Environmental Engineering (EE) - Sustainable power feeding solutions for 5G network

The present document defines power feeding solutions for 5G, converged wireless and wireline access equipment and
network, taking into consideration their enhanced requirements on service availability and reliability, the new
deployment scenarios, together with the environmental impact of the proposed solutions.
The minimum requirements of different solutions including power feeding structures, components, backup, safety
requirements, environmental conditions are also defined.
The present document is applicable to powering of both mobile and fixed access network elements, in particular on
equipment that have similar configurations and needs.
The future development of 5G networks will create a new scenario in which the density of radio cells will increase
considerably, together with the increase of wireline network equipment that are going to be installed in the vicinity to
the users, thereby creating the need to define new solutions for powering that will be environmentally friendly,
sustainable, dependable, smart and visible remotely.
The -48 V DC, up to 400 V DC local and remote power solutions defined respectively in ETSI EN 300 132-2 [2],
ETSI EN 302 099 [i.10] and ETSI EN 300 132-3-1 [3] or Recommendation ITU-T L.1200 [i.13] will be considered as
the standards in force for power facilities, together with IEEE 802.3TM [i.18] (PoE).

Okoljski inženiring (EE) - Sonaravne rešitve napajanja za omrežje 5G

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
15-Apr-2021
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
06-Apr-2021
Due Date
11-Jun-2021
Completion Date
16-Apr-2021

Buy Standard

Standard
ETSI ES 203 700 V1.1.1 (2021-02) - Environmental Engineering (EE); Sustainable power feeding solutions for 5G network
English language
43 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview
Standard
ETSI ES 203 700 V1.1.1 (2020-12) - Environmental Engineering (EE); Sustainable power feeding solutions for 5G network
English language
43 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview
Standard
ETSI ES 203 700 V1.1.0 (2020-05) - Environmental Engineering (EE); Sustainable power feeding solutions for 5G network
English language
43 pages
sale 15% off
Preview
sale 15% off
Preview
Standardization document
SIST ES 203 700 V1.1.1:2021
English language
43 pages
sale 10% off
Preview
sale 10% off
Preview

e-Library read for
1 day

Standards Content (sample)

ETSI ES 203 700 V1.1.1 (2021-02)
ETSI STANDARD
Environmental Engineering (EE);
Sustainable power feeding solutions for 5G network
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
2 ETSI ES 203 700 V1.1.1 (2021-02)
Reference
DES/EE-0269
Keywords
5G, cable, energy efficiency, hybrid, power,
remote, sustainability
ETSI
650 Route des Lucioles
F-06921 Sophia Antipolis Cedex - FRANCE
Tel.: +33 4 92 94 42 00 Fax: +33 4 93 65 47 16
Siret N° 348 623 562 00017 - NAF 742 C
Association à but non lucratif enregistrée à la
Sous-Préfecture de Grasse (06) N° 7803/88
Important notice
The present document can be downloaded from:
http://www.etsi.org/standards-search

The present document may be made available in electronic versions and/or in print. The content of any electronic and/or

print versions of the present document shall not be modified without the prior written authorization of ETSI. In case of any

existing or perceived difference in contents between such versions and/or in print, the prevailing version of an ETSI

deliverable is the one made publicly available in PDF format at www.etsi.org/deliver.

Users of the present document should be aware that the document may be subject to revision or change of status.

Information on the current status of this and other ETSI documents is available at

https://portal.etsi.org/TB/ETSIDeliverableStatus.aspx

If you find errors in the present document, please send your comment to one of the following services:

https://portal.etsi.org/People/CommiteeSupportStaff.aspx
Copyright Notification

No part may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying

and microfilm except as authorized by written permission of ETSI.

The content of the PDF version shall not be modified without the written authorization of ETSI.

The copyright and the foregoing restriction extend to reproduction in all media.
© ETSI 2021.
All rights reserved.

DECT™, PLUGTESTS™, UMTS™ and the ETSI logo are trademarks of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members.

3GPP™ and LTE™ are trademarks of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members and

of the 3GPP Organizational Partners.

oneM2M™ logo is a trademark of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members and

of the oneM2M Partners.
GSM and the GSM logo are trademarks registered and owned by the GSM Association.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
3 ETSI ES 203 700 V1.1.1 (2021-02)
Contents

Intellectual Property Rights ................................................................................................................................ 5

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................. 5

Modal verbs terminology .................................................................................................................................... 5

Executive summary ............................................................................................................................................ 5

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ 6

1 Scope ........................................................................................................................................................ 7

2 References ................................................................................................................................................ 7

2.1 Normative references ......................................................................................................................................... 7

2.2 Informative references ........................................................................................................................................ 8

3 Definition of terms, symbols and abbreviations ....................................................................................... 9

3.1 Terms .................................................................................................................................................................. 9

3.2 Symbols .............................................................................................................................................................. 9

3.3 Abbreviations ..................................................................................................................................................... 9

4 5G networks ........................................................................................................................................... 10

4.1 5G Network general description ....................................................................................................................... 10

4.2 Cells coverage and impacts on powering strategy ............................................................................................ 11

4.3 Type of 5G network and impacts on power load, power profile and feeding solution ..................................... 14

5 Powering solutions ................................................................................................................................. 16

5.0 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 16

5.1 Convergence and Core Room Power Supply ................................................................................................... 16

5.1.1 Scenario 1: -48 V DC Power Supply Solution ............................................................................................ 16

5.1.2 Scenario 2: up to 400 V DC Power Supply Solution .................................................................................. 17

5.1.3 5G Power Supply Solution for aggregation and core equipment room ...................................................... 17

5.2 Impact of 5G in C-RAN&D-RAN Sites ........................................................................................................... 18

5.2.1 Changes due to 5G implementation ............................................................................................................ 18

5.2.2 Construction and Modernization Challenges Posed by 5G Network Evolution ......................................... 18

5.2.3 Problems to Be Addressed by 5G Power Systems ...................................................................................... 19

5.2.3.1 Low Cost Deployment .......................................................................................................................... 19

5.2.3.2 Fast Construction .................................................................................................................................. 19

5.2.3.3 Efficient and Energy Saving ................................................................................................................. 19

5.2.3.4 Smooth Evolution ................................................................................................................................. 20

5.2.3.5 Simple O&M ......................................................................................................................................... 20

5.2.4 C-RAN & D-RAN Powering Scenario ....................................................................................................... 20

5.2.4.1 Networking diagram of powering scenario ........................................................................................... 20

5.2.5 5G Power Solution for C-RAN&D-RAN site ............................................................................................. 21

5.2.6 Intelligent Features for C-RAN&D-RAN site ............................................................................................ 23

5.2.6.1 Intelligent Peak Shaving ....................................................................................................................... 23

5.2.6.2 Advance Sleep/Hibernation Mode function .......................................................................................... 25

5.3 Intelligent Management .................................................................................................................................... 25

5.3.0 General ........................................................................................................................................................ 25

5.3.1 Power availability Management ................................................................................................................. 25

5.3.2 SEE Management ....................................................................................................................................... 26

5.3.3 Remote Maintenance .................................................................................................................................. 26

5.3.4 intelligent security ...................................................................................................................................... 26

5.3.5 Intelligent Energy Storage System .............................................................................................................. 27

5.4 Renewable energy solution for 5G base stations .............................................................................................. 27

5.5 Hybrid architecture scenario, with integration of power and optical networks ................................................ 28

6 Energy Efficiency ................................................................................................................................... 32

6.1 Power equipment energy efficiency ................................................................................................................. 32

6.2 NE static and dynamic power requirement management and impact on powering .......................................... 32

7 Dependability, reliability and maintenance ............................................................................................ 32

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
4 ETSI ES 203 700 V1.1.1 (2021-02)

8 Environmental impact ............................................................................................................................ 33

Annex A (informative): Which power and where for 5G cells ........................................................... 34

Annex B (informative): Method of optimization of equipment, power and energy ......................... 35

Annex C (informative): Example of powering requirement definition on site and remote

powering area ................................................................................................. 37

Annex D (informative): Example of required output voltage variation under correlation

models between different load and different cable length.......................... 38

Annex E (informative): Digital Reconfigurable Battery solution for 5G base stations.................... 40

Annex F (informative): Bibliography ................................................................................................... 42

History .............................................................................................................................................................. 43

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
5 ETSI ES 203 700 V1.1.1 (2021-02)
Intellectual Property Rights
Essential patents

IPRs essential or potentially essential to normative deliverables may have been declared to ETSI. The information

pertaining to these essential IPRs, if any, is publicly available for ETSI members and non-members, and can be found

in ETSI SR 000 314: "Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs); Essential, or potentially Essential, IPRs notified to ETSI in

respect of ETSI standards", which is available from the ETSI Secretariat. Latest updates are available on the ETSI Web

server (https://ipr.etsi.org/).

Pursuant to the ETSI IPR Policy, no investigation, including IPR searches, has been carried out by ETSI. No guarantee

can be given as to the existence of other IPRs not referenced in ETSI SR 000 314 (or the updates on the ETSI Web

server) which are, or may be, or may become, essential to the present document.
Trademarks

The present document may include trademarks and/or tradenames which are asserted and/or registered by their owners.

ETSI claims no ownership of these except for any which are indicated as being the property of ETSI, and conveys no

right to use or reproduce any trademark and/or tradename. Mention of those trademarks in the present document does

not constitute an endorsement by ETSI of products, services or organizations associated with those trademarks.

Foreword

This ETSI Standard (ES) has been produced by ETSI Technical Committee Environmental Engineering (EE).

Modal verbs terminology

In the present document "shall", "shall not", "should", "should not", "may", "need not", "will", "will not", "can" and

"cannot" are to be interpreted as described in clause 3.2 of the ETSI Drafting Rules (Verbal forms for the expression of

provisions).

"must" and "must not" are NOT allowed in ETSI deliverables except when used in direct citation.

Executive summary

The present document defines power feeding solutions for 5G, converged wireless and wireline access equipment and

network, taking into consideration their enhanced requirements on service availability and reliability, the new

deployment scenarios, together with the environmental impact of the proposed solutions.

The minimum requirements of different solutions including power feeding structures, components, backup, safety

requirements, environmental conditions are also defined.

The present document is applicable to powering of both mobile and fixed access network elements, in particular on

equipment that have similar configurations and needs.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
6 ETSI ES 203 700 V1.1.1 (2021-02)
Introduction

Mobile and fixed networks are evolving towards ultra-broadband and, with 5G, are going to converge. The use of much

broader frequency ranges, up to 60 GHz, where radio propagation is an issue, is going to impact the network

deployment topologies. In particular, the use of higher frequencies and the need to cover hot/black spots and indoor

locations, will make it necessary to deploy much denser amount of radio nodes.

5G is introducing major improvements on Massive MIMO, IoT, low latency, unlicensed spectrum, and with V2x for the

vehicular market. Support of some of these services will have a relevant effect on the power ratings and the energy

consumption at the radio base station.

A major new service area of 5G impacting the powering and backup will be the URLLC (Ultra Reliable Low Latency

Communication) as its support will increase the service availability demands by many orders of magnitude. Supporting

such high availability goals will be partly reached through redundant network coverage, but a main support will have to

come through newly designed powering architectures. This will be made even more challenging as 5G will require the

widespread introduction of distributed small cells. ETSI TS 110 174-2-2 [i.5] analyses the implications and indicates

possible solutions to fulfil such high demanding availability goals.

There is a need to define sustainable and smart powering solutions, able to adapt to the present mobile network

technologies and able to evolve to adapt to their evolution. The flexibility would be needed at level of power interface,

power consumption, architecture tolerant to power delivery point changes and including control-monitoring.

This means that it should include from the beginning appropriate modularity and reconfiguration features for local

powering and energy storage and for remote powering solutions including power lines sizing, input and output

conversion power and scalable sources.

The present document was developed jointly by ETSI TC EE and ITU-T Study Group 5. It is published respectively by

ITU and ETSI as Recommendation ITU-T L.1210 [i.7] and ETSI ES 203 700 (the present document), which are

technically-equivalent.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
7 ETSI ES 203 700 V1.1.1 (2021-02)
1 Scope

The present document defines power feeding solutions for 5G, converged wireless and wireline access equipment and

network, taking into consideration their enhanced requirements on service availability and reliability, the new

deployment scenarios, together with the environmental impact of the proposed solutions.

The minimum requirements of different solutions including power feeding structures, components, backup, safety

requirements, environmental conditions are also defined.

The present document is applicable to powering of both mobile and fixed access network elements, in particular on

equipment that have similar configurations and needs.

The future development of 5G networks will create a new scenario in which the density of radio cells will increase

considerably, together with the increase of wireline network equipment that are going to be installed in the vicinity to

the users, thereby creating the need to define new solutions for powering that will be environmentally friendly,

sustainable, dependable, smart and visible remotely.

The -48 V DC, up to 400 V DC local and remote power solutions defined respectively in ETSI EN 300 132-2 [2],

ETSI EN 302 099 [i.10] and ETSI EN 300 132-3-1 [3] or Recommendation ITU-T L.1200 [i.13] will be considered as

the standards in force for power facilities, together with IEEE 802.3 [i.18] (PoE).

2 References
2.1 Normative references

References are either specific (identified by date of publication and/or edition number or version number) or

non-specific. For specific references, only the cited version applies. For non-specific references, the latest version of the

referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

Referenced documents which are not found to be publicly available in the expected location might be found at

https://docbox.etsi.org/Reference/.

NOTE: While any hyperlinks included in this clause were valid at the time of publication, ETSI cannot guarantee

their long term validity.

The following referenced documents are necessary for the application of the present document.

[1] ETSI EN 300 132-1 (V2.1.1) (03-2019): "Environmental Engineering (EE); Power supply

interface at the input to Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment; Part 1:

Alternating Current (AC)".

[2] ETSI EN 300 132-2 (V2.6.1) (04-2019):"Environmental Engineering (EE); Power supply interface

at the input of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment; Part 2: -48 V Direct

Current (DC)".

[3] ETSI EN 300 132-3-1 (V2.1.1) (02-2012): "Environmental Engineering (EE); Power supply

interface at the input to telecommunications and datacom (ICT) equipment; Part 3: Operated by

rectified current source, alternating current source or direct current source up to 400 V; Sub-part 1:

Direct current source up to 400 V".

[4] ETSI ES 203 199 (V1.3.1) (02-2015): "Environmental Engineering (EE); Methodology for

environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Information and Communication Technology

(ICT) goods, networks and services".

[5] Recommendation ITU-T L.1410 (12/2014): "Methodology for environmental life cycle

assessments of information and communication technology goods, networks and services".

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
8 ETSI ES 203 700 V1.1.1 (2021-02)
2.2 Informative references

References are either specific (identified by date of publication and/or edition number or version number) or

non-specific. For specific references, only the cited version applies. For non-specific references, the latest version of the

referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE: While any hyperlinks included in this clause were valid at the time of publication, ETSI cannot guarantee

their long term validity.

The following referenced documents are not necessary for the application of the present document but they assist the

user with regard to a particular subject area.

[i.1] Recommendation ITU-T Q.1743 (09/2016): "IMT-Advanced references to Release 11 of

LTE-Advanced evolved packet core network".

[i.2] ETSI ES 202 336-12: "Environmental Engineering (EE); Monitoring and control interface for

infrastructure equipment (power, cooling and building environment systems used in

telecommunication networks); Part 12: ICT equipment power, energy and environmental

parameters monitoring information model".

[i.3] ETSI EN 301 605 (V1.1.1) (2013-10): "Environmental Engineering (EE); Earthing and bonding of

400 V DC data and telecom (ICT) equipment".

[i.4] ETSI TS 122 261: "5G; Service requirements for next generation new services and markets (3GPP

TS 22.261)".

[i.5] ETSI TS 110 174-2-2: "Access, Terminals, Transmission and Multiplexing (ATTM); Sustainable

Digital Multiservice Cities; Broadband Deployment and Energy Management; Part 2: Multiservice

Networking Infrastructure and Associated Street Furniture; Sub-part 2: The use of lamp-posts for

hosting sensing devices and 5G networking".

[i.6] Recommendation ITU-T K.64 (06/2016): "Safe working practices for outside equipment installed

in particular environments".

[i.7] Recommendation ITU-T L.1210: "Sustainable power feeding solutions for 5G networks".

[i.8] EN 50173-1: "Information technology - Generic cabling systems - Part 1: General requirement"

(produced by CENELEC).

[i.9] IEEE 802.3cg : "IEEE Approved Draft Standard for Ethernet Amendment 5: Physical Layer

Specifications and Management Parameters for 10 Mb/s Operation and Associated Power Delivery

over a Single Balanced Pair of Conductors".

[i.10] ETSI EN 302 099 (V2.1.1) (08-2014): "Environmental Engineering (EE); Powering of equipment

in access network".

[i.11] ETSI TS 103 553-1: "Environmental Engineering (EE); Innovative energy storage technology for

stationary use; Part 1: Overview".

[i.12] Recommendation ITU-T L.1001 (11/2012): "External universal power adapter solutions for

stationary information and communication technology devices".

[i.13] Recommendation ITU-T L.1200 (05/2012): "Direct current power feeding interface up to 400 V at

the input to telecommunication and ICT equipment".

[i.14] Recommendation ITU-T L.1220 (08/2017): "Innovative energy storage technology for stationary

use - Part 1: Overview of energy storage".
NOTE: Available at https://www.itu.int/ITU-T/recommendations/rec.aspx?rec=13283.

[i.15] Recommendation ITU-T L.1221 (11/2018): "Innovative energy storage technology for stationary

use - Part 2: Battery".

[i.16] Recommendation ITU-T L.1222 (05/2018): "Innovative energy storage technology for stationary

use - Part 3: Supercapacitor technology".
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
9 ETSI ES 203 700 V1.1.1 (2021-02)

[i.17] Recommendation ITU-T L.1350 (10/2016): "Energy efficiency metrics of a base station site".

[i.18] IEEE 802.3 -2018: "IEEE Standard for Ethernet".

[i.19] IEEE 802.3bt -2018: "IEEE Standard for Ethernet Amendment 2: Physical Layer and

Management Parameters for Power over Ethernet over 4 pairs".
[i.20] A Survey of 5G Network: Architecture and Emerging Technologies.
NOTE: Available at https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7169508.
[i.21] 5G Frequency bands: Spectrum Allocations for Next-Gen LTE.

NOTE: Available at https://www.cablefree.net/wirelesstechnology/4glte/5g-frequency-bands-lte/.

3 Definition of terms, symbols and abbreviations
3.1 Terms
For the purposes of the present document, the following terms apply:

cell: radio network object that can be uniquely identified by a user equipment from a (cell) identification that is

broadcasted over a geographical area from one UTRAN or GERAN access point
NOTE 1: A Cell in UTRAN is either FDD or TDD mode.
NOTE 2: Defined in Recommendation ITU-T Q.1743 [i.1].

cloud RAN: RAN functions are partially or completely centralizing with two additional key features: pooling of

baseband/hardware resources, and virtualization through general-purpose processors

distributed RAN: network development where RAN processing is fully performed at the site as in 4G

macro cells: outdoor cells with a large cell radius
NOTE: Defined in Recommendation ITU-T Q.1743 [i.1].
micro cells: small cells
NOTE: Defined in Recommendation ITU-T Q.1743 [i.1].

pico cells: cells, mainly indoor cells, with a radius typically less than 50 metres

NOTE: Defined in Recommendation ITU-T Q.1743 [i.1]
3.2 Symbols
Void.
3.3 Abbreviations
For the purposes of the present document, the following abbreviations apply:
5G Fifth Generation
AAU Active Antenna Unit
AC Alternating Current
AI Artificial Intelligence
BBU Base Band Unit
BCS Battery Control System
BMS Battery Management System
BS Base Station
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
10 ETSI ES 203 700 V1.1.1 (2021-02)
C-RAN Centralized or Cloud RAN
DC Direct Current
NOTE: Also when used as a suffix to units of measurement.
DOD Deep of Discharge
DP Distribution Point
D-RAN Distributed RAN
DSLAM Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplier
EV Electrical Vehicle
FWA Fixed Wireless Access
GND GrouND
GPON Gigabit Passive Optical Network
Hetnets Heterogeneous network
ICT Information Communication Telecommunication
IoT Internet of Things
LFP Lithium Iron Phosphate
MEC Multi-access Edge Computing
MIMO Multi Input Multi Output
mmWaves millimetric Waves
MPPT Maximum Power Point Tracking
NE Network Element
OS Optical Splitter
PAV Power Available Value
PN Power Node
PON Passive Optical Network
PS Power Splitter
PSU Power Supply Unit
PTU Power Transmitter Unit
PV PhotoVoltaic
PVC PolyVinyl Chloride
RAN Radio Access Network
REN Renewable ENergy
RF Radio Frequency
RRH Remote Radio Head
RRU Remote Radio Unit
SEE Site Energy Efficiency
SELV Safety Extra Low Voltage
SOC Status Of Charge
SOH Status Of Health
TDD Time Division Duplex
TTM Time To Market
URLLC Ultra Reliable Low Latency Communication
UTRAN Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network
UV UltraViolet
4 5G networks
4.1 5G Network general description

Figure 1 is presenting a general end to end schematics of 5G network to be powered.

It includes stationary and mobile equipment:

• Macro cell equipment BS for wide coverage. In most cases, they will be located in the same sites as the macro

BS of the previous mobile generations. The increased energy demand and the much higher availability need of

the 5G equipment will pose tough challenges to the powering infrastructure and will likely require its major

upgrade both on the power capabilities and the backup duration.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
11 ETSI ES 203 700 V1.1.1 (2021-02)

• Small cell, to cover small geographical area in indoor/outdoor applications, typically to satisfy data traffic hot-

spots, black-spots and to deliver services at very high frequencies (e.g. mmWaves) that could not be supported

just through macro BS installations. Small cells can be subdivided into:

- Micro cell - normally installed outdoors. Designed to support large number of users in high data traffic

areas, to solve coverage issues and to support very high frequency deployment. Capable to cover

medium/large cells size and suitable for application like smart cities, smart metro, etc.

- Pico cell - normally installed indoors. Suitable for enterprises, shopping centres, stadiums applications,

for extended network coverage and data throughput.

- Femto cell - basically small mobile base stations designed to provide extended coverage for residential

and SoHo applications. Poor signal strength from mobile operator's base stations can be solved using

Femtocell implementation. Femtocells are primarily introduced to offload network congestion, extend

coverage and increase data capacity to indoor users.
• IoT devices and concentrators.
• In network cloud distribution including edge computing.

Also Fixed Wireless Access (FWA) radio access solutions, typically in point-to-multipoint configuration with coverage

across macro and small cells schemes, will contribute to the evolution of ultra-broadband future networks.

Source: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7169508 [i.20].

Figure 1: General principle of a 5G cellular network architecture with interconnectivity among

the different emerging technologies like Massive MIMO network, Cognitive Radio
4.2 Cells coverage and impacts on powering strategy

In the 4G era, a base station covers a radius of hundreds of metres, while a 5G base station operating at mmWave may

cover only 20 to 40 m, needing a much higher number of equipment to be spread-out in the field to guarantee

appropriate coverage. More dense deployment will also be needed to cover high traffic areas (e.g. stadiums) and indoor

locations. That could result in much higher network development complexity and costs. In addition, the deployment of

additional base stations is difficult and the site resources are not easy to obtain. Therefore, 5G networks will see a major

development of small cells, in the form of small base stations as the basic unit for ultra-intensive networking, that is,

small base stations dense deployment. In the future, the most likely deployment mode for 5G base station construction

will be low-frequency wide area cov
...

Final draft ETSI ES 203 700 V1.1.1 (2020-12)
ETSI STANDARD
Environmental Engineering (EE);
Sustainable power feeding solutions for 5G network
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
2 Final draft ETSI ES 203 700 V1.1.1 (2020-12)
Reference
DES/EE-0269
Keywords
5G, cable, energy efficiency, hybrid, power,
remote, sustainability
ETSI
650 Route des Lucioles
F-06921 Sophia Antipolis Cedex - FRANCE
Tel.: +33 4 92 94 42 00 Fax: +33 4 93 65 47 16
Siret N° 348 623 562 00017 - NAF 742 C
Association à but non lucratif enregistrée à la
Sous-Préfecture de Grasse (06) N° 7803/88
Important notice
The present document can be downloaded from:
http://www.etsi.org/standards-search

The present document may be made available in electronic versions and/or in print. The content of any electronic and/or

print versions of the present document shall not be modified without the prior written authorization of ETSI. In case of any

existing or perceived difference in contents between such versions and/or in print, the prevailing version of an ETSI

deliverable is the one made publicly available in PDF format at www.etsi.org/deliver.

Users of the present document should be aware that the document may be subject to revision or change of status.

Information on the current status of this and other ETSI documents is available at

https://portal.etsi.org/TB/ETSIDeliverableStatus.aspx

If you find errors in the present document, please send your comment to one of the following services:

https://portal.etsi.org/People/CommiteeSupportStaff.aspx
Copyright Notification

No part may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying

and microfilm except as authorized by written permission of ETSI.

The content of the PDF version shall not be modified without the written authorization of ETSI.

The copyright and the foregoing restriction extend to reproduction in all media.
© ETSI 2020.
All rights reserved.

DECT™, PLUGTESTS™, UMTS™ and the ETSI logo are trademarks of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members.

3GPP™ and LTE™ are trademarks of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members and

of the 3GPP Organizational Partners.

oneM2M™ logo is a trademark of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members and

of the oneM2M Partners.
GSM and the GSM logo are trademarks registered and owned by the GSM Association.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
3 Final draft ETSI ES 203 700 V1.1.1 (2020-12)
Contents

Intellectual Property Rights ................................................................................................................................ 5

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................. 5

Modal verbs terminology .................................................................................................................................... 5

Executive summary ............................................................................................................................................ 5

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ 6

1 Scope ........................................................................................................................................................ 7

2 References ................................................................................................................................................ 7

2.1 Normative references ......................................................................................................................................... 7

2.2 Informative references ........................................................................................................................................ 8

3 Definition of terms, symbols and abbreviations ....................................................................................... 9

3.1 Terms .................................................................................................................................................................. 9

3.2 Symbols .............................................................................................................................................................. 9

3.3 Abbreviations ..................................................................................................................................................... 9

4 5G networks ........................................................................................................................................... 10

4.1 5G Network general description ....................................................................................................................... 10

4.2 Cells coverage and impacts on powering strategy ............................................................................................ 11

4.3 Type of 5G network and impacts on power load, power profile and feeding solution ..................................... 14

5 Powering solutions ................................................................................................................................. 16

5.0 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 16

5.1 Convergence and Core Room Power Supply ................................................................................................... 16

5.1.1 Scenario 1: -48 V DC Power Supply Solution ............................................................................................ 16

5.1.2 Scenario 2: up to 400 V DC Power Supply Solution .................................................................................. 17

5.1.3 5G Power Supply Solution for aggregation and core equipment room ...................................................... 17

5.2 Impact of 5G in C-RAN&D-RAN Sites ........................................................................................................... 18

5.2.1 Changes due to 5G implementation ............................................................................................................ 18

5.2.2 Construction and Modernization Challenges Posed by 5G Network Evolution ......................................... 18

5.2.3 Problems to Be Addressed by 5G Power Systems ...................................................................................... 19

5.2.3.1 Low Cost Deployment .......................................................................................................................... 19

5.2.3.2 Fast Construction .................................................................................................................................. 19

5.2.3.3 Efficient and Energy Saving ................................................................................................................. 19

5.2.3.4 Smooth Evolution ................................................................................................................................. 20

5.2.3.5 Simple O&M ......................................................................................................................................... 20

5.2.4 C-RAN & D-RAN Powering Scenario ....................................................................................................... 20

5.2.4.1 Networking diagram of powering scenario ........................................................................................... 20

5.2.5 5G Power Solution for C-RAN&D-RAN site ............................................................................................. 21

5.2.6 Intelligent Features for C-RAN&D-RAN site ............................................................................................ 23

5.2.6.1 Intelligent Peak Shaving ....................................................................................................................... 23

5.2.6.2 Advance Sleep/Hibernation Mode function .......................................................................................... 25

5.3 Intelligent Management .................................................................................................................................... 25

5.3.0 General ........................................................................................................................................................ 25

5.3.1 Power availability Management ................................................................................................................. 25

5.3.2 SEE Management ....................................................................................................................................... 26

5.3.3 Remote Maintenance .................................................................................................................................. 26

5.3.4 intelligent security ...................................................................................................................................... 26

5.3.5 Intelligent Energy Storage System .............................................................................................................. 27

5.4 Renewable energy solution for 5G base stations .............................................................................................. 27

5.5 Hybrid architecture scenario, with integration of power and optical networks ................................................ 28

6 Energy Efficiency ................................................................................................................................... 32

6.1 Power equipment energy efficiency ................................................................................................................. 32

6.2 NE static and dynamic power requirement management and impact on powering .......................................... 32

7 Dependability, reliability and maintenance ............................................................................................ 32

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
4 Final draft ETSI ES 203 700 V1.1.1 (2020-12)

8 Environmental impact ............................................................................................................................ 33

Annex A (informative): Which power and where for 5G cells ........................................................... 34

Annex B (informative): Method of optimization of equipment, power and energy ......................... 35

Annex C (informative): Example of powering requirement definition on site and remote

powering area ................................................................................................. 37

Annex D (informative): Example of required output voltage variation under correlation

models between different load and different cable length.......................... 38

Annex E (informative): Digital Reconfigurable Battery solution for 5G base stations.................... 40

Annex F (informative): Bibliography ................................................................................................... 42

History .............................................................................................................................................................. 43

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
5 Final draft ETSI ES 203 700 V1.1.1 (2020-12)
Intellectual Property Rights
Essential patents

IPRs essential or potentially essential to normative deliverables may have been declared to ETSI. The information

pertaining to these essential IPRs, if any, is publicly available for ETSI members and non-members, and can be found

in ETSI SR 000 314: "Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs); Essential, or potentially Essential, IPRs notified to ETSI in

respect of ETSI standards", which is available from the ETSI Secretariat. Latest updates are available on the ETSI Web

server (https://ipr.etsi.org/).

Pursuant to the ETSI IPR Policy, no investigation, including IPR searches, has been carried out by ETSI. No guarantee

can be given as to the existence of other IPRs not referenced in ETSI SR 000 314 (or the updates on the ETSI Web

server) which are, or may be, or may become, essential to the present document.
Trademarks

The present document may include trademarks and/or tradenames which are asserted and/or registered by their owners.

ETSI claims no ownership of these except for any which are indicated as being the property of ETSI, and conveys no

right to use or reproduce any trademark and/or tradename. Mention of those trademarks in the present document does

not constitute an endorsement by ETSI of products, services or organizations associated with those trademarks.

Foreword

This final draft ETSI Standard (ES) has been produced by ETSI Technical Committee Environmental Engineering (EE),

and is now submitted for the ETSI standards Membership Approval Procedure.
Modal verbs terminology

In the present document "shall", "shall not", "should", "should not", "may", "need not", "will", "will not", "can" and

"cannot" are to be interpreted as described in clause 3.2 of the ETSI Drafting Rules (Verbal forms for the expression of

provisions).

"must" and "must not" are NOT allowed in ETSI deliverables except when used in direct citation.

Executive summary

The present document defines power feeding solutions for 5G, converged wireless and wireline access equipment and

network, taking into consideration their enhanced requirements on service availability and reliability, the new

deployment scenarios, together with the environmental impact of the proposed solutions.

The minimum requirements of different solutions including power feeding structures, components, backup, safety

requirements, environmental conditions are also defined.

The present document is applicable to powering of both mobile and fixed access network elements, in particular on

equipment that have similar configurations and needs.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
6 Final draft ETSI ES 203 700 V1.1.1 (2020-12)
Introduction

Mobile and fixed networks are evolving towards ultra-broadband and, with 5G, are going to converge. The use of much

broader frequency ranges, up to 60 GHz, where radio propagation is an issue, is going to impact the network

deployment topologies. In particular, the use of higher frequencies and the need to cover hot/black spots and indoor

locations, will make it necessary to deploy much denser amount of radio nodes.

5G is introducing major improvements on Massive MIMO, IoT, low latency, unlicensed spectrum, and with V2x for the

vehicular market. Support of some of these services will have a relevant effect on the power ratings and the energy

consumption at the radio base station.

A major new service area of 5G impacting the powering and backup will be the URLLC (Ultra Reliable Low Latency

Communication) as its support will increase the service availability demands by many orders of magnitude. Supporting

such high availability goals will be partly reached through redundant network coverage, but a main support will have to

come through newly designed powering architectures. This will be made even more challenging as 5G will require the

widespread introduction of distributed small cells. ETSI TS 110 174-2-2 [i.5] analyses the implications and indicates

possible solutions to fulfil such high demanding availability goals.

There is a need to define sustainable and smart powering solutions, able to adapt to the present mobile network

technologies and able to evolve to adapt to their evolution. The flexibility would be needed at level of power interface,

power consumption, architecture tolerant to power delivery point changes and including control-monitoring.

This means that it should include from the beginning appropriate modularity and reconfiguration features for local

powering and energy storage and for remote powering solutions including power lines sizing, input and output

conversion power and scalable sources.

The present document was developed jointly by ETSI TC EE and ITU-T Study Group 5. It is published respectively by

ITU and ETSI as Recommendation ITU-T L.1210 [i.7] and ETSI ES 203 700 (the present document), which are

technically-equivalent.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
7 Final draft ETSI ES 203 700 V1.1.1 (2020-12)
1 Scope

The present document defines power feeding solutions for 5G, converged wireless and wireline access equipment and

network, taking into consideration their enhanced requirements on service availability and reliability, the new

deployment scenarios, together with the environmental impact of the proposed solutions.

The minimum requirements of different solutions including power feeding structures, components, backup, safety

requirements, environmental conditions are also defined.

The present document is applicable to powering of both mobile and fixed access network elements, in particular on

equipment that have similar configurations and needs.

The future development of 5G networks will create a new scenario in which the density of radio cells will increase

considerably, together with the increase of wireline network equipment that are going to be installed in the vicinity to

the users, thereby creating the need to define new solutions for powering that will be environmentally friendly,

sustainable, dependable, smart and visible remotely.

The -48 V DC, up to 400 V DC local and remote power solutions defined respectively in ETSI EN 300 132-2 [2],

ETSI EN 302 099 [i.10] and ETSI EN 300 132-3-1 [3] or Recommendation ITU-T L.1200 [i.13] will be considered as

the standards in force for power facilities, together with IEEE 802.3 [i.18] (PoE).

2 References
2.1 Normative references

References are either specific (identified by date of publication and/or edition number or version number) or

non-specific. For specific references, only the cited version applies. For non-specific references, the latest version of the

referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

Referenced documents which are not found to be publicly available in the expected location might be found at

https://docbox.etsi.org/Reference/.

NOTE: While any hyperlinks included in this clause were valid at the time of publication, ETSI cannot guarantee

their long term validity.

The following referenced documents are necessary for the application of the present document.

[1] ETSI EN 300 132-1 (V2.1.1) (03-2019): "Environmental Engineering (EE); Power supply

interface at the input to Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment; Part 1:

Alternating Current (AC)".

[2] ETSI EN 300 132-2 (V2.6.1) (04-2019):"Environmental Engineering (EE); Power supply interface

at the input of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment; Part 2: -48 V Direct

Current (DC)".

[3] ETSI EN 300 132-3-1 (V2.1.1) (02-2012): "Environmental Engineering (EE); Power supply

interface at the input to telecommunications and datacom (ICT) equipment; Part 3: Operated by

rectified current source, alternating current source or direct current source up to 400 V; Sub-part 1:

Direct current source up to 400 V".

[4] ETSI ES 203 199 (V1.3.1) (02-2015): "Environmental Engineering (EE); Methodology for

environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Information and Communication Technology

(ICT) goods, networks and services".

[5] Recommendation ITU-T L.1410 (12/2014): "Methodology for environmental life cycle

assessments of information and communication technology goods, networks and services".

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
8 Final draft ETSI ES 203 700 V1.1.1 (2020-12)
2.2 Informative references

References are either specific (identified by date of publication and/or edition number or version number) or

non-specific. For specific references, only the cited version applies. For non-specific references, the latest version of the

referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE: While any hyperlinks included in this clause were valid at the time of publication, ETSI cannot guarantee

their long term validity.

The following referenced documents are not necessary for the application of the present document but they assist the

user with regard to a particular subject area.

[i.1] Recommendation ITU-T Q.1743 (09/2016): "IMT-Advanced references to Release 11 of

LTE-Advanced evolved packet core network".

[i.2] ETSI ES 202 336-12: "Environmental Engineering (EE); Monitoring and control interface for

infrastructure equipment (power, cooling and building environment systems used in

telecommunication networks); Part 12: ICT equipment power, energy and environmental

parameters monitoring information model".

[i.3] ETSI EN 301 605 (V1.1.1) (2013-10): "Environmental Engineering (EE); Earthing and bonding of

400 V DC data and telecom (ICT) equipment".

[i.4] ETSI TS 122 261: "5G; Service requirements for next generation new services and markets (3GPP

TS 22.261)".

[i.5] ETSI TS 110 174-2-2: "Access, Terminals, Transmission and Multiplexing (ATTM); Sustainable

Digital Multiservice Cities; Broadband Deployment and Energy Management; Part 2: Multiservice

Networking Infrastructure and Associated Street Furniture; Sub-part 2: The use of lamp-posts for

hosting sensing devices and 5G networking".

[i.6] Recommendation ITU-T K.64 (06/2016): "Safe working practices for outside equipment installed

in particular environments".

[i.7] Recommendation ITU-T L.1210: "Sustainable power feeding solutions for 5G networks".

[i.8] EN 50173-1: "Information technology - Generic cabling systems - Part 1: General requirement"

(produced by CENELEC).

[i.9] IEEE 802.3cg : "IEEE Approved Draft Standard for Ethernet Amendment 5: Physical Layer

Specifications and Management Parameters for 10 Mb/s Operation and Associated Power Delivery

over a Single Balanced Pair of Conductors".

[i.10] ETSI EN 302 099 (V2.1.1) (08-2014): "Environmental Engineering (EE); Powering of equipment

in access network".

[i.11] ETSI TS 103 553-1: "Environmental Engineering (EE); Innovative energy storage technology for

stationary use; Part 1: Overview".

[i.12] Recommendation ITU-T L.1001 (11/2012): "External universal power adapter solutions for

stationary information and communication technology devices".

[i.13] Recommendation ITU-T L.1200 (05/2012): "Direct current power feeding interface up to 400 V at

the input to telecommunication and ICT equipment".

[i.14] Recommendation ITU-T L.1220 (08/2017): "Innovative energy storage technology for stationary

use - Part 1: Overview of energy storage".
NOTE: Available at https://www.itu.int/ITU-T/recommendations/rec.aspx?rec=13283.

[i.15] Recommendation ITU-T L.1221 (11/2018): "Innovative energy storage technology for stationary

use - Part 2: Battery".

[i.16] Recommendation ITU-T L.1222 (05/2018): "Innovative energy storage technology for stationary

use - Part 3: Supercapacitor technology".
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
9 Final draft ETSI ES 203 700 V1.1.1 (2020-12)

[i.17] Recommendation ITU-T L.1350 (10/2016): "Energy efficiency metrics of a base station site".

[i.18] IEEE 802.3 -2018: "IEEE Standard for Ethernet".

[i.19] IEEE 802.3bt -2018: "IEEE Standard for Ethernet Amendment 2: Physical Layer and

Management Parameters for Power over Ethernet over 4 pairs".
[i.20] A Survey of 5G Network: Architecture and Emerging Technologies.
NOTE: Available at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7169508/.
[i.21] 5G Frequency bands: Spectrum Allocations for Next-Gen LTE.

NOTE: Available at https://www.cablefree.net/wirelesstechnology/4glte/5g-frequency-bands-lte/.

3 Definition of terms, symbols and abbreviations
3.1 Terms
For the purposes of the present document, the following terms apply:

cell: radio network object that can be uniquely identified by a user equipment from a (cell) identification that is

broadcasted over a geographical area from one UTRAN or GERAN access point
NOTE 1: A Cell in UTRAN is either FDD or TDD mode.
NOTE 2: Defined in Recommendation ITU-T Q.1743 [i.1].

cloud RAN: RAN functions are partially or completely centralizing with two additional key features: pooling of

baseband/hardware resources, and virtualization through general-purpose processors

distributed RAN: network development where RAN processing is fully performed at the site as in 4G

macro cells: outdoor cells with a large cell radius
NOTE: Defined in Recommendation ITU-T Q.1743 [i.1].
micro cells: small cells
NOTE: Defined in Recommendation ITU-T Q.1743 [i.1].

pico cells: cells, mainly indoor cells, with a radius typically less than 50 metres

NOTE: Defined in Recommendation ITU-T Q.1743 [i.1]
3.2 Symbols
Void.
3.3 Abbreviations
For the purposes of the present document, the following abbreviations apply:
5G fifth Generation
AAU Active Antenna Unit
AC Alternating Current
AI Artificial Intelligence
BBU Base Band Unit
BCS Battery Control System
BMS Battery Management System
BS Base Station
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
10 Final draft ETSI ES 203 700 V1.1.1 (2020-12)
C-RAN Centralized or Cloud RAN
DC Direct Current
NOTE: Also when used as a suffix to units of measurement.
DOD Deep of Discharge
DP Distribution Point
D-RAN Distributed RAN
DSLAM Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplier
EV Electrical Vehicle
FWA Fixed Wireless Access
GND GrouND
GPON Gigabit Passive Optical Network
Hetnets Heterogeneous network
ICT Information Communication Telecommunication
IoT Internet of Things
LFP Lithium Iron Phosphate
MEC Multi-access Edge Computing
MIMO Multi Input Multi Output
mmWaves millimetric Waves
MPPT Maximum Power Point Tracking
NE Network Element
OS Optical Splitter
PAV Power Available Value
PN Power Node
PON Passive Optical Network
PS Power Splitter
PSU Power Supply Unit
PTU Power Transmitter Unit
PV PhotoVoltaic
PVC PolyVinyl Chloride
RAN Radio Access Network
REN Renewable ENergy
RF Radio Frequency
RRH Remote Radio Head
RRU Remote Radio Unit
SEE Site Energy Efficiency
SELV Safety Extra Low Voltage
SOC Status Of Charge
SOH Status Of Health
TDD Time Division Duplex
TTM Time To Market
URLLC Ultra Reliable Low Latency Communication
UTRAN Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network
UV UltraViolet
4 5G networks
4.1 5G Network general description

Figure 1 is presenting a general end to end schematics of 5G network to be powered.

It includes stationary and mobile equipment:

• Macro cell equipment BS for wide coverage. In most cases, they will be located in the same sites as the macro

BS of the previous mobile generations. The increased energy demand and the much higher availability need of

the 5G equipment will pose tough challenges to the powering infrastructure and will likely require its major

upgrade both on the power capabilities and the backup duration.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
11 Final draft ETSI ES 203 700 V1.1.1 (2020-12)

• Small cell, to cover small geographical area in indoor/outdoor applications, typically to satisfy data traffic hot-

spots, black-spots and to deliver services at very high frequencies (e.g. mmWaves) that could not be supported

just through macro BS installations. Small cells can be subdivided into:

- Micro cell - normally installed outdoors. Designed to support large number of users in high data traffic

areas, to solve coverage issues and to support very high frequency deployment. Capable to cover

medium/large cells size and suitable for application like smart cities, smart metro, etc.

- Pico cell - normally installed indoors. Suitable for enterprises, shopping centres, stadiums applications,

for extended network coverage and data throughput.

- Femto cell - basically small mobile base stations designed to provide extended coverage for residential

and SoHo applications. Poor signal strength from mobile operator's base stations can be solved using

Femtocell implementation. Femtocells are primarily introduced to offload network congestion, extend

coverage and increase data capacity to indoor users.
• IoT devices and concentrators.
• In network cloud distribution including edge computing.

Also Fixed Wireless Access (FWA) radio access solutions, typically in point-to-multipoint configuration with coverage

across macro and small cells schemes, will contribute to the evolution of ultra-broadband future networks.

Source: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7169508/ [i.20].

Figure 1: General principle of a 5G cellular network architecture with interconnectivity among

the different emerging technologies like Massive MIMO network, Cognitive Radio
4.2 Cells coverage and impacts on powering strategy

In the 4G era, a base station covers a radius of hundreds of metres, while a 5G base station operating at mmWave may

cover only 20 to 40 m, needing a much higher number of equipment to be spread-out in the field to guarantee

appropriate coverage. More dense deployment will also be needed to cover high traffic areas (e.g. stadiums) and indoor

locations. That could result in much higher network development complexity and costs. In addition, the deployment of

additional base stations is difficult and the site resources are not easy to obtain. Therefore, 5G networks will see a major

development of small cells, in the form of small base statio
...

Final draft ETSI ES 203 700 V1.1.0 (2020-05)
ETSI STANDARD
Environmental Engineering (EE);
Sustainable power feeding solutions for 5G network
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
2 Final draft ETSI ES 203 700 V1.1.0 (2020-05)
Reference
DES/EE-0269
Keywords
5G, cable, energy efficiency, hybrid, power,
remote, sustainability
ETSI
650 Route des Lucioles
F-06921 Sophia Antipolis Cedex - FRANCE
Tel.: +33 4 92 94 42 00 Fax: +33 4 93 65 47 16
Siret N° 348 623 562 00017 - NAF 742 C
Association à but non lucratif enregistrée à la
Sous-Préfecture de Grasse (06) N° 7803/88
Important notice
The present document can be downloaded from:
http://www.etsi.org/standards-search

The present document may be made available in electronic versions and/or in print. The content of any electronic and/or

print versions of the present document shall not be modified without the prior written authorization of ETSI. In case of any

existing or perceived difference in contents between such versions and/or in print, the prevailing version of an ETSI

deliverable is the one made publicly available in PDF format at www.etsi.org/deliver.

Users of the present document should be aware that the document may be subject to revision or change of status.

Information on the current status of this and other ETSI documents is available at

https://portal.etsi.org/TB/ETSIDeliverableStatus.aspx

If you find errors in the present document, please send your comment to one of the following services:

https://portal.etsi.org/People/CommiteeSupportStaff.aspx
Copyright Notification

No part may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying

and microfilm except as authorized by written permission of ETSI.

The content of the PDF version shall not be modified without the written authorization of ETSI.

The copyright and the foregoing restriction extend to reproduction in all media.
© ETSI 2020.
All rights reserved.

DECT™, PLUGTESTS™, UMTS™ and the ETSI logo are trademarks of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members.

3GPP™ and LTE™ are trademarks of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members and

of the 3GPP Organizational Partners.

oneM2M™ logo is a trademark of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members and

of the oneM2M Partners.
GSM and the GSM logo are trademarks registered and owned by the GSM Association.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
3 Final draft ETSI ES 203 700 V1.1.0 (2020-05)
Contents

Intellectual Property Rights ................................................................................................................................ 5

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................. 5

Modal verbs terminology .................................................................................................................................... 5

Executive summary ............................................................................................................................................ 5

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ 6

1 Scope ........................................................................................................................................................ 7

2 References ................................................................................................................................................ 7

2.1 Normative references ......................................................................................................................................... 7

2.2 Informative references ........................................................................................................................................ 8

3 Definition of terms, symbols and abbreviations ....................................................................................... 9

3.1 Terms .................................................................................................................................................................. 9

3.2 Symbols .............................................................................................................................................................. 9

3.3 Abbreviations ..................................................................................................................................................... 9

4 5G networks ........................................................................................................................................... 10

4.1 5G Network general description ....................................................................................................................... 10

4.2 Cells coverage and impacts on powering strategy ............................................................................................ 11

4.3 Type of 5G network and impacts on power load, power profile and feeding solution ..................................... 14

5 Powering solutions ................................................................................................................................. 16

5.0 general requirement .......................................................................................................................................... 16

5.1 Convergence and Core Room Power Supply ................................................................................................... 16

5.1.1 Scenario 1: -48 V DC Power Supply Solution ............................................................................................ 16

5.1.2 Scenario 2: up to 400 V DC Power Supply Solution .................................................................................. 17

5.1.3 5G Power Supply Solution for aggregation and core equipment room ...................................................... 17

5.2 Impact of 5G in C-RAN&D-RAN Sites ........................................................................................................... 18

5.2.1 Changes due to 5G implementation ............................................................................................................ 18

5.2.2 Construction and Modernization Challenges Posed by 5G Network Evolution ......................................... 18

5.2.3 Problems to Be Addressed by 5G Power Systems ...................................................................................... 19

5.2.3.1 Low Cost Deployment .......................................................................................................................... 19

5.2.3.2 Fast Construction .................................................................................................................................. 19

5.2.3.3 Efficient and Energy Saving ................................................................................................................. 19

5.2.3.4 Smooth Evolution ................................................................................................................................. 20

5.2.3.5 Simple O&M ......................................................................................................................................... 20

5.2.4 C-RAN & D-RAN Powering Scenario ....................................................................................................... 20

5.2.4.1 Networking diagram of powering scenario ........................................................................................... 20

5.2.5 5G Power Solution for C-RAN&D-RAN site ............................................................................................. 21

5.2.6 Intelligent Features for C-RAN&D-RAN site ............................................................................................ 23

5.2.6.1 Intelligent Peak Shaving ....................................................................................................................... 23

5.2.6.2 Advance Sleep/Hibernation Mode function .......................................................................................... 25

5.3 Intelligent Management .................................................................................................................................... 25

5.3.0 General ........................................................................................................................................................ 25

5.3.1 Power availability Management ................................................................................................................. 25

5.3.2 SEE Management ....................................................................................................................................... 26

5.3.3 Remote Maintenance .................................................................................................................................. 26

5.3.4 intelligent security ...................................................................................................................................... 26

5.3.5 Intelligent Energy Storage System .............................................................................................................. 27

5.4 Renewable energy solution for 5G base stations .............................................................................................. 27

5.6 Hybrid architecture scenario, with integration of power and optical networks ................................................ 28

6 Energy Efficiency ................................................................................................................................... 32

6.1 Power equipment energy efficiency ................................................................................................................. 32

6.2 NE static and dynamic power requirement management and impact on powering .......................................... 32

7 Dependability, reliability and maintenance ............................................................................................ 32

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
4 Final draft ETSI ES 203 700 V1.1.0 (2020-05)

8 Environmental impact ............................................................................................................................ 33

Annex A (informative): Which power and where for 5G cells ........................................................... 34

Annex B (informative): Method of optimization of equipment, power and energy ......................... 35

Annex C (informative): Example of powering requirement definition on site and remote

powering area ................................................................................................. 37

Annex D (informative): Example of required output voltage variation under correlation

models between different load and different cable length.......................... 38

Annex E (informative): Digital Reconfigurable Battery solution for 5G base stations.................... 40

Annex F (informative): Bibliography ................................................................................................... 42

History .............................................................................................................................................................. 43

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
5 Final draft ETSI ES 203 700 V1.1.0 (2020-05)
Intellectual Property Rights
Essential patents

IPRs essential or potentially essential to normative deliverables may have been declared to ETSI. The information

pertaining to these essential IPRs, if any, is publicly available for ETSI members and non-members, and can be found

in ETSI SR 000 314: "Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs); Essential, or potentially Essential, IPRs notified to ETSI in

respect of ETSI standards", which is available from the ETSI Secretariat. Latest updates are available on the ETSI Web

server (https://ipr.etsi.org/).

Pursuant to the ETSI IPR Policy, no investigation, including IPR searches, has been carried out by ETSI. No guarantee

can be given as to the existence of other IPRs not referenced in ETSI SR 000 314 (or the updates on the ETSI Web

server) which are, or may be, or may become, essential to the present document.
Trademarks

The present document may include trademarks and/or tradenames which are asserted and/or registered by their owners.

ETSI claims no ownership of these except for any which are indicated as being the property of ETSI, and conveys no

right to use or reproduce any trademark and/or tradename. Mention of those trademarks in the present document does

not constitute an endorsement by ETSI of products, services or organizations associated with those trademarks.

Foreword

This final draft ETSI Standard (ES) has been produced by ETSI Technical Committee Environmental Engineering (EE),

and is now submitted for the ETSI standards Membership Approval Procedure.
Modal verbs terminology

In the present document "shall", "shall not", "should", "should not", "may", "need not", "will", "will not", "can" and

"cannot" are to be interpreted as described in clause 3.2 of the ETSI Drafting Rules (Verbal forms for the expression of

provisions).

"must" and "must not" are NOT allowed in ETSI deliverables except when used in direct citation.

Executive summary

The present document defines power feeding solutions for 5G, converged wireless and wireline access equipment and

network, taking into consideration their enhanced requirements on service availability and reliability, the new

deployment scenarios, together with the environmental impact of the proposed solutions.

The minimum requirements of different solutions including power feeding structures, components, backup, safety

requirements, environmental conditions are also defined.

The present document is applicable to powering of both mobile and fixed access network elements, in particular on

equipment that have similar configurations and needs.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
6 Final draft ETSI ES 203 700 V1.1.0 (2020-05)
Introduction

Mobile and fixed networks are evolving towards ultra-broadband and, with 5G, are going to converge. The use of much

broader frequency ranges, up to 60 GHz, where radio propagation is an issue, is going to impact the network

deployment topologies. In particular, the use of higher frequencies and the need to cover hot/black spots and indoor

locations, will make it necessary to deploy much denser amount of radio nodes.

5G is introducing major improvements on Massive MIMO, IoT, low latency, unlicensed spectrum, and with V2x for the

vehicular market. Support of some of these services will have a relevant effect on the power ratings and the energy

consumption at the radio base station.

A major new service area of 5G impacting the powering and backup will be the URLLC (Ultra Reliable Low Latency

Communication) as its support will increase the service availability demands by many orders of magnitude. Supporting

such high availability goals will be partly reached through redundant network coverage, but a main support will have to

come through newly designed powering architectures. This will be made even more challenging as 5G will require the

widespread introduction of distributed small cells. ETSI TS 110 174-2-2 [i.5] analyses the implications and indicates

possible solutions to fulfil such high demanding availability goals.

There is a need to define sustainable and smart powering solutions, able to adapt to the present mobile network

technologies and able to evolve to adapt to their evolution. The flexibility would be needed at level of power interface,

power consumption, architecture tolerant to power delivery point changes and including control-monitoring.

This means that it should include from the beginning appropriate modularity and reconfiguration features for local

powering and energy storage and for remote powering solutions including power lines sizing, input and output

conversion power and scalable sources.

A technically equivalent of the present document is jointly developed by ITU-T as Recommendation

ITU-T L.1210 [i.7].
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
7 Final draft ETSI ES 203 700 V1.1.0 (2020-05)
1 Scope

The present document defines power feeding solutions for 5G, converged wireless and wireline access equipment and

network, taking into consideration their enhanced requirements on service availability and reliability, the new

deployment scenarios, together with the environmental impact of the proposed solutions.

The minimum requirements of different solutions including power feeding structures, components, backup, safety

requirements, environmental conditions are also defined.

The present document is applicable to powering of both mobile and fixed access network elements, in particular on

equipment that have similar configurations and needs.

The future development of 5G networks will create a new scenario in which the density of radio cells will increase

considerably, together with the increase of wireline network equipment that are going to be installed in the vicinity to

the users, thereby creating the need to define new solutions for powering that will be environmentally friendly,

sustainable, dependable, smart and visible remotely.

The -48 V DC, up to 400 V DC local and remote power solutions defined respectively in ETSI EN 300 132-2 [2],

ETSI EN 302 099 [4] and ETSI EN 300 132-3-1 [3] or Recommendation ITU-T L.1200 [8] will be considered as the

standards in force for power facilities, together with IEEE 802.3 [14] (PoE).
2 References
2.1 Normative references

References are either specific (identified by date of publication and/or edition number or version number) or

non-specific. For specific references, only the cited version applies. For non-specific references, the latest version of the

referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

Referenced documents which are not found to be publicly available in the expected location might be found at

https://docbox.etsi.org/Reference/.

NOTE: While any hyperlinks included in this clause were valid at the time of publication, ETSI cannot guarantee

their long term validity.

The following referenced documents are necessary for the application of the present document.

[1] ETSI EN 300 132-1 (V2.1.1) (03-2019): "Environmental Engineering (EE); Power supply

interface at the input to Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment; Part 1:

Alternating Current (AC)".

[2] ETSI EN 300 132-2 (V2.6.1) (04-2019):"Environmental Engineering (EE); Power supply interface

at the input of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment; Part 2: -48 V Direct

Current (DC)".

[3] ETSI EN 300 132-3-1 (V2.1.1) (02-2012): "Environmental Engineering (EE); Power supply

interface at the input to telecommunications and datacom (ICT) equipment; Part 3: Operated by

rectified current source, alternating current source or direct current source up to 400 V; Sub-part 1:

Direct current source up to 400 V".

[4] ETSI EN 302 099 (V2.1.1) (08-2014): "Environmental Engineering (EE); Powering of equipment

in access network".

[5] ETSI ES 203 199 (V1.3.1) (02-2015): "Environmental Engineering (EE); Methodology for

environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Information and Communication Technology

(ICT) goods, networks and services".

[6] ETSI TS 103 553-1: "Environmental Engineering (EE); Innovative energy storage technology for

stationary use; Part 1: Overview".
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
8 Final draft ETSI ES 203 700 V1.1.0 (2020-05)

[7] Recommendation ITU-T L.1001 (11/2012): "External universal power adapter solutions for

stationary information and communication technology devices".

[8] Recommendation ITU-T L.1200 (05/2012): "Direct current power feeding interface up to 400 V at

the input to telecommunication and ICT equipment".

[9] Recommendation ITU-T L.1220 (08/2017): "Innovative energy storage technology for stationary

use - Part 1: Overview of energy storage".
NOTE: Available at https://www.itu.int/ITU-T/recommendations/rec.aspx?rec=13283.

[10] Recommendation ITU-T L.1221 (11/2018): "Innovative energy storage technology for stationary

use - Part 2: Battery".

[11] Recommendation ITU-T L.1222 (05/2018): "Innovative energy storage technology for stationary

use - Part 3: Supercapacitor technology".

[12] Recommendation ITU-T L.1350 (10/2016): "Energy efficiency metrics of a base station site".

[13] Recommendation ITU-T L.1410 (12/2014): "Methodology for environmental life cycle

assessments of information and communication technology goods, networks and services".

-2018: "IEEE Standard for Ethernet".
[14] IEEE 802.3

[15] IEEE 802.3bt -2018: "IEEE Standard for Ethernet Amendment 2: Physical Layer and

Management Parameters for Power over Ethernet over 4 pairs".
2.2 Informative references

References are either specific (identified by date of publication and/or edition number or version number) or

non-specific. For specific references, only the cited version applies. For non-specific references, the latest version of the

referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE: While any hyperlinks included in this clause were valid at the time of publication, ETSI cannot guarantee

their long term validity.

The following referenced documents are not necessary for the application of the present document but they assist the

user with regard to a particular subject area.

[i.1] Recommendation ITU-T Q.1743 (09/2016): "IMT-Advanced references to Release 11 of LTE-

Advanced evolved packet core network".

[i.2] ETSI ES 202 336-12: "Environmental Engineering (EE); Monitoring and control interface for

infrastructure equipment (power, cooling and building environment systems used in

telecommunication networks); Part 12: ICT equipment power, energy and environmental

parameters monitoring information model".

[i.3] ETSI EN 301 605 (V1.1.1) (2013-10): "Environmental Engineering (EE); Earthing and bonding of

400 V DC data and telecom (ICT) equipment".

[i.4] ETSI TS 122 261: "5G; Service requirements for next generation new services and markets (3GPP

TS 22.261)".

[i.5] ETSI TS 110 174-2-2: "Access, Terminals, Transmission and Multiplexing (ATTM); Sustainable

Digital Multiservice Cities; Broadband Deployment and Energy Management; Part 2: Multiservice

Networking Infrastructure and Associated Street Furniture; Sub-part 2: The use of lamp-posts for

hosting sensing devices and 5G networking".

[i.6] Recommendation ITU-T K.64 (06/2016): "Safe working practices for outside equipment installed

in particular environments".

[i.7] Recommendation ITU-T L.1210: "Sustainable power feeding solutions for 5G networks".

[i.8] CENELEC EN 50173-1: "Information technology - Generic cabling systems - Part 1: General

requirement".
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
9 Final draft ETSI ES 203 700 V1.1.0 (2020-05)

[i.9] IEEE 802.3cg : "IEEE Approved Draft Standard for Ethernet Amendment 5: Physical Layer

Specifications and Management Parameters for 10 Mb/s Operation and Associated Power Delivery

over a Single Balanced Pair of Conductors".
3 Definition of terms, symbols and abbreviations
3.1 Terms
For the purposes of the present document, the following terms apply:

cell: radio network object that can be uniquely identified by a user equipment from a (cell) identification that is

broadcasted over a geographical area from one UTRAN or GERAN access point
NOTE 1: A Cell in UTRAN is either FDD or TDD mode.
NOTE 2: Available in Recommendation ITU-T Q.1743 [i.1].

cloud RAN: RAN functions are partially or completely centralizing with two additional key features: pooling of

baseband/hardware resources, and virtualization through general-purpose processors

distributed RAN: network development where RAN processing is fully performed at the site as in 4G

macro cells: outdoor cells with a large cell radius
NOTE: Available in Recommendation ITU-T Q.1743 [i.1].
micro cells: small cells
NOTE: Available in Recommendation ITU-T Q.1743 [i.1].

pico cells: cells, mainly indoor cells, with a radius typically less than 50 metres

NOTE: Available in Recommendation ITU-T Q.1743 [i.1]
3.2 Symbols
Void.
3.3 Abbreviations
For the purposes of the present document, the following abbreviations apply:
5G fifth Generation
AAU Active Antenna Unit
AC Alternating Current
AI Artificial Intelligence
BBU Base Band Unit
BCS Battery Control System
BMS Battery Management System
BS Base Station
C-RAN Centralized or Cloud RAN
DC Direct Current
NOTE: Also when used as a suffix to units of measurement.
DOD Deep of Discharge
DP Distribution Point
D-RAN Distributed RAN
DSLAM Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplier
EV Electrical Vehicle
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
10 Final draft ETSI ES 203 700 V1.1.0 (2020-05)
FWA Fixed Wireless Access
GND GrouND
GPON Gigabit Passive Optical Network
Hetnets Heterogeneous network
ICT Information Communication Telecommunication
IoT Internet of things
LFP Lithium Iron Phosphate
MEC Multi-access Edge Computing
MIMO Multi Input Multi Output
mmWaves millimetric Waves
MPPT Maximum Power Point Tracking
NE Network Element
OS Optical Splitter
PAV Power Available Value
PN Power Node
PON Passive Optical Network
PS Power Splitter
PSU Power Supply Unit
PTU Power Transmitter Unit
PV PhotoVoltaic
PVC PolyVinyl Chloride
RAN Radio Access Network
REN Renewable ENergy
RF Radio Frequency
RRH Remote Radio Head
RRU Remote Radio Unit
SEE Site Energy Efficiency
SELV Safety Extra Low Voltage
SOC Status Of Charge
SOH Status Of Health
TDD Time Division Duplex
TTM Time To Market
URLLC Ultra Reliable Low Latency Communication
UTRAN Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network
UV UltraViolet
4 5G networks
4.1 5G Network general description

Figure 1 is presenting a general end to end schematics of 5G network to be powered.

It includes stationary and mobile equipment:

• Macro cell equipment BS for wide coverage. In most cases, they will be located in the same sites as the macro

BS of the previous mobile generations. The increased energy demand and the much higher availability need of

the 5G equipment will pose tough challenges to the powering infrastructure and will likely require its major

upgrade both on the power capabilities and the backup duration.

• Small cell, to cover small geographical area in indoor/outdoor applications, typically to satisfy data traffic hot-

spots, black-spots and to deliver services at very high frequencies (e.g. mmWaves) that could not be supported

just through macro BS installations. Small cells can be subdivided into:

- Micro cell - normally installed outdoors. Designed to support large number of users in high data traffic

areas, to solve coverage issues and to support very high frequency deployment. Capable to cover

medium/large cells size and suitable for application like smart cities, smart metro, etc.

- Pico cell - normally installed indoors. Suitable for enterprises, shopping centres, stadiums applications,

for extended network coverage and data throughput.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
11 Final draft ETSI ES 203 700 V1.1.0 (2020-05)

- Femto cell - basically small mobile base stations designed to provide extended coverage for residential

and SoHo applications. Poor signal strength from mobile operator's base stations can be solved using

Femtocell implementation. Femtocells are primarily introduced to offload network congestion, extend

coverage and increase data capacity to indoor users.
• IoT devices and concentrators.
• In network cloud distribution including edge computing.

Also Fixed Wireless Access (FWA) radio access solutions, typically in point-to-multipoint configuration with coverage

across macro and small cells schemes, will contribute to the evolution of ultra-broadband future networks.

Source: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7169508/.

Figure 1: General principle of a 5G cellular network architecture with interconnectivity among

the different emerging technologies like Massive MIMO network, Cognitive Radio
4.2 Cells coverage and impacts on powering strategy

In the 4G era, a base station covers a radius of hundreds of meters, while a 5G base station operating at mmWave may

cover only 20 to 40 meters, needing a much higher number of equipment to be spread-out in the field to guarantee

appropriate coverage. More dense deployment will also be needed to cover high traffic areas (e.g. stadiums) and indoor

locations. That could result in much higher network development complexity and costs. In addition, the deployment of

additional base stations is difficult and the site resources are not easy to obtain. Therefore, 5G networks will see a major

development of small cells, in the form of small base stations as the basic unit for ultra-intensive networking, that is,

small base stations dense deployment. In the future, the most likely deployment mode for 5G base station construction

will be low-frequency wide area coverage (macro base station) + high-frequency deep coverage (micro base station), as

shown in Figures 2.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
12 Final draft ETSI ES 203 700 V1.1.0 (2020-05)
Figure 2(a): Deployment mode of the 5G bas
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ES 203 700 V1.1.1:2021
01-junij-2021
Okoljski inženiring (EE) - Sonaravne rešitve napajanja za omrežje 5G

Environmental Engineering (EE) - Sustainable power feeding solutions for 5G network

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ETSI ES 203 700 V1.1.1 (2020-12)
ICS:
19.040 Preskušanje v zvezi z Environmental testing
okoljem
35.110 Omreževanje Networking
SIST ES 203 700 V1.1.1:2021 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ES 203 700 V1.1.1:2021
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST ES 203 700 V1.1.1:2021
ETSI ES 203 700 V1.1.1 (2021-02)
ETSI STANDARD
Environmental Engineering (EE);
Sustainable power feeding solutions for 5G network
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST ES 203 700 V1.1.1:2021
2 ETSI ES 203 700 V1.1.1 (2021-02)
Reference
DES/EE-0269
Keywords
5G, cable, energy efficiency, hybrid, power,
remote, sustainability
ETSI
650 Route des Lucioles
F-06921 Sophia Antipolis Cedex - FRANCE
Tel.: +33 4 92 94 42 00 Fax: +33 4 93 65 47 16
Siret N° 348 623 562 00017 - NAF 742 C
Association à but non lucratif enregistrée à la
Sous-Préfecture de Grasse (06) N° 7803/88
Important notice
The present document can be downloaded from:
http://www.etsi.org/standards-search

The present document may be made available in electronic versions and/or in print. The content of any electronic and/or

print versions of the present document shall not be modified without the prior written authorization of ETSI. In case of any

existing or perceived difference in contents between such versions and/or in print, the prevailing version of an ETSI

deliverable is the one made publicly available in PDF format at www.etsi.org/deliver.

Users of the present document should be aware that the document may be subject to revision or change of status.

Information on the current status of this and other ETSI documents is available at

https://portal.etsi.org/TB/ETSIDeliverableStatus.aspx

If you find errors in the present document, please send your comment to one of the following services:

https://portal.etsi.org/People/CommiteeSupportStaff.aspx
Copyright Notification

No part may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying

and microfilm except as authorized by written permission of ETSI.

The content of the PDF version shall not be modified without the written authorization of ETSI.

The copyright and the foregoing restriction extend to reproduction in all media.
© ETSI 2021.
All rights reserved.

DECT™, PLUGTESTS™, UMTS™ and the ETSI logo are trademarks of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members.

3GPP™ and LTE™ are trademarks of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members and

of the 3GPP Organizational Partners.

oneM2M™ logo is a trademark of ETSI registered for the benefit of its Members and

of the oneM2M Partners.
GSM and the GSM logo are trademarks registered and owned by the GSM Association.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ES 203 700 V1.1.1:2021
3 ETSI ES 203 700 V1.1.1 (2021-02)
Contents

Intellectual Property Rights ................................................................................................................................ 5

Foreword ............................................................................................................................................................. 5

Modal verbs terminology .................................................................................................................................... 5

Executive summary ............................................................................................................................................ 5

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ 6

1 Scope ........................................................................................................................................................ 7

2 References ................................................................................................................................................ 7

2.1 Normative references ......................................................................................................................................... 7

2.2 Informative references ........................................................................................................................................ 8

3 Definition of terms, symbols and abbreviations ....................................................................................... 9

3.1 Terms .................................................................................................................................................................. 9

3.2 Symbols .............................................................................................................................................................. 9

3.3 Abbreviations ..................................................................................................................................................... 9

4 5G networks ........................................................................................................................................... 10

4.1 5G Network general description ....................................................................................................................... 10

4.2 Cells coverage and impacts on powering strategy ............................................................................................ 11

4.3 Type of 5G network and impacts on power load, power profile and feeding solution ..................................... 14

5 Powering solutions ................................................................................................................................. 16

5.0 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 16

5.1 Convergence and Core Room Power Supply ................................................................................................... 16

5.1.1 Scenario 1: -48 V DC Power Supply Solution ............................................................................................ 16

5.1.2 Scenario 2: up to 400 V DC Power Supply Solution .................................................................................. 17

5.1.3 5G Power Supply Solution for aggregation and core equipment room ...................................................... 17

5.2 Impact of 5G in C-RAN&D-RAN Sites ........................................................................................................... 18

5.2.1 Changes due to 5G implementation ............................................................................................................ 18

5.2.2 Construction and Modernization Challenges Posed by 5G Network Evolution ......................................... 18

5.2.3 Problems to Be Addressed by 5G Power Systems ...................................................................................... 19

5.2.3.1 Low Cost Deployment .......................................................................................................................... 19

5.2.3.2 Fast Construction .................................................................................................................................. 19

5.2.3.3 Efficient and Energy Saving ................................................................................................................. 19

5.2.3.4 Smooth Evolution ................................................................................................................................. 20

5.2.3.5 Simple O&M ......................................................................................................................................... 20

5.2.4 C-RAN & D-RAN Powering Scenario ....................................................................................................... 20

5.2.4.1 Networking diagram of powering scenario ........................................................................................... 20

5.2.5 5G Power Solution for C-RAN&D-RAN site ............................................................................................. 21

5.2.6 Intelligent Features for C-RAN&D-RAN site ............................................................................................ 23

5.2.6.1 Intelligent Peak Shaving ....................................................................................................................... 23

5.2.6.2 Advance Sleep/Hibernation Mode function .......................................................................................... 25

5.3 Intelligent Management .................................................................................................................................... 25

5.3.0 General ........................................................................................................................................................ 25

5.3.1 Power availability Management ................................................................................................................. 25

5.3.2 SEE Management ....................................................................................................................................... 26

5.3.3 Remote Maintenance .................................................................................................................................. 26

5.3.4 intelligent security ...................................................................................................................................... 26

5.3.5 Intelligent Energy Storage System .............................................................................................................. 27

5.4 Renewable energy solution for 5G base stations .............................................................................................. 27

5.5 Hybrid architecture scenario, with integration of power and optical networks ................................................ 28

6 Energy Efficiency ................................................................................................................................... 32

6.1 Power equipment energy efficiency ................................................................................................................. 32

6.2 NE static and dynamic power requirement management and impact on powering .......................................... 32

7 Dependability, reliability and maintenance ............................................................................................ 32

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST ES 203 700 V1.1.1:2021
4 ETSI ES 203 700 V1.1.1 (2021-02)

8 Environmental impact ............................................................................................................................ 33

Annex A (informative): Which power and where for 5G cells ........................................................... 34

Annex B (informative): Method of optimization of equipment, power and energy ......................... 35

Annex C (informative): Example of powering requirement definition on site and remote

powering area ................................................................................................. 37

Annex D (informative): Example of required output voltage variation under correlation

models between different load and different cable length.......................... 38

Annex E (informative): Digital Reconfigurable Battery solution for 5G base stations.................... 40

Annex F (informative): Bibliography ................................................................................................... 42

History .............................................................................................................................................................. 43

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST ES 203 700 V1.1.1:2021
5 ETSI ES 203 700 V1.1.1 (2021-02)
Intellectual Property Rights
Essential patents

IPRs essential or potentially essential to normative deliverables may have been declared to ETSI. The information

pertaining to these essential IPRs, if any, is publicly available for ETSI members and non-members, and can be found

in ETSI SR 000 314: "Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs); Essential, or potentially Essential, IPRs notified to ETSI in

respect of ETSI standards", which is available from the ETSI Secretariat. Latest updates are available on the ETSI Web

server (https://ipr.etsi.org/).

Pursuant to the ETSI IPR Policy, no investigation, including IPR searches, has been carried out by ETSI. No guarantee

can be given as to the existence of other IPRs not referenced in ETSI SR 000 314 (or the updates on the ETSI Web

server) which are, or may be, or may become, essential to the present document.
Trademarks

The present document may include trademarks and/or tradenames which are asserted and/or registered by their owners.

ETSI claims no ownership of these except for any which are indicated as being the property of ETSI, and conveys no

right to use or reproduce any trademark and/or tradename. Mention of those trademarks in the present document does

not constitute an endorsement by ETSI of products, services or organizations associated with those trademarks.

Foreword

This ETSI Standard (ES) has been produced by ETSI Technical Committee Environmental Engineering (EE).

Modal verbs terminology

In the present document "shall", "shall not", "should", "should not", "may", "need not", "will", "will not", "can" and

"cannot" are to be interpreted as described in clause 3.2 of the ETSI Drafting Rules (Verbal forms for the expression of

provisions).

"must" and "must not" are NOT allowed in ETSI deliverables except when used in direct citation.

Executive summary

The present document defines power feeding solutions for 5G, converged wireless and wireline access equipment and

network, taking into consideration their enhanced requirements on service availability and reliability, the new

deployment scenarios, together with the environmental impact of the proposed solutions.

The minimum requirements of different solutions including power feeding structures, components, backup, safety

requirements, environmental conditions are also defined.

The present document is applicable to powering of both mobile and fixed access network elements, in particular on

equipment that have similar configurations and needs.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST ES 203 700 V1.1.1:2021
6 ETSI ES 203 700 V1.1.1 (2021-02)
Introduction

Mobile and fixed networks are evolving towards ultra-broadband and, with 5G, are going to converge. The use of much

broader frequency ranges, up to 60 GHz, where radio propagation is an issue, is going to impact the network

deployment topologies. In particular, the use of higher frequencies and the need to cover hot/black spots and indoor

locations, will make it necessary to deploy much denser amount of radio nodes.

5G is introducing major improvements on Massive MIMO, IoT, low latency, unlicensed spectrum, and with V2x for the

vehicular market. Support of some of these services will have a relevant effect on the power ratings and the energy

consumption at the radio base station.

A major new service area of 5G impacting the powering and backup will be the URLLC (Ultra Reliable Low Latency

Communication) as its support will increase the service availability demands by many orders of magnitude. Supporting

such high availability goals will be partly reached through redundant network coverage, but a main support will have to

come through newly designed powering architectures. This will be made even more challenging as 5G will require the

widespread introduction of distributed small cells. ETSI TS 110 174-2-2 [i.5] analyses the implications and indicates

possible solutions to fulfil such high demanding availability goals.

There is a need to define sustainable and smart powering solutions, able to adapt to the present mobile network

technologies and able to evolve to adapt to their evolution. The flexibility would be needed at level of power interface,

power consumption, architecture tolerant to power delivery point changes and including control-monitoring.

This means that it should include from the beginning appropriate modularity and reconfiguration features for local

powering and energy storage and for remote powering solutions including power lines sizing, input and output

conversion power and scalable sources.

The present document was developed jointly by ETSI TC EE and ITU-T Study Group 5. It is published respectively by

ITU and ETSI as Recommendation ITU-T L.1210 [i.7] and ETSI ES 203 700 (the present document), which are

technically-equivalent.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST ES 203 700 V1.1.1:2021
7 ETSI ES 203 700 V1.1.1 (2021-02)
1 Scope

The present document defines power feeding solutions for 5G, converged wireless and wireline access equipment and

network, taking into consideration their enhanced requirements on service availability and reliability, the new

deployment scenarios, together with the environmental impact of the proposed solutions.

The minimum requirements of different solutions including power feeding structures, components, backup, safety

requirements, environmental conditions are also defined.

The present document is applicable to powering of both mobile and fixed access network elements, in particular on

equipment that have similar configurations and needs.

The future development of 5G networks will create a new scenario in which the density of radio cells will increase

considerably, together with the increase of wireline network equipment that are going to be installed in the vicinity to

the users, thereby creating the need to define new solutions for powering that will be environmentally friendly,

sustainable, dependable, smart and visible remotely.

The -48 V DC, up to 400 V DC local and remote power solutions defined respectively in ETSI EN 300 132-2 [2],

ETSI EN 302 099 [i.10] and ETSI EN 300 132-3-1 [3] or Recommendation ITU-T L.1200 [i.13] will be considered as

the standards in force for power facilities, together with IEEE 802.3 [i.18] (PoE).

2 References
2.1 Normative references

References are either specific (identified by date of publication and/or edition number or version number) or

non-specific. For specific references, only the cited version applies. For non-specific references, the latest version of the

referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

Referenced documents which are not found to be publicly available in the expected location might be found at

https://docbox.etsi.org/Reference/.

NOTE: While any hyperlinks included in this clause were valid at the time of publication, ETSI cannot guarantee

their long term validity.

The following referenced documents are necessary for the application of the present document.

[1] ETSI EN 300 132-1 (V2.1.1) (03-2019): "Environmental Engineering (EE); Power supply

interface at the input to Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment; Part 1:

Alternating Current (AC)".

[2] ETSI EN 300 132-2 (V2.6.1) (04-2019):"Environmental Engineering (EE); Power supply interface

at the input of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) equipment; Part 2: -48 V Direct

Current (DC)".

[3] ETSI EN 300 132-3-1 (V2.1.1) (02-2012): "Environmental Engineering (EE); Power supply

interface at the input to telecommunications and datacom (ICT) equipment; Part 3: Operated by

rectified current source, alternating current source or direct current source up to 400 V; Sub-part 1:

Direct current source up to 400 V".

[4] ETSI ES 203 199 (V1.3.1) (02-2015): "Environmental Engineering (EE); Methodology for

environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Information and Communication Technology

(ICT) goods, networks and services".

[5] Recommendation ITU-T L.1410 (12/2014): "Methodology for environmental life cycle

assessments of information and communication technology goods, networks and services".

ETSI
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST ES 203 700 V1.1.1:2021
8 ETSI ES 203 700 V1.1.1 (2021-02)
2.2 Informative references

References are either specific (identified by date of publication and/or edition number or version number) or

non-specific. For specific references, only the cited version applies. For non-specific references, the latest version of the

referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE: While any hyperlinks included in this clause were valid at the time of publication, ETSI cannot guarantee

their long term validity.

The following referenced documents are not necessary for the application of the present document but they assist the

user with regard to a particular subject area.

[i.1] Recommendation ITU-T Q.1743 (09/2016): "IMT-Advanced references to Release 11 of

LTE-Advanced evolved packet core network".

[i.2] ETSI ES 202 336-12: "Environmental Engineering (EE); Monitoring and control interface for

infrastructure equipment (power, cooling and building environment systems used in

telecommunication networks); Part 12: ICT equipment power, energy and environmental

parameters monitoring information model".

[i.3] ETSI EN 301 605 (V1.1.1) (2013-10): "Environmental Engineering (EE); Earthing and bonding of

400 V DC data and telecom (ICT) equipment".

[i.4] ETSI TS 122 261: "5G; Service requirements for next generation new services and markets (3GPP

TS 22.261)".

[i.5] ETSI TS 110 174-2-2: "Access, Terminals, Transmission and Multiplexing (ATTM); Sustainable

Digital Multiservice Cities; Broadband Deployment and Energy Management; Part 2: Multiservice

Networking Infrastructure and Associated Street Furniture; Sub-part 2: The use of lamp-posts for

hosting sensing devices and 5G networking".

[i.6] Recommendation ITU-T K.64 (06/2016): "Safe working practices for outside equipment installed

in particular environments".

[i.7] Recommendation ITU-T L.1210: "Sustainable power feeding solutions for 5G networks".

[i.8] EN 50173-1: "Information technology - Generic cabling systems - Part 1: General requirement"

(produced by CENELEC).

[i.9] IEEE 802.3cg : "IEEE Approved Draft Standard for Ethernet Amendment 5: Physical Layer

Specifications and Management Parameters for 10 Mb/s Operation and Associated Power Delivery

over a Single Balanced Pair of Conductors".

[i.10] ETSI EN 302 099 (V2.1.1) (08-2014): "Environmental Engineering (EE); Powering of equipment

in access network".

[i.11] ETSI TS 103 553-1: "Environmental Engineering (EE); Innovative energy storage technology for

stationary use; Part 1: Overview".

[i.12] Recommendation ITU-T L.1001 (11/2012): "External universal power adapter solutions for

stationary information and communication technology devices".

[i.13] Recommendation ITU-T L.1200 (05/2012): "Direct current power feeding interface up to 400 V at

the input to telecommunication and ICT equipment".

[i.14] Recommendation ITU-T L.1220 (08/2017): "Innovative energy storage technology for stationary

use - Part 1: Overview of energy storage".
NOTE: Available at https://www.itu.int/ITU-T/recommendations/rec.aspx?rec=13283.

[i.15] Recommendation ITU-T L.1221 (11/2018): "Innovative energy storage technology for stationary

use - Part 2: Battery".

[i.16] Recommendation ITU-T L.1222 (05/2018): "Innovative energy storage technology for stationary

use - Part 3: Supercapacitor technology".
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST ES 203 700 V1.1.1:2021
9 ETSI ES 203 700 V1.1.1 (2021-02)

[i.17] Recommendation ITU-T L.1350 (10/2016): "Energy efficiency metrics of a base station site".

[i.18] IEEE 802.3 -2018: "IEEE Standard for Ethernet".

[i.19] IEEE 802.3bt -2018: "IEEE Standard for Ethernet Amendment 2: Physical Layer and

Management Parameters for Power over Ethernet over 4 pairs".
[i.20] A Survey of 5G Network: Architecture and Emerging Technologies.
NOTE: Available at https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7169508.
[i.21] 5G Frequency bands: Spectrum Allocations for Next-Gen LTE.

NOTE: Available at https://www.cablefree.net/wirelesstechnology/4glte/5g-frequency-bands-lte/.

3 Definition of terms, symbols and abbreviations
3.1 Terms
For the purposes of the present document, the following terms apply:

cell: radio network object that can be uniquely identified by a user equipment from a (cell) identification that is

broadcasted over a geographical area from one UTRAN or GERAN access point
NOTE 1: A Cell in UTRAN is either FDD or TDD mode.
NOTE 2: Defined in Recommendation ITU-T Q.1743 [i.1].

cloud RAN: RAN functions are partially or completely centralizing with two additional key features: pooling of

baseband/hardware resources, and virtualization through general-purpose processors

distributed RAN: network development where RAN processing is fully performed at the site as in 4G

macro cells: outdoor cells with a large cell radius
NOTE: Defined in Recommendation ITU-T Q.1743 [i.1].
micro cells: small cells
NOTE: Defined in Recommendation ITU-T Q.1743 [i.1].

pico cells: cells, mainly indoor cells, with a radius typically less than 50 metres

NOTE: Defined in Recommendation ITU-T Q.1743 [i.1]
3.2 Symbols
Void.
3.3 Abbreviations
For the purposes of the present document, the following abbreviations apply:
5G Fifth Generation
AAU Active Antenna Unit
AC Alternating Current
AI Artificial Intelligence
BBU Base Band Unit
BCS Battery Control System
BMS Battery Management System
BS Base Station
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST ES 203 700 V1.1.1:2021
10 ETSI ES 203 700 V1.1.1 (2021-02)
C-RAN Centralized or Cloud RAN
DC Direct Current
NOTE: Also when used as a suffix to units of measurement.
DOD Deep of Discharge
DP Distribution Point
D-RAN Distributed RAN
DSLAM Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplier
EV Electrical Vehicle
FWA Fixed Wireless Access
GND GrouND
GPON Gigabit Passive Optical Network
Hetnets Heterogeneous network
ICT Information Communication Telecommunication
IoT Internet of Things
LFP Lithium Iron Phosphate
MEC Multi-access Edge Computing
MIMO Multi Input Multi Output
mmWaves millimetric Waves
MPPT Maximum Power Point Tracking
NE Network Element
OS Optical Splitter
PAV Power Available Value
PN Power Node
PON Passive Optical Network
PS Power Splitter
PSU Power Supply Unit
PTU Power Transmitter Unit
PV PhotoVoltaic
PVC PolyVinyl Chloride
RAN Radio Access Network
REN Renewable ENergy
RF Radio Frequency
RRH Remote Radio Head
RRU Remote Radio Unit
SEE Site Energy Efficiency
SELV Safety Extra Low Voltage
SOC Status Of Charge
SOH Status Of Health
TDD Time Division Duplex
TTM Time To Market
URLLC Ultra Reliable Low Latency Communication
UTRAN Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network
UV UltraViolet
4 5G networks
4.1 5G Network general description

Figure 1 is presenting a general end to end schematics of 5G network to be powered.

It includes stationary and mobile equipment:

• Macro cell equipment BS for wide coverage. In most cases, they will be located in the same sites as the macro

BS of the previous mobile generations. The increased energy demand and the much higher availability need of

the 5G equipment will pose tough challenges to the powering infrastructure and will likely require its major

upgrade both on the power capabilities and the backup duration.
ETSI
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST ES 203 700 V1.1.1:2021
11 ETSI ES 203 700 V1.1.1 (2021-02)

• Small cell, to cover small geographical area in indoor/outdoor applications, typically to satisfy data traffic hot-

spots, black-spots and to deliver services at very high frequencies (e.g. mmWaves) that could not be supported

just through macro BS installations. Small cells can be subdivided into:

- Micro cell - normally installed outdoors. Designed to support large number of users in high data traffic

areas, to solve coverage issues and to support very high frequency deployment. Capable to cover

medium/large cells size and suitable for application like smart cities, smart metro, etc.

- Pico cell - normally installed indoors. Suitable for enterprises, shopping centres, stadiums applications,

for extended network coverage and data throughput.

- Femto cell - basically small mobile base stations designed to provide extended coverage for residential

and SoHo applications. Poor signal strength from mobile operator's base stations can be solved using

Femtocell implementation. Femtocells are primarily introduced to offload network congestion, extend

coverage and increase data capacity to indoor users.
• IoT devices and concentrators.
• In network cloud distribution including edge computing.

Also Fixed Wireless Access (FWA) radio access solutions, typically in point-to-multipoint configuration with coverage

across macro and small cells schemes, will contribute to the evolution of ultra-broadband future networks.

Source: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7169508 [i.20].

Figure 1: General principle of a 5G cellular network architecture with interconnectivity among

...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.