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This document specifies a method for the determination of the manual and automated closed cup flash
point of combustible liquids having flash points between –30,0 °C to 75,0 °C. However, the precision
given for this method is only valid for flash points in the range −8,5 °C to 75,0 °C.
This document is not applicable to water-borne paints.
NOTE 1 Water borne paints can be tested using ISO 3679[1].
NOTE 2 See 9.1 for the importance of this test in avoiding loss of volatile materials.
NOTE 3 Liquids containing halogenated compounds can give anomalous results.
NOTE 4 The thermometer specified for the manual apparatus limits the upper test temperature to 70,0 °C.
NOTE 5 See 13.1 for more specific information related to precision.

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This document specifies a procedure, at temperatures up to 100 °C, to determine whether a liquid product, that would be classified as “flammable” by virtue of its flash point, sustains combustion at the temperature(s) specified e.g. in regulations. NOTE      Many national and international regulations classify liquids as presenting a flammable hazard based on their flash point, as determined by a recognized method. Some of these regulations allow a derogation if the substance cannot “sustain combustion” at some specified temperature(s). The procedure is applicable to paints (including water-borne paints), varnishes, paint binders, solvents, petroleum or related products and adhesives, that have a flash point. It is not applicable to painted surfaces in respect of assessing their potential fire hazards. This test method is applicable, in addition to test methods for flash point, for assessing the fire hazard of a product.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the manual and automated closed cup flash point of combustible liquids having flash points between –30,0 °C to 75,0 °C. However, the precision given for this method is only valid for flash points in the range −8,5 °C to 75,0 °C. This document is not applicable to water-borne paints. NOTE 1  Water borne paints can be tested using ISO 3679[1]. NOTE 2  See 9.1 for the importance of this test in avoiding loss of volatile materials. NOTE 3  Liquids containing halogenated compounds can give anomalous results. NOTE 4  The thermometer specified for the manual apparatus limits the upper test temperature to 70,0 °C. NOTE 5  See 13.1 for more specific information related to precision.

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This European Standard specifies a method for the determination of the boiling range distribution of petroleum products by capillary gas chromatography using flame ionisation detection. The standard is applicable to materials having a vapour pressure low enough to permit sampling at ambient temperature, and which have a boiling range of at least 100 °C. The standard is applicable to materials with initial boiling points (IBP) above 100 °C and final boiling points (FBP) above 750 °C, for example, heavy distillate fuels and residuals. The method is not applicable to bituminous samples.
The test method is not applicable for the analysis of petroleum or petroleum products containing low molecular weight components (for example naphthas, reformates, gasolines, diesel). Components containing hetero atoms (for example alcohols, ethers, acids, or esters) or residue are not to be analyzed by this test method.
NOTE   For the purposes of this European Standard, the terms "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent respectively the mass fraction and the volume fraction.
WARNING - The use of this European Standard may involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This European Standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

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This European Standard specifies a method for the determination of the boiling range distribution of petroleum products by capillary gas chromatography using flame ionisation detection. The standard is applicable to materials having a vapour pressure low enough to permit sampling at ambient temperature and a boiling range of at least 100 °C. The standard is applicable to distillates with initial boiling points (IBP) above 100 °C and final boiling points (FBP) below 750 °C, for example, middle distillates and lubricating base stocks.
The test method is not applicable for the analysis of petroleum or petroleum products containing low molecular weight components (for example naphthas, reformates, gasolines, diesel). Components containing hetero atoms (for example alcohols, ethers, acids, or esters) or residue are not to be analyzed by this test method.
NOTE   For the purposes of this European Standard, the terms “% (m/m)” and “% (V/V)” are used to represent respectively the mass fraction and the volume fraction.
WARNING — The use of this European Standard may involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This European Standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

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This document specifies Procedure A, using manual glass viscometers, and Procedure B, using glass
capillary viscometers in an automated assembly, for the determination of the kinematic viscosity, ν,
of liquid petroleum products, both transparent and opaque, by measuring the time for a volume of
liquid to flow under gravity through a calibrated glass capillary viscometer. The dynamic viscosity, η,
is obtained by multiplying the measured kinematic viscosity by the density, ρ, of the liquid. The range
of kinematic viscosities covered in this test method is from 0,2 mm2/s to 300 000 mm2/s over the
temperature range –20 °C to +150 °C.
NOTE The result obtained from this document is dependent upon the behaviour of the sample and is intended
for application to liquids for which primarily the shear stress and shear rates are proportional (Newtonian flow
behaviour). If, however, the viscosity varies significantly with the rate of shear, different results can be obtained
from viscometers of different capillary diameters. The procedure and precision values for residual fuel oils,
which under some conditions exhibit non-Newtonian behaviour, have been included.

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This document specifies Procedure A, using manual glass viscometers, and Procedure B, using glass capillary viscometers in an automated assembly, for the determination of the kinematic viscosity, ν, of liquid petroleum products, both transparent and opaque, by measuring the time for a volume of liquid to flow under gravity through a calibrated glass capillary viscometer. The dynamic viscosity, η, is obtained by multiplying the measured kinematic viscosity by the density, ρ, of the liquid. The range of kinematic viscosities covered in this test method is from 0,2 mm2/s to 300 000 mm2/s over the temperature range ?20 °C to +150 °C. NOTE The result obtained from this document is dependent upon the behaviour of the sample and is intended for application to liquids for which primarily the shear stress and shear rates are proportional (Newtonian flow behaviour). If, however, the viscosity varies significantly with the rate of shear, different results can be obtained from viscometers of different capillary diameters. The procedure and precision values for residual fuel oils, which under some conditions exhibit non-Newtonian behaviour, have been included.

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This document specifies a procedure for the determination of kinematic viscosity (ν) at 40 °C in the range from 2 mm2/s to 6 mm2/s by calculation from dynamic viscosity (η) and density (ρ) of middle distillate fuels, fatty acid methyl ester fuels (FAME) and mixtures of these using the Stabinger type viscometer. The result obtained using the procedure described in this document depends on the rheological behaviour of the sample. This document is predominantly applicable to liquids whose shear stress and shear rate are proportional (Newtonian flow behaviour). However, if the viscosity changes significantly with the shear rate, comparison with other measuring methods is only permissible at similar shear rates.

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This document establishes an overview of test methods in the field to determine flash point and combustibility of petroleum and related products. It presents advice on application and specification development. This document is not intended to be a comprehensive manual on flash point and combustibility tests, and the interpretation of test results, however it covers the key aspects on these subjects.

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ISO  14935 specifies a method for the assessment of the persistence of a flame applied to the edge of a wick of non-flammable material immersed in fire-resistant fluid.This test does not determine the behaviour of a spray of fire-resistant fluid.

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This document specifies a method for the assessment of the persistence of a flame applied to the edge of a wick of non-flammable material immersed in fire-resistant fluid. This test does not determine the behaviour of a spray of fire-resistant fluid. NOTE Such test methods are specified in ISO 15029-1 and ISO 15029-2. This document specifies one of four basic tests for determining flammability. This document does not apply to certain liquids such as HFAE and HFAS liquids.

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This International Standard specifies the methodology for the regular monitoring of the test method
precision achieved versus precision published in the standard test method using data from Proficiency
Testing Programs (PTP) supported by the regular users of standard test methods.
The procedures in this International Standard are designed specifically for PTPs conducted on standard
test methods for petroleum and petroleum related products, which are presumed to be homogeneous.
The procedures in this document are designed specifically for standard test methods with published
reproducibility derived from ISO 4259-1 or equivalent (such as ASTM D6300[1]) for petroleum and
petroleum related products, which are normally considered as homogeneous.
In particular, this document specifies the methodology for the statistical comparison of standard
deviation under reproducibility conditions achieved in PTP versus that published.
Purpose of this comparison is to ascertain if the published reproducibility precision is representative of
that achievable by the regular participants in the PTP.

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This document specifies the methodology for the regular monitoring of the test method precision achieved versus the precision published in the standard test method using data from proficiency testing schemes (PTSs) supported by the regular users of standard test methods.
The procedures in this document are designed specifically for proficiency testing (PT) conducted on standard test methods, having a published reproducibility, for petroleum and petroleum-related products, which are presumed to be homogeneous, and where the data distribution is approximately normal. In addition, it is applicable to properties of interest that are (known to be) stable over time and transport.
This document specifies the methodology for the statistical comparison of standard deviation under reproducibility conditions achieved in PT programmes versus that published.
The purpose of this comparison is to find out if the published reproducibility precision is representative of that achievable by the regular participants in the PT programmes.
This document also provides guidance on how to use a PT z-score to monitor an individual participant's performance over time (see Annex B).

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This document specifies the methodology for the regular monitoring of the test method precision achieved versus the precision published in the standard test method using data from proficiency testing schemes (PTSs) supported by the regular users of standard test methods. The procedures in this document are designed specifically for proficiency testing (PT) conducted on standard test methods, having a published reproducibility, for petroleum and petroleum-related products, which are presumed to be homogeneous, and where the data distribution is approximately normal. In addition, it is applicable to properties of interest that are (known to be) stable over time and transport. This document specifies the methodology for the statistical comparison of standard deviation under reproducibility conditions achieved in PT programmes versus that published. The purpose of this comparison is to find out if the published reproducibility precision is representative of that achievable by the regular participants in the PT programmes. This document also provides guidance on how to use a PT z-score to monitor an individual participant's performance over time (see Annex B).

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This document specifies the methodology for the application of precision estimates of a test method
derived from ISO 4259-1. In particular, it defines the procedures for setting the property specification
limits based upon test method precision where the property is determined using a specific test method,
and in determining the specification conformance status when there are conflicting results between
supplier and receiver. Other applications of this test method precision are briefly described in principle
without the associated procedures.
The procedures in this document have been designed specifically for petroleum and petroleum-related
products, which are normally homogeneous. However, the procedures described in this document can
also be applied to other types of homogeneous products. Careful investigations are necessary before
applying this document to products for which the assumption of homogeneity can be questioned.

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This document specifies the methodology for the design of an Interlaboratory Study (ILS) and
calculation of precision estimates of a test method specified by the study. In particular, it defines the
relevant statistical terms (Clause 3), the procedures to be adopted in the planning of ILS to determine
the precision of a test method (Clause 4), and the method of calculating the precision from the results of
such a study (Clauses 5 and 6).
The procedures in this document have been designed specifically for petroleum and petroleum related
products, which are normally considered as homogeneous. However, the procedures described in this
document can also be applied to other types of homogeneous products. Careful investigations are
necessary before applying this document to products for which the assumption of homogeneity can be
questioned.

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This document specifies the methodology for the design of an Interlaboratory Study (ILS) and
calculation of precision estimates of a test method specified by the study. In particular, it defines the
relevant statistical terms (Clause 3), the procedures to be adopted in the planning of ILS to determine
the precision of a test method (Clause 4), and the method of calculating the precision from the results of
such a study (Clauses 5 and 6).
The procedures in this document have been designed specifically for petroleum and petroleum related
products, which are normally considered as homogeneous. However, the procedures described in this
document can also be applied to other types of homogeneous products. Careful investigations are
necessary before applying this document to products for which the assumption of homogeneity can be
questioned.

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This document specifies the methodology for the application of precision estimates of a test method
derived from ISO 4259-1. In particular, it defines the procedures for setting the property specification
limits based upon test method precision where the property is determined using a specific test method,
and in determining the specification conformance status when there are conflicting results between
supplier and receiver. Other applications of this test method precision are briefly described in principle
without the associated procedures.
The procedures in this document have been designed specifically for petroleum and petroleum-related
products, which are normally homogeneous. However, the procedures described in this document can
also be applied to other types of homogeneous products. Careful investigations are necessary before
applying this document to products for which the assumption of homogeneity can be questioned.

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This document specifies a wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) test method for the determination of the sulfur content of liquid, homogeneous automotive fuels from 5 mg/kg to 500 mg/kg, which have a maximum oxygen content of 3,7 % (m/m). This product range covers:
— diesel fuels containing up to about 30 % (V/V) fatty acid methyl esters (FAME),
— motor gasolines containing up to about 10 % (V/V) ethanol,
— synthetic fuels such as hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) and gas to liquid (GTL) having sulfur contents in the range of 5 mg/kg to 45 mg/kg.
Products with higher oxygen content show significant matrix effects, e.g. pure FAME used as biodiesel, nevertheless, pure FAME can be analysed when the corresponding procedures are followed (see 5.3 and 8.1).
Other products can be analysed with this test method, though precision data for products other than those mentioned have not been established for this document.
NOTE 1 Sulfur contents higher than 500 mg/kg can be determined after sample dilution, however, the precision was not established for diluted samples.
NOTE 2 For the purposes of this document, "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent the mass fraction, w, and the volume fraction, φ, of a material respectively.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the boiling range distribution of petroleum products. The method is applicable to petroleum products and fractions with a final boiling point of 538 °C or lower at atmospheric pressure as determined by this document. This document does not apply to gasoline samples or gasoline components. The method is limited to products having a boiling range greater than 55 °C and having a vapour pressure sufficiently low to permit sampling at ambient temperature. The document describes two procedures. a) Procedure A allows a larger selection of columns and analysis conditions, such as packed and capillary columns as well as a thermal conductivity detector in addition to the flame ionization detector. Analysis times range from 14 min to 60 min. b) Procedure B is restricted to only three capillary columns and requires no sample dilution. The analysis time is reduced to about 8 min. Both procedures have been successfully applied to samples containing fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) up to 20 % (volume fraction).

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the boiling range distribution of petroleum products. The method is applicable to petroleum products and fractions with a final boiling point of 538 °C or lower at atmospheric pressure as determined by this document. This document does not apply to gasoline samples or gasoline components. The method is limited to products having a boiling range greater than 55 °C and having a vapour pressure sufficiently low to permit sampling at ambient temperature.
The document describes two procedures.
a) Procedure A allows a larger selection of columns and analysis conditions, such as packed and capillary columns as well as a thermal conductivity detector in addition to the flame ionization detector. Analysis times range from 14 min to 60 min.
b) Procedure B is restricted to only three capillary columns and requires no sample dilution. The analysis time is reduced to about 8 min.
Both procedures have been successfully applied to samples containing fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) up to 20 % (volume fraction).
NOTE For the purposes of this document, the terms "% (mass fraction)" and "% (volume fraction)" are used to represent the mass fraction (µ), the volume fraction (φ) of a material.

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This document specifies a wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) test method for the determination of the sulfur content of liquid, homogeneous automotive fuels from 5 mg/kg to 500 mg/kg, which have a maximum oxygen content of 3,7 % (m/m). This product range covers: — diesel fuels containing up to about 30 % (V/V) fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), — motor gasolines containing up to about 10 % (V/V) ethanol, — synthetic fuels such as hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) and gas to liquid (GTL) having sulfur contents in the range of 5 mg/kg to 45 mg/kg. Products with higher oxygen content show significant matrix effects, e.g. pure FAME used as biodiesel, nevertheless, pure FAME can be analysed when the corresponding procedures are followed (see 5.3 and 8.1). Other products can be analysed with this test method, though precision data for products other than those mentioned have not been established for this document. NOTE 1 Sulfur contents higher than 500 mg/kg can be determined after sample dilution, however, the precision was not established for diluted samples. NOTE 2 For the purposes of this document, "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent the mass fraction, w, and the volume fraction, φ, of a material respectively.

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This document specifies a method to determine the turbidity point of petroleum products based on distillates from crude oil. This document also specifies how to convert the turbidity point to an aniline point equivalent. This document describes a procedure using automated or automatic apparatus suitable for transparent samples with an initial boiling point above ambient temperature.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the boiling range distribution of petroleum products. The method is applicable to petroleum products and fractions with a final boiling point of 538 °C or lower at atmospheric pressure as determined by this document. This document does not apply to gasoline samples or gasoline components. The method is limited to products having a boiling range greater than 55 °C and having a vapour pressure sufficiently low to permit sampling at ambient temperature. The document describes two procedures. a) Procedure A allows a larger selection of columns and analysis conditions, such as packed and capillary columns as well as a thermal conductivity detector in addition to the flame ionization detector. Analysis times range from 14 min to 60 min. b) Procedure B is restricted to only three capillary columns and requires no sample dilution. The analysis time is reduced to about 8 min. Both procedures have been successfully applied to samples containing fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) up to 20 % (volume fraction). NOTE For the purposes of this document, the terms "% (mass fraction)" and "% (volume fraction)" are used to represent the mass fraction (µ), the volume fraction (φ) of a material.

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This method determines cloud point using a step-wise cooling technique that is executed through automated equipment types with optical detection mode. This method is an alternative to the normal, manual technique as described in EN 23015. It is a generic method that covers existing automated equipment.
The determination method covers distillate fuels (automotive and marine), paraffinic diesel fuel, fatty acid methyl ester and blends thereof at 7% up to 30% in volume.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the cloud point of petroleum products which
are transparent in layers 40 mm in thickness and have a cloud point below 49 °C, amongst which are
diesel fuels with up to 30 % (V/V) of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME)[2], paraffinic diesel fuels with up to
7 % (V/V) FAME[3], 100 % FAME[5] and lubricants.
NOTE For the purposes of this document, the term “% (V/V)” is used to represent the volume fraction (φ) of
a material.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the pour point of petroleum products. A separate procedure suitable for the determination of the lower pour point of fuel oils, heavy lubricant base stock, and products containing residual fuel components is also described.

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This European Standard specifies a test method for the determination of the content of mono-aromatic, di-aromatic and tri+-aromatic hydrocarbons in diesel fuels that may contain fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) up to 30 % (V/V), in paraffinic diesel fuels that may contain fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) up to 7 % (V/V) and petroleum distillates in the boiling range from 150 °C to 400 °C. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons content is calculated from the sum of di-aromatic and tri+-aromatic hydrocarbons and the total content of aromatic compounds is calculated from the sum of the individual aromatic hydrocarbon types.
Compounds containing sulfur, nitrogen and oxygen can interfere in the determination; mono-alkenes do not interfere, but conjugated di-alkenes and poly-alkenes, if present, may do so.
The precision statement of the procedure A, for regular distillates, has been established for diesel fuels with and without FAME blending components, with a mono-aromatic content in the range from 6 % (m/m) to 30 % (m/m), a di-aromatic content from 1 % (m/m) to 10 % (m/m), a tri+-aromatic content from 0 % (m/m) to 2 % (m/m), a polycyclic aromatic content from 1 % (m/m) to 12 % (m/m), and a total aromatic content from 7 % (m/m) to 42 % (m/m). The precision statement of the procedure B, for non-aromatic distillates, has been established for diesel fuels, with and without FAME blending components, with a mono-aromatic content in the range from 0,2 % (m/m) to 1,8 % (m/m), di-aromatic and polycyclic aromatic contents around 0,1 % (m/m), and a total aromatic content from 0,2 % (m/m) to 2 % (m/m).

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This document specifies a laboratory method for the determination of the distillation characteristics
of light and middle distillates derived from petroleum and related products of synthetic or biological
origin with initial boiling points above 0 °C and end-points below approximately 400 °C, utilizing either
manual or automated equipment. Light distillates are typically automotive engine petrol, automotive
engine ethanol fuel blends with up to 85 % (V/V) ethanol, and aviation petrol. Middle distillates are
typically aviation turbine fuel, kerosene, diesel, diesel with up to 30 % (V/V) FAME, burner fuel, and
marine fuels that have no appreciable quantities of residua.
NOTE For the purposes of this document, the term “% (V/V)” is used to represent the volume fraction of a
material.
The distillation (volatility) characteristics of hydrocarbons and related products of synthetic or
biological origin have an important effect on their safety and performance, especially in the case of
fuels and solvents. The boiling range gives important information on composition and behaviour during
storage and use, and the rate of evaporation is an important factor in the application of many solvents.
Limiting values to specified distillation characteristics are applied to most distillate petroleum product
and liquid fuel specifications in order to control end-use performance and to regulate the formation
of vapours which may form explosive mixtures with air, or otherwise escape into the atmosphere as
emissions (VOC).

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the cloud point of petroleum products which are transparent in layers 40 mm in thickness and have a cloud point below 49 °C, amongst which are diesel fuels with up to 30 % (V/V) of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME)[2], paraffinic diesel fuels with up to 7 % (V/V) FAME[3], 100 % FAME[5] and lubricants.
NOTE For the purposes of this document, the term "% (V/V)" is used to represent the volume fraction (φ) of a material.

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This document specifies a method to determine cloud point using a step-wise cooling technique that is executed by means of automated equipment types with optical detection mode.
The method is applicable to distillate fuels, fatty-acid methyl esters (FAME) and paraffinic diesel fuels, including blends thereof, as well as those containing flow-improvers or other additives, intended for use in diesel engines and domestic heating installations.
The method can be applied to other products such as vegetable oils or lubricants, but these kinds of products have not been evaluated during the interlaboratory study (ILS), no precision data are available.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the pour point of petroleum products. A separate procedure suitable for the determination of the lower pour point of fuel oils, heavy lubricant base stock, and products containing residual fuel components is also described.
The procedure described in this document is not suitable for crude oils.
NOTE There is equipment available that uses an automated procedure similar to the one described in this document. However, the precision thereof has not been established[1].
[1] ISO develops an automated test method standard.

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This document specifies a test method for the determination of the content of mono-aromatic, di-aromatic and tri+-aromatic hydrocarbons in diesel fuels, paraffinic diesel fuels and petroleum distillates.
This document defines two procedures, A and B.
Procedure A is applicable to diesel fuels that may contain fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) up to 30 % (V/V) (as in [1], [2] or [3]) and petroleum distillates in the boiling range from 150 °C to 400 °C (as in [4].
Procedure B is applicable to paraffinic diesel fuels with up to 7 % (V/V) FAME. This procedure does not contain a dilution of the sample in order to determine the low levels of aromatic components in these fuels.
The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons content is calculated from the sum of di-aromatic and tri+-aromatic hydrocarbons and the total content of aromatic compounds is calculated from the sum of the individual aromatic hydrocarbon types.
Compounds containing sulfur, nitrogen and oxygen can interfere in the determination; mono-alkenes do not interfere, but conjugated di-alkenes and poly-alkenes, if present, can do so.
NOTE 1   For the purpose of this European Standard, the terms "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent the mass fraction, µ, and the volume fraction, φ, of a material respectively.
NOTE 2   By convention, the aromatic hydrocarbon types are defined on the basis of their elution characteristics from the specified liquid chromatography column relative to model aromatic compounds. Their quantification is performed using an external calibration with a single aromatic compound for each of them, which may or may not be representative of the aromatics present in the sample. Alternative techniques and test methods may classify and quantify individual aromatic hydrocarbon types differently.
NOTE 3   Backflush is part of laboratory-internal maintenance.
WARNING - The use of this standard can involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of users of this standard to take appropriate measures to ensure the safety and health of personnel prior to application of the standard, and fulfil statutory and regulatory requirements for this purpose.

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This document specifies a laboratory method for the determination of the distillation characteristics of light and middle distillates derived from petroleum and related products of synthetic or biological origin with initial boiling points above 0 °C and end-points below approximately 400 °C, utilizing either manual or automated equipment. Light distillates are typically automotive engine petrol, automotive engine ethanol fuel blends with up to 85 % (V/V) ethanol, and aviation petrol. Middle distillates are typically aviation turbine fuel, kerosene, diesel, diesel with up to 30 % (V/V) FAME, burner fuel, and marine fuels that have no appreciable quantities of residua.
NOTE For the purposes of this document, the term "% (V/V)" is used to represent the volume fraction of a material.
The distillation (volatility) characteristics of hydrocarbons and related products of synthetic or biological origin have an important effect on their safety and performance, especially in the case of fuels and solvents. The boiling range gives important information on composition and behaviour during storage and use, and the rate of evaporation is an important factor in the application of many solvents. Limiting values to specified distillation characteristics are applied to most distillate petroleum product and liquid fuel specifications in order to control end-use performance and to regulate the formation of vapours which may form explosive mixtures with air, or otherwise escape into the atmosphere as emissions (VOC).

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the pour point of petroleum products. A separate procedure suitable for the determination of the lower pour point of fuel oils, heavy lubricant base stock, and products containing residual fuel components is also described. The procedure described in this document is not suitable for crude oils. NOTE There is equipment available that uses an automated procedure similar to the one described in this document. However, the precision thereof has not been established[1]. [1] ISO develops an automated test method standard.

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This document specifies a method for the determination of the cloud point of petroleum products which are transparent in layers 40 mm in thickness and have a cloud point below 49 °C, amongst which are diesel fuels with up to 30 % (V/V) of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME)[2], paraffinic diesel fuels with up to 7 % (V/V) FAME[3], 100 % FAME[5] and lubricants. NOTE For the purposes of this document, the term "% (V/V)" is used to represent the volume fraction (φ) of a material.

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This document specifies a method to determine cloud point using a step-wise cooling technique that is executed by means of automated equipment types with optical detection mode. The method is applicable to distillate fuels, fatty-acid methyl esters (FAME) and paraffinic diesel fuels, including blends thereof, as well as those containing flow-improvers or other additives, intended for use in diesel engines and domestic heating installations. The method can be applied to other products such as vegetable oils or lubricants, but these kinds of products have not been evaluated during the interlaboratory study (ILS), no precision data are available.

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This document specifies a laboratory method for the determination of the distillation characteristics of light and middle distillates derived from petroleum and related products of synthetic or biological origin with initial boiling points above 0 °C and end-points below approximately 400 °C, utilizing either manual or automated equipment. Light distillates are typically automotive engine petrol, automotive engine ethanol fuel blends with up to 85 % (V/V) ethanol, and aviation petrol. Middle distillates are typically aviation turbine fuel, kerosene, diesel, diesel with up to 30 % (V/V) FAME, burner fuel, and marine fuels that have no appreciable quantities of residua. NOTE For the purposes of this document, the term "% (V/V)" is used to represent the volume fraction of a material. The distillation (volatility) characteristics of hydrocarbons and related products of synthetic or biological origin have an important effect on their safety and performance, especially in the case of fuels and solvents. The boiling range gives important information on composition and behaviour during storage and use, and the rate of evaporation is an important factor in the application of many solvents. Limiting values to specified distillation characteristics are applied to most distillate petroleum product and liquid fuel specifications in order to control end-use performance and to regulate the formation of vapours which may form explosive mixtures with air, or otherwise escape into the atmosphere as emissions (VOC).

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This document describes the evaluation to determine the equivalency of test methods used on a global scale in quality specifications of petroleum products, lubricants, and fuels. This document focuses on whether the standardized test methods for determining density are to be considered technically equivalent. This is to guide laboratories that use one standard test method and wish to know if they can also certify product towards the others

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ISO 15029-2:2018 specifies a method by which the fire hazards of pressurised sprays of fire-resistant fluids can be compared. Two sizes of propane flame are used to ignite and stabilise combustion of an air-atomised release of fluid. Measurements related to the rate of heat release, length of flame and density of smoke give quantitative information on the fire behaviour of the fluid.

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ISO/TR 19441:2018 lists and describes recent density measurements at different temperatures for biofuel components and biofuel blends such as gasoline E5, E10, E85 and biodiesel B100, B7, as well as domestic heating oils and paraffinic diesel fuels. ISO/TR 19441:2018 can be used to calculate , the thermal expansion coefficient from a given temperature to 15 °C. This document can also serve to compare several aspects of density/temperature modelling and to check for compliance with and limitations in relation to existing calibration requirements. It can help in the determination of specific necessities for the grouping of fuels into common product family classes, also suggesting ways to treat fuels or components with an unusual behaviour. In addition, this document proposes possible steps for an internationally harmonized handling of new components coming into the market.

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