariat. Latest updates are available on the ETSI Web

server (https://ipr.etsi.org/).

Pursuant to the ETSI IPR Policy, no investigation, including IPR searches, has been carried out by ETSI. No guarantee

can be given as to the existence of other IPRs not referenced in ETSI SR 000 314 (or the updates on the ETSI Web

server) which are, or may be, or may become, essential to the present document.
Foreword

This draft European Standard (EN) has been produced by ETSI Technical Committee Reconfigurable Radio

Systems (RRS), and is now submitted for the combined Public Enquiry and Vote phase of the ETSI standards EN

Approval Procedure.

The present document is part 4 of a multi-part deliverable. Full details of the entire series can be found in part 1 [i.3].

Proposed national transposition dates
Date of latest announcement of this EN (doa): 3 months after ETSI publication
Date of latest publication of new National Standard
or endorsement of this EN (dop/e): 6 months after doa

Date of withdrawal of any conflicting National Standard (dow): 6 months after doa

Modal verbs terminology

In the present document "shall", "shall not", "should", "should not", "may", "need not", "will", "will not", "can" and

"cannot" are to be interpreted as described in clause 3.2 of the ETSI Drafting Rules (Verbal forms for the expression of

provisions).

"must" and "must not" are NOT allowed in ETSI deliverables except when used in direct citation.

ETSI
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5 Draft ETSI EN 303 146-4 V1.1.1 (2017-01)
1 Scope

The scope of the present document is to define the Radio Programming Interface (RPI) for mobile device

reconfiguration. The work is based on the Use Cases defined in ETSI TR 102 944 [i.1], on the system requirements

defined in ETSI EN 302 969 [1] and on the radio reconfiguration related architecture for mobile devices defined in

ETSI EN 303 095 [i.2]. Furthermore, the present document complements the mobile device information models and

protocols related to the Multiradio Interface ETSI EN 303 146-1 [i.3], to the Reconfigurable Radio Frequency Interface

ETSI EN 303 146-2 [i.4] and to the Unified Radio Application Interface ETSI EN 303 146-3 [i.5].

2 References
2.1 Normative references

References are either specific (identified by date of publication and/or edition number or version number) or

non-specific. For specific references, only the cited version applies. For non-specific references, the latest version of the

referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

Referenced documents which are not found to be publicly available in the expected location might be found at

https://docbox.etsi.org/Reference/.

NOTE: While any hyperlinks included in this clause were valid at the time of publication, ETSI cannot guarantee

their long term validity.

The following referenced documents are necessary for the application of the present document.

[1] ETSI EN 302 969 (V1.2.1): "Reconfigurable Radio Systems (RRS); Radio Reconfiguration related

Requirements for Mobile Devices".
2.2 Informative references

References are either specific (identified by date of publication and/or edition number or version number) or

non-specific. For specific references, only the cited version applies. For non-specific references, the latest version of the

referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE: While any hyperlinks included in this clause were valid at the time of publication, ETSI cannot guarantee

their long term validity.

The following referenced documents are not necessary for the application of the present document but they assist the

user with regard to a particular subject area.

[i.1] ETSI TR 102 944: "Reconfigurable Radio Systems (RRS); Use Cases for Baseband Interfaces for

Unified Radio Applications of Mobile Device".

[i.2] ETSI EN 303 095 (V1.2.1): "Reconfigurable Radio Systems (RRS); Radio Reconfiguration related

Architecture for Mobile Devices".

[i.3] ETSI EN 303 146-1: "Reconfigurable Radio Systems (RRS); Mobile Device Information Models

and Protocols; Part 1: Multiradio Interface (MURI)".

[i.4] ETSI EN 303 146-2 : "Reconfigurable Radio Systems (RRS); Mobile Device (MD) information

models and protocols; Part 2: Reconfigurable Radio Frequency Interface (RRFI)".

[i.5] ETSI EN 303 146-3: "Reconfigurable Radio Systems (RRS); Mobile Device (MD) information

models and protocols; Part 3: Unified Radio Application Interface (URAI)".
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6 Draft ETSI EN 303 146-4 V1.1.1 (2017-01)
3 Definitions and abbreviations
3.1 Definitions

For the purposes of the present document, the following terms and definitions apply:

Abstract Processing Element (APE): abstracts computational resource that executes any computations downloaded

from Radio Library

NOTE: APE is connected with input and output DOs. APE is reactive. Any computations are started if all input

DOs are filled with real data.

basic operations: operations either provided by the Radio Library and/or UDFB Set to eRVM or by the Radio Library

and/or RVM/eRVM Configcodes to RVM

NOTE: Each Basic Operation is mapped to a corresponding APE in the case of eRVM or mapped to a

corresponding APE or RVM/eRVM in the case of RVM.

data flow chart: reactive data flow computational model consisting of data and operators where data are connected

with operators

NOTE: Operators abstract computations. They are triggered by full data. Results of operator computations are

written in connected output data if they are empty.
Data Object (DO): typeless token abstracting any type of data

NOTE: DO provides a container for storing data. It can be empty if no data in the container or it can be full if

there is data in the container. DO is allocated in the infinite and flat memory. Any RVM has access to this

memory. One or a few APEs from RVM can be connected with DO. DO acknowledges connected APEs

about its status whether it empty or full.

dynamic operation: operation that is performed by allocating the computational resources during run-time for each

APE required executing the given operation

NOTE 1: The resources are deallocated upon completion of the corresponding operation

NOTE 2: Dynamic operation is available only in the case of MDRC-7 defined in ETSI EN 302 969 [1]. In other

words, dynamic operation is needed when RA requires the dynamic resource sharing.

native radio library: library providing platform-specific description of each SFB that represents the target platform

hardware
port configuration: specification of the number of APEs inputs and outputs

radio library authority: authority empowered to decide which components can be registered as new SFBs

NOTE: Any suitable organization can take the role of a Radio Library Authority. The choice of the organization

is beyond the scope of the present document.
reference radio library: library providing normative definition of each SFB

NOTE: There may be multiple such Reference Radio Libraries. For a given RA, a unique Reference Radio

Library is used.

Radio Virtual Machine (RVM): abstract machine that supports reactive and concurrent executions

NOTE: A RVM may be implemented as a controlled execution environment that allows the selection of a trade-

off between flexibility of base band code development and required (re-)certification efforts.

Radio Virtual Machine Runtime Environment (RVM RE): software that allows running Radio Applications that

might be Configcodes or executable codes
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terminal operation: operation that will always be executed without any other interruption

NOTE 1: Furthermore, terminal operation cannot be decomposed into smaller operations.

NOTE 2: "Terminal operations" are equivalent to "atomic operations", but additionally it indicates that a hierarchy

is being used in which the "terminal operations" are on the lowest level of hierarchy and they can be part

of another operation.

Software Intermediate Representation (SWIR): RA representation as data flow chart

NOTE: SWIR file contains information on all terminal objects, their parameters (cost, implement function, size,

etc.) and connections (links, access type, source and destination).
3.2 Abbreviations
For the purposes of the present document, the following abbreviations apply:
AOT Ahead-Of-Time
APE Abstract Processing Element
ASF Abstract Switch Fabric
BE Back End
CC Configcodes Counter
CSL Communication Services Layer
CU Control Unit
DO Data Object
eRVM Elementary RVM
eSFB Elementary SFB
FB Functional Block
FBRI FB Reusability Index
FFT Fast Fourier Transform
HD Hardware Dimension
HW Hardware
ID Identification
IFFT Inverse Fast Fourier Transform
IR Intermediate Representation
JIT Just-In-Time
LCF Last Configuration Flag
MD Mobile Device
MURI MUltiRadio Interface
NAF Next Address Flag
NCAO Next Configcode Address Offset
RA Radio Application
RAP Radio Application Package
RAT Radio Access Technology
RCF Radio Control Framework
RE Runtime Environment
RF Radio Frequency
RLA Radio Library Authority
ROS Radio Operating System
RPI Radio Programming Interface
RRFI Reconfigurable Radio Frequency Interface
RVM RE RVM Runtime Environment
RVM Radio Virtual Machine
SD Software Dimension
SFB Standard Functional Block
SWIR SoftWare Intermediate Representation
UDFB User Defined Functional Block
UML Unified Modeling Language
URA Unified Radio Applications
URAI Unified Radio Applications Interface
XML eXtensible Markup Language
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8 Draft ETSI EN 303 146-4 V1.1.1 (2017-01)
4 Introduction

A reconfigurable MD is capable of running multiple radios simultaneously and of changing the set of radios by loading

new Radio Application Package (RAP). All Radio Applications (RAs) are called Unified Radio Applications (URAs)

when they exhibit a common behaviour from the reconfigurable MD's point of view [i.2]. In order to run multiple

URAs, the reconfigurable MD will include Communication Services Layer (CSL), Radio Control Framework (RCF),

Radio Platform and 4 sets of interfaces for their interconnection.
Figure 4.1: Four sets of interfaces for Reconfigurable MD

Figure 4.1 illustrates the Reconfigurable MD architecture with the 4 sets of interfaces, i.e.:

• MURI for interfacing CSL and RCF [i.2];
• RRFI for interfacing URA and RF Transceiver [i.3];
• URAI for interfacing URA and RCF [i.2];
• RPI for allowing an independent and uniform production of RAs.
The present document defines RPI.
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9 Draft ETSI EN 303 146-4 V1.1.1 (2017-01)
<>
IMUR I
<>
IRR F I
R adioComput er
<>
IRPI
<>
IUR AI
Figure 4.2: UML class diagram for Radio Computer interfaces

Figure 4.2 illustrates UML class diagram for Radio Computer interfaces. The reconfigurable MD may be seen as a

Radio Computer where individual URAs are engineered as software entities [i.2].
The present document is organized as follows:
• Clause 5 describes the system requirement mapping;
• Clause 6 describes the radio virtual machine specification;
• Clause 7 describes the Configcodes for RVM;
• Clause 8 describes the radio library structure;
• Clause 9 describes the load, linking and initialization;
• Clause 10 describes the compiling for RVM;
• Annex A describes the mapping between Binary and XML;
• Annex B describes SFB Candidates;
• Annex C describes the replacement of selected components of an existing RAT.

While UML is used for defining the information model and protocol related to RPI, other modelling languages could

be used as well.
5 System Requirement Mapping

The Radio Programming Interface and its related components described in the present document shall support the

system requirements shown in table 5.1 referring to clause 6 of ETSI EN 302 969 [1]. This is achieved by introducing

the entities/components/units given in the 1 column of table 5.1.
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10 Draft ETSI EN 303 146-4 V1.1.1 (2017-01)
Table 5.1: Mapping of Radio Programming Interface and its related components to
the system requirements described in ETSI EN 302 969 [1]
Entity/Component/Unit System Requirements [1] Comments

Radio Programming Interface R-FUNC-MDR-04 The requirement shall be as described in clause 6.4.4 of ETSI

EN 302 969 [1].

Radio Virtual Machine R-FUNC-MDR-13 The requirement shall be as described in clause 6.4.13 of

ETSI EN 302 969 [1].
R-FUNC-MDR-14 The requirement shall be as described in clause 6.4.14 of
ETSI EN 302 969 [1].
R-FUNC-MDR-15 The requirement shall be as described in clause 6.4.15 of
ETSI EN 302 969 [1].

Radio Library R-FUNC-FB-06 A library extension shall be supported. The requirement shall

be as described in clause 6.3.6 of ETSI EN 302 969 [1].
6 Radio Virtual Machine specification
6.1 Concept of RVM

As introduced in ETSI EN 303 095 [i.2], the Radio Virtual Machine (RVM) is an Abstract Machine which is capable of

executing Configcodes and it is independent of the hardware. The implementation of a RVM is target Radio Computer

specific and it shall have access to the Back-end Compiler (on the platform itself or externally as described in ETSI

EN 303 095 [i.2], clause 4.4.1) for Just-in-Time (JIT) or Ahead-of-Time (AOT) compilation of Configcodes.

This clause describes the concept of RVM. As mentioned above, the RVM is an abstract machine, which executes a

particular algorithm presented as a data flow chart. In other words, the RVM is the result of replacing all operators and

tokens in the particular data flow chart with Abstract Processing Elements (APEs) and Data Objects (DOs),

respectively. Each APE executes computations marked by the replaced operator identifier. These computations are

taken from the Radio Library.

Figure 6.1 illustrates a conceptual view of RVM processing. This process requires APE, DO and Radio Library, of

which the definitions are as follows:

• APE abstracts a computational resource corresponding to the operation in a particular data flow chart.

• DO abstracts a memory resource. In other words, DO is an abstracted memory for storing data used during the

procedure of Radio processing.

• Reference/Native Radio Library includes normative definitions/native implementation of all Standard

Functional Blocks (SFBs) [i.2] for front-end/back-end compilation. Note that the computations included in the

Radio Library are represented in terms of normative definitions or native implementations of SFBs depending

upon whether the Radio Library is used for front-end or back-end compilation, respectively.

NOTE 1: User Defined Functional Blocks (UDFBs) will be created through combination of SFBs and represented

as a data flow chart to be executed in the RVM. Alternatively, a UDFB is implemented as a stand-alone

module/function which can be mapped:
i) into one APE (i.e. this UDFB can be considered atomic); or

ii) into an eRVM/RVM (i.e. not atomic). UDFBs are not in general included into the Radio Library,

but they are part of the Radio Application Package.

The RVM begins to work immediately after some DOs initialization. All APEs shall execute computations

asynchronously and concurrently. An individual APE shall execute the allocated operator if all the corresponding input

DOs are full. APEs shall access DOs with operations "read" , "read-erase", or "write". After reading input data from

DOs, the APE shall execute the allocated operator and, if output DOs are empty, then the APE shall write processed

data. Any full output DO shall block the corresponding writing operation. The RVM shall execute computations until

reaching the state when all APEs become inactive. In this state, there are not enough full DOs, which can activate the

inactive operators. The result of computations are full DOs, which cannot activate the inactive operators.

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11 Draft ETSI EN 303 146-4 V1.1.1 (2017-01)

NOTE 2: An Output DO can become an Input DO for a subsequent operator. Then, this input DO can activate the

subsequent operator.

NOTE 3: The state or operation of a given APE is independent on the state of other APEs. I.e. each APE is atomic.

Figure 6.1: Conceptual Diagram of Radio Virtual Machine Processing
6.2 Elementary RVM (eRVM)

This clause describes the eRVM which shall consist of components of Basic Operations, Program memory, Control

Unit (CU), Abstract Switch Fabric (ASF) as well as APEs and DOs, of which the definitions are as follows. eRVM shall

not contain another eRVM or RVM.
• Basic Operations shall include operators either provided:
i) from Radio Library as SFBs and/or;
ii) from UDFB set as UDFBs, each of which is mapped onto one single APE.

NOTE 1: Since UDFBs might be implemented as a stand-alone module/function which can be mapped into one

APE, in this case, Basic Operations include operators provided by UDFB Set as well as by Radio Library

as SFBs. Note that those UDFBs are atomic.

NOTE 2: For a RVM, the SFB or UDFB can be mapped onto an APE or RVM or eRVM. In the eRVM case, the

mapping to RVM or eRVM is not possible since it is the lowest level of hierarchy as it will be introduced

in clause 6.3.

NOTE 3: From an execution perspective, there is no difference between SFBs and UDFBs.

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12 Draft ETSI EN 303 146-4 V1.1.1 (2017-01)

• Program memory shall be provided with Configcodes which determine the eRVM configuration.

• CU shall generate Initialization and Set-up instructions for APEs, DOs and ASF based on decoding

Configcodes stored in the Program memory.

• ASF shall connect APEs and DOs in accordance with CU signals. One DO can be connected with multiple

APEs. One APE can be connected with multiple DOs. DO from other eRVMs can be connected with ASF

through external data ports.

Figure 6.2 illustrates a block diagram of eRVM. Basic Operations in eRVM consist of operations provided by the Radio

Library and/orUDFB Set.

NOTE 1: A target platform may or may not provide accelerators for some/all SFBs and/or UDFBs.

NOTE 2: Three cases can be considered:
i) RAP includes only SFBs;
ii) RAP includes only UDFBs;
iii) RAP includes SFBs and UDFBs.

NOTE 3: Furthermore, and independent of the upper note, Basic Operations may include:

i) SFBs only;
ii) UDFBs only; or
iii) SFBs and UDFBs.
Figure 6.2: Elementary RVM
The Data path of an eRVM shall consist of the following blocks:
• DOs;
• APEs;
• ASF.

Each DO shall have a unique number and for this purpose the DOs shall be represented as DO , DO , … , DO , where

1 2 N
N is a sufficiently large number. The structure of DO is shown in figure 6.3.
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13 Draft ETSI EN 303 146-4 V1.1.1 (2017-01)
in it fu ll / e mp t y
st at u s
config DO
se t
exce ption
ds data
Figure 6.3: DO and its interfaces
Each DO shall be configured by a config instruction which consists of:

• init field initializes DO according to the specific initialization procedure (depending on implementation);

• set field is an instruction which sets up the DO attributes such as DO_ID, access time, size, etc. (as shown in

clause 6.2).
DO shall communicate with APEs through ASF interface which consists of:
• data status (ds) signal to indicate whether the DO is full or empty;
• data lines directed to or from DO to read or write data to or from APEs.

Status interface shall provide the status information of DO to CU and consists of:

• full/empty describes whether DO is full of data or empty;
• exception describes the reason of fail when an APE operates with the DO.

Each APE shall have a unique number and shall be represented as APE1, APE2, … , APEM, where M is a sufficiently

large number. The structure of APE is shown in figure 6.4.
init
set
config
APE
exce pt ion st atus
ds data ds data
...
1 N
o o
Figure 6.4: APE and its interfaces
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14 Draft ETSI EN 303 146-4 V1.1.1 (2017-01)
APEs shall be configured by the config instruction which consists of:
• init field brings the op code operation from B
...

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