Surge arresters - Part 1: Non-linear resistor type gapped surge arresters for a.c. systems

Applies, in particular, to surge arresters consisting of single or multiple spark gaps in series with one or more non-linear resistors.

Überspannungsableiter - Teil 1: Überspannungsableiter mit nichtlinearen Widerständen und Funkenstrecken für Wechselspannungsnetze

Parafoudres - Partie 1: Parafoudres à résistance variable avec éclateurs pour réseaux à courant alternatif

S'applique particulièrement aux parafoudres comportant un éclateur simple ou multiple en série, avec une ou plusieurs résistances variables.

Prenapetostni odvodniki - 1. del: Prenapetostni odvodniki z iskrišči z nelinearnimi upori za sisteme z izmenično napetostjo (IEC 60099-1:1991)

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
31-Mar-1998
Withdrawal Date
16-Nov-2022
Technical Committee
Current Stage
9900 - Withdrawal (Adopted Project)
Start Date
16-Nov-2022
Due Date
09-Dec-2022
Completion Date
17-Nov-2022

Relations

Buy Standard

Standard
SIST EN 60099-1:1998
English language
50 pages
sale 10% off
Preview
sale 10% off
Preview
e-Library read for
1 day

Standards Content (Sample)

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 60099-1:1998
01-april-1998

3UHQDSHWRVWQLRGYRGQLNLGHO3UHQDSHWRVWQLRGYRGQLNL]LVNULãþL]QHOLQHDUQLPL

XSRUL]DVLVWHPH]L]PHQLþQRQDSHWRVWMR ,(&

Surge arresters - Part 1: Non-linear resistor type gapped surge arresters for a.c. systems

Überspannungsableiter - Teil 1: Überspannungsableiter mit nichtlinearen Widerständen

und Funkenstrecken für Wechselspannungsnetze

Parafoudres - Partie 1: Parafoudres à résistance variable avec éclateurs pour réseaux à

courant alternatif
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 60099-1:1994
ICS:
29.120.50 9DURYDONHLQGUXJD Fuses and other overcurrent
PHGWRNRYQD]DãþLWD protection devices
29.240.10 Transformatorske postaje. Substations. Surge arresters
Prenapetostni odvodniki
SIST EN 60099-1:1998 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN 60099-1:1998
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN 60099-1:1998
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN 60099-1:1998
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN 60099-1:1998
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN 60099-1:1998
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN 60099-1:1998
CEI
NORME
IEC
INTERNATIONALE
99-1
INTERNATIONAL
Troisième édition
STANDARD
Third edition
1991-05
Parafoudres
Partie 1:
Parafoudres à résistance variable avec
éclateurs pour réseaux à courant alternatif
Surge arresters
Part 1:
Non-linear resistor type gapped surge arresters
for a.c. systems
de reproduction réservés — Copyright — all rights reserved
© CE11991 Droits
of this publication may be reproduced or utilized In
Aucune partie de cette publication ne peut litre reproduite rd No part

utilisée sous quelque tonne que co soit et par aucun pro- any form or by any means. electronic or mecharulcal,

cédé, électronique ou mécanique, y compris la photocopie et including photocopying and microfilm, without permissio

in wilting from the publisher.
les microfilms, sana l'accord écrit de l'éditeur.

Bureau Central de la Commission Electrotechnique Inte rnationale 3, rue de Varembé Genève, Suisse

Commission Electrotechnique Internationale CODE PRIX "
International Electrotechnical Commission
PRICE CODEPRICE CODE
Memaytrapoat♦aa 3neKrporexHK4ecKaR KOMMCCNR
IEC
Pour prix, catalogue on vigueur
•  voir
For price, see curent catalogue
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN 60099-1:1998
- 3 -
99-1 ©IEC
CONTENTS
Page
11
FOREWORD
13
INTRODUCTION
Clause
SECTION 1: GENERAL
15
1.1 Scope
15 1.2 Normative references
SECTION 2: DEFINITIONS
15
2.1 Surge arrester
17 2.2 Non-linear resistor type gapped arrester
17 2.3 Series gap of an arrester
17 2.4 Non-linear series resistor of an arrester
2.5 Section of an arrester 17
17
2.6 Unit of an arrester
17
2.7 Pressure-relief device of an arrester
Rated voltage of an arrester 17
2.8
17
Rated frequency of an arrester 2.9
17 2.10 Disruptive discharge
17
2.11 Puncture
17
2.12 Flashover
17
2.13 Sparkover of an arrester
19
2.14 Impulse
19
2.15 Rectangular impulse
19
2.16 Peak (crest) value of an impulse
2.17 Front of an impulse 19
19
2.18 Tail of an impulse
19
2.19 Full-wave voltage impulse
2.20 Chopped voltage impulse 19
19
2.21 Prospective peak (crest) value of a chopped voltage Impulse
2.22 Virtual origin of an impulse 19
21
2.23 Virtual front time of an impulse (T1 )
21
2.24 Virtual steepness of the front of an impulse
2) 21
2.25 Virtual time to half value on the tail of an impulse (T
21
2.26 Designation of an impulse shape
21
2.27 Standard lightning voltage impulse
2.28 Switching voltage impulse 21
21
2.29 Virtual duration of the peak of a rectangular impulse
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN 60099-1:1998
- 5 -
99-1 ©IEC
Clause Page
2.30 Virtual total duration of a rectangular impulse 21
21
2.31 Peak (crest) value of opposite polarity of an impulse
21
2.32 Discharge current of an arrester
21
2.33 Nominal discharge current of an arrester
2.34 Follow-current of an arrester 23
23
2.35 Residual voltage (discharge voltage) of an arrester
23 2.36 Power-frequency sparkover voltage of an arrester
23
2.37 Impulse sparkover voltage of an arrester
23
2.38 Front-of-wave impulse sparkover of an arrester
23 2.39 Standard lightning impulse sparkover voltage of an arrester
23
2.40 Time to sparkover of an arrester
23
2.41 Impulse sparkover-voltage/time curve
23
2.42 Prospective current
23
2.43 Type tests (design tests)
23
2.44 Routine tests
23 2.45 Acceptance tests
25 2.46 Protective characteristics of an arrester
25
2.47 Arrester disconnector
SECTION 3: IDENTIFICATION AND CLASSIFICATION
3.1 Arrester identification 25
27
3.2 Arrester classification
SECTION 4: STANDARD RATINGS
27
4.1 Standard voltage ratings
27
4.2 Standard rated frequencies
27
4.3 Standard nominal discharge currents
27
4.4 Service conditions
27
4.4.1 Normal service conditions
29
4.4.2 Abnormal service conditions
SECTION 5: REQUIREMENTS
5.1 Power-frequency sparkover voltage 29
29
5.2 Standard lightning impulse sparkover voltage
5.3 Front-of-wave impulse sparkover vo ltage 29
29
5.4 Switching impulse sparkover voltage
5.5 Lightning impulse residual voltage 31
5.6 31
Switching impulse residual voltage
5.7 High-current impulse withstand 31
5.8 Long-duration current withstand 31
5.9 Operating-duty 31
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST EN 60099-1:1998
99-1 ©IEC – 7 –
Page
Clause
31
5.10 Pressure-relief
33
5.11 Disconnectors
33
5.11.1 Disconnector withstand
33
5.11.2 Disconnector operation
SECTION 6: GENERAL TESTING PROCEDURE
33 Test samples and measurements 6.1
33
6.2 Power-frequency voltage tests
33
6.3 Wet tests
35
6.4 Artificial-pollution tests
SECTION 7: ROUTINE AND ACCEPTANCE TESTS
37
7.1 Routine tests
37
7.2 Acceptance tests
SECTION 8: TYPE TESTS (DESIGN TESTS)
37
8.1 General
41
8.2 Power-frequency voltage sparkover tests
41
8.3 Voltage impulse sparkover tests
8.3.1 General 41
41
8.3.2 Standard lightning impulse sparkover test
43
8.3.3 Lightning impulse sparkover-voltage/time curve test
43 8.3.4 Front-of-wave impulse sparkover test
45
8.3.5 Switching impulse sparkover-voltage/time curve test
8.4 Measurement of residual voltage 47
47
8.4.1 Lightning impulse residual voltage
47
8.4.2 Switching impulse residual voltage
51
8.5 Current impulse withstand tests
51
8.5.1 General
51
8.5.2 High-current impulse test
8.5.3 Long-duration current impulse test 53
8.6 Operating-duty test 57
8.7 Pressure-relief tests 63
63
8.7.1 General
63
8.7.2 High-current pressure-relief tests
8.7.3 Low-current pressure-relief tests 67
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST EN 60099-1:1998
99-1 ©IEC — 9 —
Page
Clause
67
8.8 Tests of arrester disconnectors
67
8.8.1 General
69
8.8.2 Current impulse withstand and operating-duty tests
69 8.8.3 Disconnector operation
Annexes
75
A Abnormal service conditions
77 B Typical information given with enquiries and tenders
Selection of the long-duration discharge class of heavy-duty
83
arresters
Typical circuit for a distributed-constant impulse generator for the
87 long-duration current impulse test according to 8.5.3
Typical circuit for operating-duty test according to 8.6 91
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST EN 60099-1:1998
- 11 -
99-1 © IEC
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
SURGE ARRESTERS
Part 1: Non-linear resistor type gapped surge arresters
for a.c. systems
FOREWORD

1) The formal decisions or agreements of the IEC on technical matters, prepared by Technical Committees on

which all the National Committees having a special interest therein are represented, express, as nearly as

possible, an international consensus of opinion on the subjects dealt with.

2) They have the form of recommendations for international use and they are accepted by the National

Committees in that sense.

3) In order to promote international unification, the IEC expresses the wish that all National Committees

should adopt the text of the IEC recommendation for their national rules in so far as national conditions will

permit. Any divergence between the IEC recommendation and the corresponding national rules should, as

far as possible, be clearly indicated in the latter.

This part of International Standard IEC 99 has been prepared by IEC Technical Committee

No. 37: Surge arresters.

It forms the third edition of IEC 99-1 and supersedes the second edition issued in 1970.

The text of this part is based on the following documents:
Six Months' Rule Reports on Voting
37(BC)23 and 23A 37(BC)28
37(BC)34 37(BC)36
37(BC)35 37(BC)37
37(BC)39 37(BC)42
37(BC)40 37(BC)43
37(BC)41 37(BC)44

Full information on the voting for the approval of this part can be found in the Voting

Reports indicated in the above table.

Annex A forms an integral part of this part of IEC 99-1. Annexes B, C, D, and E are for

information only.
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST EN 60099-1:1998
99-1 © IEC -13 -
INTRODUCTION
The major changes to the previous edition affect the following subjects:
measurement of residual voltage;
operating-duty test;
pressure-relief test;
standardized sparkover and residual voltages;
- addition of annex for information to be given on enquiries and tenders.

The changes introduced are limited to the agreed upon subjects. Additional work was not

considered due to the changing technology and the present limited use of gapped surge

arresters.

Appendix D of the second addition of this standard has been deleted and issued as a

separate Report, IEC 99-3.

The present developing gapless surge arresters using metal oxide resistors will be the

subject of the future IEC 99-4.

An application guide is under revision and will be published as IEC 99-5. It will supersede

IEC 99-1A.
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
SIST EN 60099-1:1998
IEC -15 -
99-1 ©
SURGE ARRESTERS
Part 1: Non-linear resistor type gapped surge arresters
for a.c. systems
SECTION 1: GENERAL
1.1 Scope

This part of International Standard IEC 99 applies to surge protective devices designed for

repeated operation to limit voltage surges on a.c. power circuits and to interrupt

icular, it applies to surge arresters consisting of single or
power-follow current. In part
multiple spark gaps in series with one or more non-linear resistors.
1.2 Normative references

The following standards contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute

provisions of this part of International Standard IEC 99. At the time of publication, the

editions indicated were valid. All standards are subject to revision, and pa rties to agree-

ments based on this pa rt are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the most

recent editions of the standards indicated below. Members of IEC and ISO maintain regis-

ters of currently valid International Standards.
IEC 60: High-voltage test techniques.
IEC 71-2: 1976, rt 2: Application guide.
Insulation co-ordination - Pa

IEC 99-3: 1990, Surge arresters - Pa 3: Artificial pollution testing of surge arresters.

SECTION 2: DEFINITIONS
For the purpose of this part, the following definitions apply:
2.1 surge arrester*: A device designed to protect electrical apparatus from high

transient voltage and to limit the duration and frequently the amplitude of follow-current.

The term "surge arrester" includes any external series gap which is essential for the

proper functioning of the device as installed for service, regardless of whether or not it is

supplied as an integral part of the device.

NOTE - Surge arresters are usually connected between the electrical conductors of a network and earth

although they may sometimes be connected across the windings of apparatus or between electrical

conductors.
This ty
pe of equipment may be called "surge diverter" in some countries.
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
SIST EN 60099-1:1998
99-1 ©IEC - 17 -
2.2 non-linear resistor type gapped arrester: An arrester having a single or a
multiple spark-gap connected in series with one or more non-linear resistors.

2.3 series gap of an arrester: An intentional gap or gaps between spaced electrodes

in series with the non-linear series resistor or resistors of the arrester.

2.4 non-linear series resistor of an arrester: The pa rt of the surge arrester which, by

its non-linear voltage-current characteristics, acts as a low resistance to the flow of high

discharge currents thus limiting the voltage across the arrester terminals, and as a high

resistance at normal power-frequency voltage thus limiting the magnitude of follow-

current.

2.5 section of an arrester: A complete, suitably housed part of an arrester including

series gaps and non-linear series resistors in such a proportion as is necessary to

represent the behaviour of a complete arrester with respect to a particular test.

2.6 unit of an arrester: A completely housed part of an arrester which may be

connected in series with other units to construct an arrester of higher voltage rating. A

unit of an arrester is not necessarily a section of an arrester.

2.7 pressure-relief device of an arrester: A means for relieving internal pressure in

an arrester and preventing explosive shattering of the housing following prolonged

passage of follow-current or internal flashover of the arrester.

2.8 rated voltage of an arrester: The designated maximum permissible r.m.s. value

of power-frequency voltage between its terminals at which it is designated to operate

correctly. This voltage may be applied to the arrester continuously without changing its

operating characteristics.

2.9 rated frequency of an arrester: The frequency of the power system on which the

arrester is designed to be used.

2.10 disruptive discharge: The phenomena associated with the failure of insulation

under electrical stress which include a collapse of voltage and the passage of current; the

term applies to electrical breakdown in solid, liquid and gaseous dielectrics and

combinations of these.

NOTE - A disruptive discharge in a solid dielectric produces permanent loss of electrical strength; in a

liquid or gaseous dielectric the loss may be only temporary.
2.11
puncture: A disruptive discharge through a solid.
2.12 flashover: A disruptive discharge over a solid su rface.

2.13 sparkover of an arrester: A disruptive discharge between the electrodes of the

gaps of an arrester.
---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
SIST EN 60099-1:1998
99-1 ©IEC - 19 -

2.14 impulse: A unidirectional wave of voltage or current which, without appreciable

oscillations, rises rapidly to a maximum value and falls, usually less rapidly, to zero with

small, if any, loops of opposite polarity.

The parameters which define a voltage or current impulse are polarity, peak value, front

time, and time to half value on the tail.

2.15 rectangular impulse: An impulse which rises rapidly to a maximum value, remains

substantially constant for a specified period, and then falls rapidly to zero.

The parameters which define a rectangular impulse are polarity, peak value, virtual

duration of the peak, and virtual total duration.

2.16 peak (crest) value of an impulse: The maximum value of voltage or current in an

impulse. In case of superimposed oscillations see 8.3.2, 8.5.2 e), and 8.5.3.2 c).

of an impulse which occurs prior to the peak.
2.17 front of an impulse: That part
2.18 tail of an impulse: That pa rt of an impulse which occurs after the peak.
2.19 full-wave voltage impulse: A voltage impulse which is not interrupted by
sparkover, flashover, or puncture.

2.20 chopped voltage impulse: A voltage impulse which is interrupted on the front,

peak, or tail by sparkover, flashover or puncture causing a sudden drop in the voltage.

2.21 prospective peak (crest) value of a chopped voltage impulse: The peak (crest)

value of the full-wave voltage impulse from which a chopped voltage impulse is derived.

2.22 virtual origin of an impulse: The point on a graph of voltage versus time or

current versus time determined by the intersection between the time axis at zero voltage

or zero current and a straight line drawn through two reference points on the front of the

impulse.

a) For voltage impulses with virtual front times equal to or less than 30 }ts, the

reference points are at 30 % and 90 % of the peak value.
For voltage impulses with virtual front times greater than 30 its, the origin is
generally well defined and needs no artificial definition.
For current impulses, the reference points are 10 % and 90 % of the peak value.

NOTE - This definition applies only when scales of both ordinate and abscissa are linear. See also note

to 2.23.
---------------------- Page: 16 ----------------------
SIST EN 60099-1:1998
99-1 ©IEC – 21

2.23 virtual front time of an impulse (T1 ): The time, in microseconds, equal to:

a) for voltage impulses with front durations equal to or less than 30 µs, 1,67 times the

time taken by the voltage to increase from 30 % to 90 % of its peak value;

for voltage impulses with front durations greater than 30 ps, 1,05 times the time

taken by the voltage to increase from 0 % to 95 % of its peak value;

for current impulses, 1,25 times the time taken by the current to increase from 10 %

to 90 % of its peak value.

NOTE - If oscillations are present on the front, the reference points at 10 %, 30 %, 90 % and 95 % should

be taken on the mean curve drawn through the oscillations.

2.24 virtual steepness of the front of an impulse: The quotient of the peak value and

the virtual front time of an impulse.
2): The time interval
2.25 virtual time to half value on the tail of an impulse (T

between the virtual origin and the instant when the voltage or current has decreased to

half its peak value. This time is expressed in microseconds.
2.26 designation of an impulse shape: A combination of two numbers, the first
) and the second the virtual time to half value of the
representing the virtual front time (T1
tail (T2 1 2, both in microseconds, the sign "/" having no mathematical
). It is written as T /T
meaning.
2.27 standard lightning voltage impulse: An impulse voltage having a waveshape
designation of 1,2/50.

2.28 switching voltage impulse: An impulse having a virtual front time greater than

30 ps.

2.29 virtual duration of the peak of a rectangular impulse: The time during which the

amplitude of the impulse is greater than 90 % of its peak value.
2.30 virtual total duration of a rectangular impulse: The time during which the

amplitude of the impulse is greater than 10 % of its peak value. If small oscillations are

present on the front, a mean curve should be drawn in order to determine the time at

which the 10 % value is reached.

2.31 peak (crest) value of opposite polarity of an impulse: The maximum amplitude

of opposite polarity reached by a voltage or current impulse when it oscillates about zero

before attaining a permanent zero value.
2.32 discharge current of an arrester: The surge or impulse current which flows
through the arrester after a sparkover of the series gaps.

2.33 nominal discharge current of an arrester: The peak value of discharge current,

having an 8/20 waveshape, which is used to classify an arrester. It is also the discharge

current which is used to initiate follow-current in the operating duty test.
---------------------- Page: 17 ----------------------
SIST EN 60099-1:1998
- 23 -
99-1 ©IEC
2.34 follow-current of an arrester: The current from the connected power source
which flows through an arrester following the passage of discharge current.

2.35 residual voltage (discharge voltage) of an arrester: The voltage that appears

between the terminals of an arrester during the passage of discharge current.
power-frequency
the
2.36 power-frequency sparkover voltage of an arrester: The value of

voltage measured as the peak value divided by■ applied between the terminals of an

arrester, which causes sparkover of all the series gaps.

2.37 impulse sparkover voltage of an arrester: The highest value of voltage attained

before sparkover during an impulse of given waveshape and polarity applied between the

terminals of an arrester.

2.38 front-of-wave impulse sparkover of an arrester: The impulse sparkover voltage

obtained on the wavefront the voltage of which increases linearly with time.
2.39 standard lightning impulse sparkover voltage of an arrester: The lowest

prospective peak value of a standard lightning voltage impulse which, when applied to an

arrester, causes sparkover on every application.

2.40 time to sparkover of an arrester: The time interval between virtual origin and the

instant of sparkover of the arrester. The time is expressed in microseconds.
2.41 Impulse sparkover-voltage/time curve: A curve which relates the impulse
sparkover voltage to the time to sparkover.

2.42 prospective current: The current which would flow at a given location in a circuit

if it were short-circuited at that location by a link of negligible impedance.
2.43 type tests (design tests): Tests which are made upon the completion of the

development of a new arrester design to establish representative performance and to

demonstrate compliance with this part of the standard. Once made, these tests need not

be repeated unless the design is so changed as to modify its performance.
rts and materials as required
2.44 routine tests: Tests made on each arrester or on pa
to ensure that the product meets the design specifications.
2.45 acceptance tests: Selected tests which are made when it has been agreed

between the manufacturer and the purchaser that the arresters or representative samples

of an order are to be tested.
---------------------- Page: 18 ----------------------
SIST EN 60099-1:1998
- 25 -
99-1 ©IEC

2.46 protective characteristics of an arrester: The combination of the following:

a) lightning impulse sparkover-voltage/time curve as determined in 8.3.3;
the residual-voltage/discharge-current curve as determined in clause 8.4;
for 10 000 A arresters rated 100 kV and higher, the switching-voltage impulse
sparkover-voltage/time curve as determined in 8.3.5.

2.47 arrester disconnector: A device for disconnecting an arrester from the system in

the event of arrester failure to prevent a persistent fault on the system and to give visible

indication of the failed arrester.

NOTE - Clearing of the fault current through the arrester during disconnection generally is not a function

of the device, and it may not prevent explosive shattering of the housing following internal flashover of the

arrester on high fault currents.
SECTION 3: IDENTIFICATION AND CLASSIFICATION
3.1 Arrester identification

Surge arresters shall be identified by the following minimum information which shall

appear on the rating plate (nameplate):
rated voltage;
rated frequency, if other than one of the standard frequencies, see 4.2;

nominal discharge current (specifying for the 5 000 A arrester whether series A or

series 6*, and for the 10 000 A arrester, whether light or heavy duty);

- long-duration discharge class (for 10 000 A heavy-duty arresters), see 8.5.3.2;

- pressure-relief class (for arresters fitted with pressure-relief devices), see 8.7.2;

- manufacturer's name or trademark, type and identification;
- year of manufacture.
NOTES
1 Information to be given by inquiry or tender may be guided by annex B.
2 In some countries, it is customary to classify arresters as:
station for 10 000 A arresters;
intermediate (series A) or distribution (series B) for 5 000 A arresters`;
secondary for 1 500 A arresters.
are based

Series A arresters are based on performance characteristics in practice in all countries. Series B arresters

on performace characteristics in Canada and the United States of America and other countries.

---------------------- Page: 19 ----------------------
SIST EN 60099-1:1998
- 27 -
99-1 ©IEC
3.2 Arrester classification

Surge arresters are classified by their standard nominal discharge currents and they shall

ormance characteristics listed in table 3.
meet at least the test requirements and pe rf

Arresters having more favorable performance characteristics or lower protective levels

than those required in this part shall be considered to have met this standard.
SECTION 4: STANDARD RATINGS
4.1 Standard voltage ratings
Standard values of rated voltages for arresters shall be as listed in Table 1.
Table 1 - Standard voltage ratings (kV r.m.s.)
36 75 126
0,175 6 18
138
0,280 7,5 21 39 84
42 96 150
0,500 9 24
174
10,5 27 51 102
0,660
108 186
3 12 30 54
60 120 198
4,5 15 33
For voltage ratings above 198 kV, the arrester ratings shall be divisible by 6.
4.2 Standard rated frequencies
The standard rated frequencies are 50 Hz and 60 Hz.
4.3 Standard nominal discharge currents

The standard nominal discharge currents are: 10 000 A, 5 000 A, 2 500 A and 1 500 A,

having an 8/20 waveshape.

NOTE - For the 10 000 A arrester (see 3.2) there are two types, light-duty and heavy-duty, which are

differentiated by the amplitude of the long-duration impulse current which they are capable of withstanding.

See 8.5.3.
4.4 Service conditions
4.4.1 Normal service conditions

Surge arresters which conform to this part of the standard shall be suitable for operation

under the following normal service conditions:
a) ambient temperature within the range of -40 °C to +40 °C;
b) altitude not exceeding 1 000 m;
---------------------- Page: 20 ----------------------
SIST EN 60099-1:1998
99-1 ©IEC - 29 -

c) frequency of the a.c. power supply not less than 48 Hz and not exceeding 62 Hz;

power-frequency voltage applied between the line and earth terminals of the
arrester not exceeding its rated voltage.
4.4.2 Abnormal service conditions

Arresters subjected to other than normal application or service conditions may require

special consideration in manufacture or application and each case should be discussed

with the manufacturer. See annex A: Abnormal service conditions and annex C: Selection

of the long-duration discharge class of heavy-duty arresters.
SECTION 5: REQUIREMENTS
5.1 Power-frequency sparkover voltage

For all classes of surge arresters, except the 10 000 A heavy-duty class, the lowest value

of power-frequency sparkover voltage shall be not less than 1,5 times the rated voltage of

the arrester. For the 10 000 A heavy-duty class arresters, the lowest value of power-

frequency sparkover is subject to agreement between the manufacturer and the
purchaser.
power-frequency sparkover test is the minimum
It should be noted that the dry

requirement for routine tests to be made by the manufacturer as specified in 6.1.

5.2 Standard lightning impulse sparkover voltage

With the lightning impulse voltage specified in 8.3.2 and table 8 the arrester shall

sparkover on every impulse of a series of five positive and five negative impulses.

If in either series of five impulses, the gaps fail to sparkover once only, an additional ten

impulses of that polarity shall be applied and the gaps shall sparkover on all of these

impulses.
5.3 Front-of-wave impulse sparkover voltage

With voltage impulses having a virtual steepness of front equal to that specified in table 8,

the sparkover voltage shall not exceed the value given in table 8. This is verified

according to 8.3.4 by a test with five positive and five negative impulses, or by using the

lightning impulse sparkover voltage/time curve described in 8.3.3.
5.4 Switching impulse sparkover voltage

This voltage is determined on 10 000 A arresters having a rated voltage above 100 kV

according to 8.3.5. No limits for the maximum switching impulse sparkover voltage have

been specified.
---------------------- Page: 21 ----------------------
SIST EN 60099-1:1998
99-1 ©IEC -31 -
5.5 Lightning impulse residual voltage

The residual voltage for nominal discharge current is determined from the curve drawn

according to 8.4.1. This voltage shall not be higher than the maximum residual voltage of

the arrester specified in table 8.
5.6 Switching impulse residual voltage

This requirement applies to 10 000 A, light or heavy duty, or 5 000 A series A arresters,

having a rated voltage above 100 kV and with active gaps (an active gap is defined as a

gap which generates at least 100 V/kV of rating during the switching impulse test).

The switching impulse residual voltage determined according to 8.4.2 shall not exceed

the value indicated in table 8.
5.7 High-current impulse withstand

Arresters shall withstand the high-current impulse test according to 8.5.2. The average

dry power-frequency sparkover voltage (see 8.2) recorded before and after this test shall

not have changed by more than 10 %. Examination of the test samples shall reveal no

evidence of puncture or flashover of the non-linear resistors or significant damage to the

series gaps or grading circuit.
5.8 Long-duration current withstand

Arresters shall withstand the long-duration current impulse test according to 8.5.3 and

tables 5 (heavy-duty) or 6 (light-duty). The average dry power-frequency sparkover

voltage of 8.2 recorded before and after this test shall not have changed by more

than 10 %.
5.9 Operating-duty
Arresters shall withstand the operating-duty test described in 8.6 during which:

- follow-current shall be established by each test impulse and the test sample shall

interrupt the follow-current each time;

- final interruption of the follow-current shall occur at least at the end of the half-cycle

following that in which the impulse is applied.
Following the operating-
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.