Safety, functionality and classification of Photovoltaic Earth Fault Protection (PV EFP) equipment

This document is applicable to low voltage Photovoltaic Earth-Fault Protection Equipment (PVEFPE) whose function is to detect, interrupt, and warn system operators of earth faults in solar photovoltaic arrays. NOTE 1 In the context of this document, the PV array may include connected wiring and equipment. The required coverage of the monitoring and protection is defined in PV installation codes and standards, including aspects such as whether or not the coverage is required to include battery circuits, the DC outputs of DC-DC converters, etc. NOTE 2 The IEC definition of low voltage is 1 000 V or less for AC systems and 1 500 V or less for DC systems. PV-EFPE may be stand-alone or integrated into other equipment such as PV power conversion equipment, a PV combiner, etc. This document specifies: - the types and levels of the monitoring and protection functions that may be provided; - the nature and timing of responses to earth faults; - test methods for validating the monitoring and protection functions provided; - requirements for functional safety and fault tolerance; - requirements for product safety including construction, environmental suitability, markings, documentation, and testing.

Sicherheit, Funktionalität und Klassifizierung von photovoltaischen Erdschluß-Schutzeinrichtungen (PV EFP)

Groupes photovoltaïques (PV) - Matériel de protection contre les défauts à la terre - Sécurité et fonctionnalités relatives à la sécurité

IEC 63112:2021 s'applique aux matériels de protection contre les défauts à la terre photovoltaïques (PV-EFPE) dont la fonction est de détecter, d'interrompre et de mettre en garde les opérateurs de réseau en cas de défauts à la terre dans les groupes photovoltaïques. Le présent document spécifie: - les types et les niveaux des fonctions de surveillance et de protection qui peuvent être fournies; - la nature et la chronologie des réponses aux défauts à la terre; - les méthodes d'essai pour la validation des fonctions de surveillance et de protection fournies; - les exigences en matière de sécurité fonctionnelle et de tolérance aux pannes; - les exigences relatives à la sécurité du produit, y compris la construction, l'adaptation à l'environnement, les marquages, la documentation et les essais

Varnost, funkcionalnost in klasifikacija fotonapetostne opreme za preprečevanje zemeljskega stika (PV EFP)

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
11-Oct-2021
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
05-Oct-2021
Due Date
10-Dec-2021
Completion Date
12-Oct-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN IEC 63112:2021
01-november-2021
Varnost, funkcionalnost in klasifikacija fotonapetostne opreme za preprečevanje
zemeljskega stika (PV EFP)

Safety, functionality and classification of Photovoltaic Earth Fault Protection (PV EFP)

equipment
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN IEC 63112:2021
ICS:
27.160 Sončna energija Solar energy engineering
SIST EN IEC 63112:2021 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN IEC 63112:2021
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SIST EN IEC 63112:2021
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN IEC 63112
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
August 2021
ICS 27.160
English Version
Photovoltaic (PV) arrays - Earth fault protection equipment -
Safety and safety-related functionality
(IEC 63112:2021)

Groupes photovoltaïques (PV) - Matériel de protection Sicherheit, Funktionalität und Klassifizierung von

contre les défauts à la terre - Sécurité et fonctionnalités photovoltaischen Erdschluß-Schutzeinrichtungen (PV EFP)

relatives à la sécurité (IEC 63112:2021)
(IEC 63112:2021)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2021-07-27. CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC

Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the

same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic,

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. EN IEC 63112:2021 E
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SIST EN IEC 63112:2021
EN IEC 63112:2021 (E)
European foreword

The text of document 82/1885/FDIS, future edition 1 of IEC 63112, prepared by IEC/TC 82 “Solar

photovoltaic energy systems” was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and approved by

CENELEC as EN IEC 63112:2021.
The following dates are fixed:

• latest date by which the document has to be implemented at national (dop) 2022–04–27

level by publication of an identical national standard or by endorsement

• latest date by which the national standards conflicting with the (dow) 2024–07–27

document have to be withdrawn

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CENELEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

Any feedback and questions on this document should be directed to the users’ national committee. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found on the CENELEC website.
Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 63112:2021 was approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard without any modification.

In the official version, for Bibliography, the following notes have to be added for the standards

indicated:
IEC 60947-3:2020 NOTE Harmonized as EN IEC 60947-3:2021 (not modified)
IEC 61215-2 NOTE Harmonized as EN IEC 61215-2
IEC 62109-2:2011 NOTE Harmonized as EN 62109-2:2011 (not modified)
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SIST EN IEC 63112:2021
EN IEC 63112:2021 (E)
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments)

applies.

NOTE 1 Where an International Publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the

relevant EN/HD applies.

NOTE 2 Up-to-date information on the latest versions of the European Standards listed in this annex is available

here: www.cenelec.eu.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC 60269-6 - Low-voltage fuses - Part 6: Supplementary EN 60269-6 -
requirements for fuse-links for the
protection of solar photovoltaic energy
systems
IEC 60417 - Graphical symbols for use on equipment - - -
12-month subscription to regularly updated
online database comprising all graphical
symbols published in IEC 60417
IEC 60664-1 - Insulation coordination for equipment EN IEC 60664-1 -
within low-voltage supply systems - Part 1:
Principles, requirements and tests
IEC 60730-1 (mod) 2013 Automatic electrical controls - Part 1: EN 60730-1 2016
General requirements
+ A1 2015 + A1 2019
+ A2 2020
IEC 60947-2 2016 Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear - EN 60947-2 2017
Part 2: Circuit-breakers
+ A1 2019 + A1 2020

IEC 61008-1 (mod) 2010 Residual current operated circuit-breakers EN 61008-1 2012

without integral overcurrent protection for
household and similar uses (RCCBs) - Part
1: General rules
+ A1 (mod) 2012 + A1 2014
+ A2 (mod) 2013 + A2 2014
- - + A11 2015
- - + A12 2017
IEC 61439-1 - Low-voltage switchgear and controlgear EN IEC 61439-1 -
assemblies - Part 1: General rules
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SIST EN IEC 63112:2021
EN IEC 63112:2021 (E)
IEC 61557-8 - Electrical safety in low voltage distribution EN 61557-8 -
systems up to 1 000 V a.c. and 1 500 V
d.c. - Equipment for testing, measuring or
monitoring of protective measures - Part 8:
Insulation monitoring devices for IT
systems
IEC 62109-1 2010 Safety of power converters for use in EN 62109-1 2010
photovoltaic power systems - Part 1:
General requirements
IEC 62109-3 2020 Safety of power converters for use in - -
photovoltaic power systems - Part 3:
Particular requirements for electronic
devices in combination with photovoltaic
elements
ISO 3864 series Graphical symbols - Safety colours and - -
safety signs
IEC/TS 61836 - Solar photovoltaic energy systems - - -
Terms, definitions and symbols
IEC/TS 63053 - General requirements for residual current - -
operated protective devices for DC system
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SIST EN IEC 63112:2021
IEC 63112
Edition 1.0 2021-06
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
colour
inside
Photovoltaic (PV) arrays – Earth fault protection equipment – Safety and safety-
related functionality
Groupes photovoltaïques (PV) – Matériel de protection contre les défauts à la
terre – Sécurité et fonctionnalités relatives à la sécurité
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 27.160 ISBN 978-2-8322-9872-5

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
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SIST EN IEC 63112:2021
– 2 – IEC 63112:2021 © IEC 2021
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 6

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 8

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 9

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 9

3 Terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviated terms ........................................................ 10

4 Requirements relating PV-EFP to system topology ........................................................ 12

4.1 General ................................................................................................................. 12

4.2 PV-EFP functions for different system topologies .................................................. 16

4.3 PV-EFPE control over host system operation ........................................................ 18

4.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 18

4.3.2 Types of PV-EFPE requiring host system control ........................................... 18

4.3.3 Methods of control of the host system operation ............................................ 18

4.4 Disconnection under fault conditions ..................................................................... 19

4.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 19

4.4.2 Disconnecting means ..................................................................................... 19

4.4.3 High impedance connections ......................................................................... 19

4.4.4 Indirect disconnection .................................................................................... 19

4.5 Systems with more than one sub-array (informative) ............................................. 20

4.5.1 General ......................................................................................................... 20

4.5.2 Isolated sub-arrays ........................................................................................ 20

4.5.3 Non-isolated sub-arrays ................................................................................. 20

5 PV array to earth insulation monitoring .......................................................................... 20

5.1 General ................................................................................................................. 20

5.2 Array insulation monitoring requirements .............................................................. 21

5.3 Array insulation fault response requirements......................................................... 21

5.4 Provisions for reset ............................................................................................... 22

5.5 Insulation monitoring function adjustability ............................................................ 22

6 PV array residual or earth current monitoring................................................................. 22

6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 22

6.2 Required PV-EFP current monitoring functions ..................................................... 22

6.3 Shock hazard current monitoring ........................................................................... 23

6.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 23

6.3.2 Limits and response....................................................................................... 23

6.3.3 Provisions for reset ........................................................................................ 23

6.3.4 Shock hazard current monitoring – adjustability ............................................. 24

6.3.5 Fault tolerance of shock hazard current monitoring ........................................ 24

6.4 Fire hazard (continuous) current monitoring by electronic means .......................... 24

6.4.1 Overview ....................................................................................................... 24

6.4.2 General ......................................................................................................... 24

6.4.3 Settings and response ................................................................................... 24

6.4.4 Provisions for reset ........................................................................................ 25

6.4.5 Fire hazard current monitoring function adjustability ...................................... 25

6.4.6 Fault tolerance of fire hazard current monitoring by electronic means ............ 25

6.5 Fire hazard current monitoring by an overcurrent protective device in the

functional earthing conductor ................................................................................ 25

6.5.1 Overview ....................................................................................................... 25

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SIST EN IEC 63112:2021
IEC 63112:2021 © IEC 2021 – 3 –

6.5.2 General ......................................................................................................... 25

6.5.3 Ratings .......................................................................................................... 26

6.5.4 Response ...................................................................................................... 26

6.5.5 Provisions for reset ........................................................................................ 26

6.5.6 Overcurrent protective device adjustability and replacement .......................... 26

7 Construction .................................................................................................................. 27

7.1 General ................................................................................................................. 27

7.2 Environmental considerations ............................................................................... 27

8 PV-EFP Fault Indication ................................................................................................ 28

8.1 General ................................................................................................................. 28

8.2 Integral fault indication .......................................................................................... 28

8.3 Remote fault indication ......................................................................................... 28

8.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 28

8.3.2 Observability ................................................................................................. 28

8.3.3 Remote fault indication means ....................................................................... 28

8.4 Resetting of the fault indication ............................................................................. 28

9 Testing .......................................................................................................................... 29

9.1 General requirements for the tests in 9.2 through 9.5 ............................................ 29

9.1.1 Tests required ............................................................................................... 29

9.1.2 DC sources .................................................................................................... 29

9.1.3 AC sources .................................................................................................... 30

9.1.4 Laboratory conditions .................................................................................... 30

9.1.5 Monitoring the PV-EFPE means of control of the host system ........................ 30

9.1.6 Control of the PV-EFPE state ........................................................................ 30

9.1.7 Test setup ..................................................................................................... 31

9.2 Tests for PV array insulation monitoring functions ................................................. 32

9.2.1 Setup ............................................................................................................. 32

9.2.2 Sequence of tests .......................................................................................... 33

9.2.3 Test for R above setting during system start-up ......................................... 34

iso

9.2.4 Test for R below setting during system start-up ......................................... 34

iso

9.2.5 Test for R dropping below setting during operation .................................... 34

iso

9.2.6 Test for short circuit earth fault during system start-up .................................. 35

9.2.7 Test for short circuit earth fault during operation – non-earth-referenced

PV arrays ...................................................................................................... 35

9.2.8 Tests for PV array mid-point fault detection ................................................... 36

9.2.9 24 h timer test ............................................................................................... 36

9.3 Tests for residual or earth current monitoring functions: ........................................ 36

9.3.1 Setup ............................................................................................................. 36

9.3.2 Sequence of tests .......................................................................................... 37

9.3.3 Tests for shock hazard current monitoring ..................................................... 37

9.3.4 Tests for fire hazard current monitoring by electronic means ......................... 39

9.3.5 Fault-tolerance of shock hazard current monitoring and fire hazard

current monitoring by electronic means.......................................................... 41

9.3.6 Tests for fire hazard current monitoring by an overcurrent protective

device in the functional earthing conductor .................................................... 42

9.4 Test for short circuit earth fault during operation ................................................... 42

9.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 42

9.4.2 Short circuit earth fault test procedure ........................................................... 42

9.4.3 Short circuit earth fault test pass/fail criteria .................................................. 42

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SIST EN IEC 63112:2021
– 4 – IEC 63112:2021 © IEC 2021

9.5 Tests for coordination of PV-EFP functions ........................................................... 43

9.6 Product safety tests .............................................................................................. 44

10 Software or firmware performing safety critical functions ............................................... 44

10.1 General ................................................................................................................. 44

10.1.1 Overview ....................................................................................................... 44

10.1.2 Risk analysis ................................................................................................. 44

10.1.3 Integrated PV-EFPE ...................................................................................... 45

10.2 Evaluation methods .............................................................................................. 45

10.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 45

10.2.2 Testing with features disabled ....................................................................... 45

10.2.3 Functional safety analysis .............................................................................. 45

11 Marking and documentation ........................................................................................... 46

11.1 Equipment markings ............................................................................................. 46

11.1.1 General ......................................................................................................... 46

11.1.2 Marking content ............................................................................................. 46

11.2 Installation and operating instructions ................................................................... 48

11.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 48

11.2.2 General content ............................................................................................. 49

11.2.3 Information related to installation ................................................................... 49

11.2.4 Information related to operation ..................................................................... 51

11.2.5 Information related to maintenance ................................................................ 52

12 Routine (production) tests.............................................................................................. 52

12.1 General ................................................................................................................. 52

12.2 Routine dielectric tests .......................................................................................... 52

12.3 Routine EFP function tests .................................................................................... 52

12.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 52

12.3.2 Shock hazard current monitoring ................................................................... 53

12.3.3 Electronic fire hazard current monitoring ........................................................ 53

12.3.4 Residual current device test function ............................................................. 53

12.3.5 PV array insulation monitoring function .......................................................... 53

Annex A (informative) Examples of system topologies with respect to PV Earth Fault

Protection ............................................................................................................................. 54

A.1 General ................................................................................................................. 54

A.2 Functionally earthed (FE) system with FE current monitoring ................................ 54

A.3 Functionally earthed (FE) system with a functionally earthed conductor fault ........ 55

A.4 Functionally earthed (FE) system with residual current monitoring ........................ 56

A.5 Non-separated system with residual current monitoring on PV+/- .......................... 57

A.6 Non-separated system with residual current monitoring on the AC side ................. 58

A.7 Non-earth-referenced system with continuous insulation monitoring ...................... 59

Annex B (informative) Background and rationale for PV Earth Fault Protection

requirements ......................................................................................................................... 60

B.1 Purpose ................................................................................................................ 60

B.2 PV earth faults – scope and meaning .................................................................... 60

B.3 PV-EFP goals ....................................................................................................... 61

B.4 PV-EFP challenges ............................................................................................... 61

B.4.1 Characteristics of PV systems that affect PV-EFP approaches ...................... 61

B.4.2 PV-EFP “blind spots” and coordination of protective measures ...................... 63

B.4.3 Relation between PV-EFP protection settings and PV system size ................ 65

B.5 Current and historical standards covering PV Earth Fault Protection ..................... 68

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SIST EN IEC 63112:2021
IEC 63112:2021 © IEC 2021 – 5 –

B.5.1 General ......................................................................................................... 68

B.5.2 NFPA 70 – the US National Electrical Code (NEC) ........................................ 68

B.5.3 UL1741 and related documents ..................................................................... 68

B.5.4 VDE 0126-1-1 ................................................................................................ 69

B.5.5 IEC 62109-2 .................................................................................................. 70

B.5.6 IEC 60364-7-712 ........................................................................................... 71

B.5.7 IEC 62548 ..................................................................................................... 71

B.5.8 Conclusions ................................................................................................... 72

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 73

Figure 1 – Examples of functionally earthed system topologies ............................................. 14

Figure 2 – Examples of non-earth-referenced system topologies........................................... 15

Figure 3 – Examples of non-separated system topologies ..................................................... 16

Figure 4 – Example setup for PV-EFPE testing ..................................................................... 32

Figure 5 – Example setup for PV-EFPE testing of array mid-point faults ............................... 33

Figure A.1 – Functionally earthed (FE) system with current monitoring in the FE

conductor .............................................................................................................................. 54

Figure A.2 – Functionally earthed (FE) system with a functionally

earthed conductor fault ......................................................................................................... 55

Figure A.3 – Functionally earthed (FE) system with residual current monitoring .................... 56

Figure A.4 – Non-separated 3-phase system with residual current monitoring on PV+/- ........ 57

Figure A.5 – Non-separated 1-phase system with residual current monitoring

on the AC side ...................................................................................................................... 58

Figure A.6 – Non-earth-referenced system with continuous insulation monitoring.................. 59

Table 1 – PV-EFP functions based on system topology and earthing .................................... 17

Table 2 – Example PV array to earth insulation resistance limits ........................................... 21

Table 3 – Shock hazard – Sudden current change limits and response times ........................ 23

Table 4 – Example continuous current limits and response times .......................................... 24

Table 5 – Example trip current of overcurrent protection in the functional earthing

conductor .............................................................................................................................. 26

Table B.1 – Sudden change residual current limits ................................................................ 70

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SIST EN IEC 63112:2021
– 6 – IEC 63112:2021 © IEC 2021
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) ARRAYS –
EARTH FAULT PROTECTION EQUIPMENT –
SAFETY AND SAFETY-RELATED FUNCTIONALITY
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote international

co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To this end and

in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications, Technical Reports,

Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC Publication(s)”). Their

preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested in the subject dealt with

may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-governmental organizations liaising

with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely with the International Organization for

Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects s
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