Soil quality -- Characterization of soil with respect to human exposure

This International Standard gives guidelines on the kind and extent of soil characterization necessary for the evaluation of human exposure to substances that can cause adverse effects.

Qualité du sol -- Caractérisation des sols relative à l'exposition des personnes

L'ISO 15800:2004 spécifie les lignes directrices concernant la nature et l'étendue de la caractérisation des sols nécessaire à l'évaluation de l'exposition des personnes aux substances pouvant être à l'origine d'effets néfastes.
L'ISO 15800:2004 ne prend pas en compte les possibilités de normalisation des calculs qui sont utilisés pour l'évaluation de l'exposition des personnes.
En outre, l'ISO 15800:2004 ne tient pas compte des informations nécessaires à l'évaluation de l'exposition des personnes relative à des produits contaminants lixiviés depuis le sol vers les eaux de surface et/ou souterraines ou transférées par écoulement. De la même manière, elle ne prend pas en compte les aspects liés à la radioactivité et aux bactéries pathogènes présentes dans le sol et à l'exposition potentielle des personnes qui en découle.

Kakovost tal – Karakterizacija tal v zvezi z izpostavljenostjo ljudi

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
30-Nov-2006
Withdrawal Date
30-Nov-2006
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
01-Dec-2006
Due Date
01-Dec-2006
Completion Date
01-Dec-2006

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 15800
First edition
2003-12-15
Soil quality — Characterization of soil
with respect to human exposure
Qualité du sol — Caractérisation des sols relative à l'exposition des
personnes
Reference number
ISO 15800:2003(E)
ISO 2003
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 15800:2003(E)
PDF disclaimer

This PDF file may contain embedded typefaces. In accordance with Adobe's licensing policy, this file may be printed or viewed but

shall not be edited unless the typefaces which are embedded are licensed to and installed on the computer performing the editing. In

downloading this file, parties accept therein the responsibility of not infringing Adobe's licensing policy. The ISO Central Secretariat

accepts no liability in this area.
Adobe is a trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated.

Details of the software products used to create this PDF file can be found in the General Info relative to the file; the PDF-creation

parameters were optimized for printing. Every care has been taken to ensure that the file is suitable for use by ISO member bodies. In

the unlikely event that a problem relating to it is found, please inform the Central Secretariat at the address given below.

© ISO 2003

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or

ISO's member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2003 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 15800:2003(E)
Contents Page

Foreword............................................................................................................................................................ iv

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ v

1 Scope...................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references........................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions........................................................................................................................... 1

4 Characterization of soil and sites with respect to human exposure ............................................... 4

4.1 Introduction........................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2 Exposure routes.................................................................................................................................... 5

5 Characterization of soil and sites........................................................................................................ 8

5.1 Relevant soil processes and parameters ........................................................................................... 8

5.2 Sampling.............................................................................................................................................. 10

5.3 Site characterization........................................................................................................................... 10

5.4 Characterization of soil ...................................................................................................................... 11

5.5 Characterization of contamination.................................................................................................... 15

6 Data handling, evaluation and quality .............................................................................................. 18

Annex A (informative) Exposure routes depending on actual site use ...................................................... 20

Annex B (informative) Industries and related polluting substances........................................................... 21

Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 22

© ISO 2003 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 15800:2003(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 15800 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 190, Soil quality, Subcommittee SC 7, Soil and site

assessment.
iv © ISO 2003 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 15800:2003(E)
Introduction

Characterizations of soils and sites relative to human exposure are performed all over the world. They are

often planned and conducted by consultancy companies and expert organizations. Data from these

characterizations are used in the assessment of human exposure. These characterizations are, furthermore,

used for decision-making by companies, individuals and local and national authorities as well as for

recommendations and regulations issued by national and international authorities.

The assessment of potential human health effects from exposure may be used for:
 classification of contaminated sites;

 recommendations regarding remediation of sites, soils and soil materials, e.g. priority of remediation;

 decisions regarding the future/planned use of contaminated sites;

 decisions regarding the disposal/treatment/reuse of contaminated or remediated soil and/or soil material.

The data needed for evaluations of human exposure are to some extent dependent on the way in which the

exposure is assessed, i.e. calculations may be based on scenarios each requiring different data.

The extent of investigations necessary for the assessment of human exposure may vary depending on the

level of contamination and the areal use in question. In some cases the assessment of potential human health

exposure may be based solely on information regarding the substances present in the soil and their

concentrations and the relevant soil parameters. In other cases more detailed information on the availability of

the substance will be necessary. This information will depend on the type and concentration of the substance,

the relevant soil parameters and the type of exposure relevant for the areal use in question. Furthermore, the

sampling method and strategies may depend on the areal use and the possible exposure patterns.

Due to the large expenditure necessary for both private landowners and public funds set aside for the

remediation of contaminated land and the general movement of capital and industry/business corporations,

International Standards on the characterization of contaminated soil, especially with regard to human health,

are in great demand.

International Standards in this complex field will support the creation of a common scientific basis for the

exchange of data, development of knowledge and sound commercial evaluation.
© ISO 2003 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 15800:2003(E)
Soil quality — Characterization of soil with respect to human
exposure
1 Scope

This International Standard gives guidelines on the kind and extent of soil characterization necessary for the

evaluation of human exposure to substances that can cause adverse effects.

The possibilities of standardizing the calculations used for the assessment of human exposure are not

included in this International Standard.

The information needed for evaluation of human exposure to contaminants leached from soil to surface and/or

groundwater or transferred by runoff is not included in this International Standard. Aspects related to

radioactivity and pathogens in soil and potential human exposure hereto are also not included in this

International Standard.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 10381-1, Soil quality — Sampling — Part 1: Guidance on the design of sampling programmes

ISO 10381-5, Soil quality — Sampling — Part 5: Guidance on investigation of soil contamination of urban and

industrial sites
ISO 11074 (all parts), Soil quality — Vocabulary

ISO 15175, Soil quality — Characterization of soil related to groundwater protection

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this International Standard, the terms and definitions given in ISO 11074 (all parts),

ISO 11259:1998 and the following apply.
3.1
bioavailability

degree to which substances present in a soil matrix may be absorbed or metabolized in the human body

NOTE In this context the definition refers to availability in the human body.
3.2
biodegradation
breakdown of a substance or chemical by living organisms, usually bacteria
© ISO 2003 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 15800:2003(E)
3.3
contaminant
substance or agent present in the soil as a result of human activity
cf. pollutant (3.10)

NOTE There is no assumption in this definition that harm results from the presence of the contaminant.

3.4
data quality objectives

statement of the required detection limits, accuracy, reproducibility and repeatability of the required analytical

and other data

NOTE Generic data quality objectives can sometimes be set at national level. Data quality objectives can also

embrace an amount of data required for an area of land (or part of a site) to enable sound comparison with generic

guidelines or standards or for a site-specific or material-specific estimation of risk.

3.5
exposure
reception of a dose of a substance
3.6
exposure assessment

process of establishing whether, and how much, exposure will occur between a receptor and a contaminated

source
3.7
exposure pathway
course a substance takes from a source to a receptor
NOTE Each exposure pathway links a source to a receptor.
3.8
groundwater

any water, except capillary water, beneath the land surface or beneath the bed of any stream, lake reservoir

or other body of surface water, whatever may be the geological formation or structure in which such water

stands, flows, percolates or otherwise moves
3.9
hazard
inherently dangerous quality of a substance, procedure or event
3.10
pollutant

those substances which due to their properties, amount or concentration cause impacts on (i.e. harm to) the

soil functions or soil use
[ISO 11074-1:1996]
3.11
receptor
potentially exposed person
3.12
risk

combination of the probability of occurrence of harm and the severity of that harm

[ISO/IEC Guide 51:1999]
2 © ISO 2003 – All rights reserved
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ISO 15800:2003(E)
3.13
risk analysis
use of available information to identify hazard and to estimate the risk
3.14
risk assessment
process of risk analysis and risk characterization
3.15
risk characterization

evaluation and conclusion based on the hazard identification and the exposure and effect assessment

3.16
site
defined area, in this context often contaminated by human activities
3.17
site characterization
collection of data providing appropriate information for exposure assessment
3.18
soil

upper layer of the Earth's crust composed of mineral particles, organic matter, water, air and organisms

[ISO 11074-1:1996]
3.19
soil function
function of soil which is significant to man and the environment
[ISO 11074-4:1998]
3.20
source

soil or soil component from which a substance or hazardous agent is released for potential human exposure

3.21
subsoil
material underlying the topsoil and overlying the solid (parent) rock beneath

NOTE All or much of the original rock structure has usually been obliterated by pedogenic processes.

3.22
surface water

lakes, ponds, impounding reservoirs, springs, flowing (streaming) waters, estuaries, wetlands, inlets, canals,

oceans within the relevant territorial limits, and all other bodies of water, natural or artificial, inland or coastal,

fresh or salt
3.23
topsoil

upper part of a natural soil which is generally dark-coloured and has a higher content of organic substances

and nutrient when compared to the subsoil below
[ISO 11074-4:1998]
3.24
trace element
element in low concentration in soil material

NOTE A trace element can be essential at low concentration but harmful at higher concentration.

© ISO 2003 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 15800:2003(E)
4 Characterization of soil and sites with respect to human exposure
4.1 Introduction

Characterizations of soils and sites with respect to human exposure are usually performed as a part of a risk

assessment.

In this context, a contaminated site is an area defined e.g. by property boundaries and contaminated by past

or present human activities. In many countries, contaminated sites are registered publicly as a consequence

of specific legislation.
A risk assessment comprises the following elements:
 a hazard identification;
 a dose-response assessment;
 an exposure assessment;
 and, based on the above, a risk characterization.

Risk and exposure assessments are usually performed on the basis of one or more defined scenarios, e.g. in

order to obtain general criteria related to the scenario, or on the basis of the data connected with a specific

site.

This International Standard includes the element exposure assessment in relation to human exposure.

An exposure assessment is the process by which the intensity, frequency and duration of human exposure to

a contaminant are estimated, and it comprises:
 source identification and characterization,
 identification of exposure routes,
 identification of relevant receptors/target groups,
 and based on this: the actual exposure assessment.

Exposure assessments can be carried out in order to assess either the total exposure of a given receptor

group (e.g. the population at risk) or the additional exposure from a given source or activity. In this

International Standard, only the additional risk from soil contamination is addressed.

For the assessment of possible effects on human health, an analysis of the exposure routes is a prerequisite.

For this purpose, the actual and planned use of the site may be included in the assessment, as this may

define which exposure routes are of relevance. If a new use is planned, a renewed assessment shall be

carried out. Average-, worst- or reasonable-case exposure can be evaluated, and depending on the purpose

of the exposure assessment, the data needs can differ for these situations.

If receptors are not directly exposed to a contaminant, exposure assessment needs to consider the various

ways by which indirect exposure might occur, and its significance. A contaminant can also undergo

transformations through biological, chemical or physical means that might affect its toxicity, availability and

mobility. The risk depends on both the concentration of a contaminant and the route of exposure (skin contact,

inhalation, ingestion, etc.). For this reason, analysis of the changes that the contaminant undergoes as a

result of these transformations and phase transfer processes prior to exposure is an important part of

exposure assessment.

Characterization of soil and sites with respect to exposure routes and quantification of the actual exposure is

described in 4.2. Characterization of soil and sites with respect to source identification and characterization is

described in 5.3, where reference to other relevant International Standards is also made.

4 © ISO 2003 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 15800:2003(E)
4.2 Exposure routes
4.2.1 General
Human exposure from soil contamination may occur through different media.
The following routes of exposure directly from the soil exist:
 soil ingestion;
 dermal contact.
Airborne exposure due to volatilization comprises
 inhalation and ingestion of fugitive dust,
 elevation of outdoor concentrations,
 intrusion of vapours in buildings.
Exposure through the food chain comprises

 consumption of plants, including crops and cultivated plants, wild plants and fungi,

 consumption of animals and animal products, including wild animals.

Exposure routes connected to surface and groundwater are not included in this International Standard. These

routes also include exposure due to showering, dishwashing and other domestic use of water, ingestion of fish

and of piped water polluted by contaminated soil or groundwater surrounding the pipe. It should be noted that

these routes can be very relevant pathways in the overall exposure pattern.

Transfer of contaminants from soil to surface waters is highly site-specific and depends on run-off volume,

peak flowrate, soil erodability, slope length and steepness, sorption capacity of the soil, type of vegetation

cover, and distance to receiving body. In practice, surface water pollution is usually monitored via direct

measurement. With regard to exposure in connection with groundwater, ISO 15175 shall be followed.

The actual exposure routes depend on the site use.

 Playgrounds and private gardens (kitchen and ornamental) can be considered to cause the highest

degree of human exposure during use. This use may imply close (skin) contact to the soil, ingestion of

soil, ingestion of plants grown in the soil (and of soil on these plants) as well as inhalation of dust and

vapours.

 Agricultural zones can be the principal exposure route through the food chain. The size of these areas

means that, except when the farmer and his/her family consume part of production, crops are widely

distributed to a large population. On the other hand, if the soil is the only source of contamination, the

consumption of goods produced in the contaminated area represents only a very small part of those

consumed by the population (through dilution with other product sources);

 Parks may be used in ways exposing humans to inhalation of dust and vapours, skin contact with

soil/dust and, to a lesser degree than gardens, ingestion of soil;

 Sports facilities mainly give rise to exposure via inhalation of soil/dust and skin contact with soil/dust;

 Consolidated surfaces such as parking lots, roads, etc. give rise to exposure via inhalation of vapours and

from accumulation of fine dust;

 Buildings (homes, schools, kindergartens, offices, industry and shops) give rise to exposure via vapours;

soil carried into the buildings may cause inhalation and/or ingestion of dust.

 Industry can comprise consolidated and unconsolidated areas, park-like areas and buildings. The

information needed for evaluation of human exposure in these types of areas have been listed above.

© ISO 2003 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 15800:2003(E)

The actual exposure time can differ between similar site uses, due to differences in climate and actual site use

patterns (e.g. number of days per week the site is in use).

An overview of relevant exposure routes for each site use is given in Annex A (informative).

In the following, the characterization of soils with respect to the different exposure routes is described. The

uptake patterns and thus the importance of the different exposure routes will vary depending on the properties

of the contaminants in question.
4.2.2 Soil ingestion

Soil ingestion by children happens through ingestion of dust, sucking of dirty fingers and by actual eating of

soil. Distinction should be made between inadvertent and accidental intake and deliberate long-term persistent

behaviour (Pica behaviour). In general Pica behaviour should be regarded as a special case, not necessarily

relevant for the actual assessment.

NOTE Some young children go through a short period of exploratory soil ingestion.

Adults mainly ingest soil as dust, e.g. in connection with gardening, and as soil on non-cleaned vegetables

and fruit. In the case of the characterization of a specific site, the actual behaviour should be taken into

account.

To assess soil ingestion, the contaminant content usually taken into account is that resulting from extraction

with strong extractants [this content is known as (pseudo)total for metals]. In addition, the hypothesis of total

absorption of the contaminant in the digestive track is often made. A few animal experiments carried out show

that this hypothesis is not always relevant, at least for metals. Methods (employing slightly weaker extractants)

used for the description of uptake of metals from toys have also been used for this type of assessment. The

potential for absorption of a given contaminant can vary with the soil particle size, and information on

particle-size distribution may be relevant.

NOTE (Pseudo)total concentration is defined by the actual method of analysis, including the specific extraction

method utilized, see 5.5.
4.2.3 Dermal contact

Skin contact with contaminated soil could be caused by dust reaching the skin through atmospheric deposition,

by playing or by working with the soil. It should be noted that there is a distinction between skin contact in e.g.

a private home and workplace contact, since the latter is usually regulated by health and safety at work. It

should be noted that work-related matters are not covered by this International Standard.

For an assessment of this route of exposure, the information needed is the (pseudo)total concentration of

each substance in the soil. For calculations of the efficiency of uptake through skin, once the soil particles

have reached this surface, the parameters determining the bioavailability may be useful. In evaluation of soil

contaminants in connection with skin contact, distinction should be made between contaminants that can be

absorbed through the skin and substances potentially causing other effects, such as rashes from hyper-

sensitivity.
4.2.4 Inhalation of dust

The actual importance of dust inhalation (and digestion) as an exposure route is connected to the actual site

use [e.g. motorcycle scrambling and soccer fields are site uses where dust inhalation (and digestion) can play

a major role]. Climatic conditions and vegetation cover also influence the actual exposure.

Calculations pertaining to uptake via dust can be based on general models for dust in air. For a detailed

assessment of the uptake of contaminants from inhaled dust, the parameters determining the bioavailability

can be useful. The concentration level usually varies with particle size, the smallest particles usually

containing the highest concentrations and having the longest exposure times. This should be taken into

account if only measurements of the average concentrations are available.
6 © ISO 2003 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 15800:2003(E)
4.2.5 Inhalation of vapours (outdoors)

Assessment of the inhalation of vapours should primarily be based on measurements of soil air concentrations,

preferably by passive sampling methods. If this is not possible or otherwise not relevant (e.g. in the case of

planned activities that would alter the distance between the contaminated zone and the receptors, for example

by inserting venting systems), calculations of air flux from the contaminated soil volume to surface can be

performed. The relevant soil parameters for these calculations would be (together with information on the

depth of the vapour dose zone and variations therein):
 concentration;
 porosity;
 water content;
 bulk density;
 organic carbon fraction.

Relevant substance parameters such as water and organic carbon partition coefficients, Henry's constant, and

vapour pressure should also be determined. Porosity and water content are also relevant, together with soil

type for the characterization of soil air concentrations at depths less than actually measured, and thus of the

soil contaminants' contribution to outdoor air concentrations.
4.2.6 Inhalation of vapours (indoors)

Inhalation of vapours indoors can be assessed on the same basis as outdoor vapours, plus data relevant for

the estimation of diffusion and advective (crack) transport through the relevant floor construction. These data

may include information on pressure differences between the contaminated area in the soil and the target

indoor area due to e.g. temperature differences, wind, changes in atmospheric pressure and the ventilation

pattern of the building.
4.2.7 Intake via plants

The amount of contaminants taken up and accumulated by plants depends on the physico-chemical

characteristics of the contaminant, the type of soil (including soil characteristics), the type and part of the plant

that is consumed, and even climate. It should be noted that plants are contaminated by both root uptake and

deposition on the leaves, etc. Intake by humans also depends on how a plant is treated before consumption

(washing, peeling, cooking, packaging, etc.). Care should be taken in using general models for the

assessment of plant uptake in a specific case. Results of experimental studies on accumulation by plants

should be used when available, if they have been obtained under conditions similar to those of the assessed

site.

It is important to be aware of the total exposure via plant uptake, taking local conditions into account and the

influence hereon of possible additional exposure caused by soil contamination.

For the assessment of the exposure of humans to organic compounds via plants, the relevant parameters

may include the following: organic carbon fraction, w ; content (fraction) of clay particles, w ; cation

OC CM

exchange capacity of the soil, CEC; soil pH; soil bulk density; soil water content; organic carbon partition

coefficient, K ; and redox potential.

Uptake of metals can be evaluated based on e.g. (pseudo)total concentration, clay content, organic carbon

content, CEC, distribution coefficients and pH. Plant uptake can also (at least for some metals) be estimated

via extraction tests utilizing dilute, non-complexing or organic complexing salts or diluted acids.

The importance of the different parameters mentioned varies not only with the soil, but also with the

vegetation and individual species and variety of plants.
© ISO 2003 – All rights reserved 7
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO 15800:2003(E)
4.2.8 Intake via animals

Intake by animals is usually mainly due to direct ingestion of soil from the surface layer or from soil adhering to

forage. To a lesser degree, it comes from consumption of fodder after plant uptake and accumulation. The

degree of accumulation of the contaminants by animals depends on the properties of the soil, the level of

contamination and other components of the diet.
5 Characterization of soil and sites
5.1 Relevant soil processes and parameters

During transport of contaminants in soil, the contaminants are affected by a number of physical or reactive

geochemical and biological processes, which may attenuate, concentrate, immobilize, liberate, degrade or

otherwise transform the contaminants. Since these transformations affect both contaminant concentration and

the route of exposure, information concerning the parameters governing these processes is important for the

exposure assessment. It should be noted that the relative importance of the different parameters for the

processes is not yet fully understood.

The potential processes involved in fate and transport of the contaminants in the soil depend on type of soil

and the type of contaminant, and include
 sorption/desorption,
 binding,
 dispersion,
 solubilization,
 diffusion, including intraparticle diffusion,
 complexation,
 precipitation/dissolution,
 evaporation,
 chemical transformation,
 photodegradation,
 uptake by plants and other organisms,

 biological transformations including microbial, soil animal and plant metabolism.

Fate and transport analysis does not normally
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 15800:2006
01-december-2006
Kakovost tal – Karakterizacija tal v zvezi z izpostavljenostjo ljudi
Soil quality -- Characterization of soil with respect to human exposure
Qualité du sol -- Caractérisation des sols relative à l'exposition des personnes
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 15800:2003
ICS:
13.080.99 Drugi standardi v zvezi s Other standards related to
kakovostjo tal soil quality
SIST ISO 15800:2006 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ISO 15800:2006
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST ISO 15800:2006
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 15800
First edition
2003-12-15
Soil quality — Characterization of soil
with respect to human exposure
Qualité du sol — Caractérisation des sols relative à l'exposition des
personnes
Reference number
ISO 15800:2003(E)
ISO 2003
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST ISO 15800:2006
ISO 15800:2003(E)
PDF disclaimer

This PDF file may contain embedded typefaces. In accordance with Adobe's licensing policy, this file may be printed or viewed but

shall not be edited unless the typefaces which are embedded are licensed to and installed on the computer performing the editing. In

downloading this file, parties accept therein the responsibility of not infringing Adobe's licensing policy. The ISO Central Secretariat

accepts no liability in this area.
Adobe is a trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated.

Details of the software products used to create this PDF file can be found in the General Info relative to the file; the PDF-creation

parameters were optimized for printing. Every care has been taken to ensure that the file is suitable for use by ISO member bodies. In

the unlikely event that a problem relating to it is found, please inform the Central Secretariat at the address given below.

© ISO 2003

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or

ISO's member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2003 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ISO 15800:2006
ISO 15800:2003(E)
Contents Page

Foreword............................................................................................................................................................ iv

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ v

1 Scope...................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references........................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions........................................................................................................................... 1

4 Characterization of soil and sites with respect to human exposure ............................................... 4

4.1 Introduction........................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2 Exposure routes.................................................................................................................................... 5

5 Characterization of soil and sites........................................................................................................ 8

5.1 Relevant soil processes and parameters ........................................................................................... 8

5.2 Sampling.............................................................................................................................................. 10

5.3 Site characterization........................................................................................................................... 10

5.4 Characterization of soil ...................................................................................................................... 11

5.5 Characterization of contamination.................................................................................................... 15

6 Data handling, evaluation and quality .............................................................................................. 18

Annex A (informative) Exposure routes depending on actual site use ...................................................... 20

Annex B (informative) Industries and related polluting substances........................................................... 21

Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 22

© ISO 2003 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST ISO 15800:2006
ISO 15800:2003(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 15800 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 190, Soil quality, Subcommittee SC 7, Soil and site

assessment.
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ISO 15800:2003(E)
Introduction

Characterizations of soils and sites relative to human exposure are performed all over the world. They are

often planned and conducted by consultancy companies and expert organizations. Data from these

characterizations are used in the assessment of human exposure. These characterizations are, furthermore,

used for decision-making by companies, individuals and local and national authorities as well as for

recommendations and regulations issued by national and international authorities.

The assessment of potential human health effects from exposure may be used for:
 classification of contaminated sites;

 recommendations regarding remediation of sites, soils and soil materials, e.g. priority of remediation;

 decisions regarding the future/planned use of contaminated sites;

 decisions regarding the disposal/treatment/reuse of contaminated or remediated soil and/or soil material.

The data needed for evaluations of human exposure are to some extent dependent on the way in which the

exposure is assessed, i.e. calculations may be based on scenarios each requiring different data.

The extent of investigations necessary for the assessment of human exposure may vary depending on the

level of contamination and the areal use in question. In some cases the assessment of potential human health

exposure may be based solely on information regarding the substances present in the soil and their

concentrations and the relevant soil parameters. In other cases more detailed information on the availability of

the substance will be necessary. This information will depend on the type and concentration of the substance,

the relevant soil parameters and the type of exposure relevant for the areal use in question. Furthermore, the

sampling method and strategies may depend on the areal use and the possible exposure patterns.

Due to the large expenditure necessary for both private landowners and public funds set aside for the

remediation of contaminated land and the general movement of capital and industry/business corporations,

International Standards on the characterization of contaminated soil, especially with regard to human health,

are in great demand.

International Standards in this complex field will support the creation of a common scientific basis for the

exchange of data, development of knowledge and sound commercial evaluation.
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 15800:2003(E)
Soil quality — Characterization of soil with respect to human
exposure
1 Scope

This International Standard gives guidelines on the kind and extent of soil characterization necessary for the

evaluation of human exposure to substances that can cause adverse effects.

The possibilities of standardizing the calculations used for the assessment of human exposure are not

included in this International Standard.

The information needed for evaluation of human exposure to contaminants leached from soil to surface and/or

groundwater or transferred by runoff is not included in this International Standard. Aspects related to

radioactivity and pathogens in soil and potential human exposure hereto are also not included in this

International Standard.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 10381-1, Soil quality — Sampling — Part 1: Guidance on the design of sampling programmes

ISO 10381-5, Soil quality — Sampling — Part 5: Guidance on investigation of soil contamination of urban and

industrial sites
ISO 11074 (all parts), Soil quality — Vocabulary

ISO 15175, Soil quality — Characterization of soil related to groundwater protection

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this International Standard, the terms and definitions given in ISO 11074 (all parts),

ISO 11259:1998 and the following apply.
3.1
bioavailability

degree to which substances present in a soil matrix may be absorbed or metabolized in the human body

NOTE In this context the definition refers to availability in the human body.
3.2
biodegradation
breakdown of a substance or chemical by living organisms, usually bacteria
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3.3
contaminant
substance or agent present in the soil as a result of human activity
cf. pollutant (3.10)

NOTE There is no assumption in this definition that harm results from the presence of the contaminant.

3.4
data quality objectives

statement of the required detection limits, accuracy, reproducibility and repeatability of the required analytical

and other data

NOTE Generic data quality objectives can sometimes be set at national level. Data quality objectives can also

embrace an amount of data required for an area of land (or part of a site) to enable sound comparison with generic

guidelines or standards or for a site-specific or material-specific estimation of risk.

3.5
exposure
reception of a dose of a substance
3.6
exposure assessment

process of establishing whether, and how much, exposure will occur between a receptor and a contaminated

source
3.7
exposure pathway
course a substance takes from a source to a receptor
NOTE Each exposure pathway links a source to a receptor.
3.8
groundwater

any water, except capillary water, beneath the land surface or beneath the bed of any stream, lake reservoir

or other body of surface water, whatever may be the geological formation or structure in which such water

stands, flows, percolates or otherwise moves
3.9
hazard
inherently dangerous quality of a substance, procedure or event
3.10
pollutant

those substances which due to their properties, amount or concentration cause impacts on (i.e. harm to) the

soil functions or soil use
[ISO 11074-1:1996]
3.11
receptor
potentially exposed person
3.12
risk

combination of the probability of occurrence of harm and the severity of that harm

[ISO/IEC Guide 51:1999]
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ISO 15800:2003(E)
3.13
risk analysis
use of available information to identify hazard and to estimate the risk
3.14
risk assessment
process of risk analysis and risk characterization
3.15
risk characterization

evaluation and conclusion based on the hazard identification and the exposure and effect assessment

3.16
site
defined area, in this context often contaminated by human activities
3.17
site characterization
collection of data providing appropriate information for exposure assessment
3.18
soil

upper layer of the Earth's crust composed of mineral particles, organic matter, water, air and organisms

[ISO 11074-1:1996]
3.19
soil function
function of soil which is significant to man and the environment
[ISO 11074-4:1998]
3.20
source

soil or soil component from which a substance or hazardous agent is released for potential human exposure

3.21
subsoil
material underlying the topsoil and overlying the solid (parent) rock beneath

NOTE All or much of the original rock structure has usually been obliterated by pedogenic processes.

3.22
surface water

lakes, ponds, impounding reservoirs, springs, flowing (streaming) waters, estuaries, wetlands, inlets, canals,

oceans within the relevant territorial limits, and all other bodies of water, natural or artificial, inland or coastal,

fresh or salt
3.23
topsoil

upper part of a natural soil which is generally dark-coloured and has a higher content of organic substances

and nutrient when compared to the subsoil below
[ISO 11074-4:1998]
3.24
trace element
element in low concentration in soil material

NOTE A trace element can be essential at low concentration but harmful at higher concentration.

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4 Characterization of soil and sites with respect to human exposure
4.1 Introduction

Characterizations of soils and sites with respect to human exposure are usually performed as a part of a risk

assessment.

In this context, a contaminated site is an area defined e.g. by property boundaries and contaminated by past

or present human activities. In many countries, contaminated sites are registered publicly as a consequence

of specific legislation.
A risk assessment comprises the following elements:
 a hazard identification;
 a dose-response assessment;
 an exposure assessment;
 and, based on the above, a risk characterization.

Risk and exposure assessments are usually performed on the basis of one or more defined scenarios, e.g. in

order to obtain general criteria related to the scenario, or on the basis of the data connected with a specific

site.

This International Standard includes the element exposure assessment in relation to human exposure.

An exposure assessment is the process by which the intensity, frequency and duration of human exposure to

a contaminant are estimated, and it comprises:
 source identification and characterization,
 identification of exposure routes,
 identification of relevant receptors/target groups,
 and based on this: the actual exposure assessment.

Exposure assessments can be carried out in order to assess either the total exposure of a given receptor

group (e.g. the population at risk) or the additional exposure from a given source or activity. In this

International Standard, only the additional risk from soil contamination is addressed.

For the assessment of possible effects on human health, an analysis of the exposure routes is a prerequisite.

For this purpose, the actual and planned use of the site may be included in the assessment, as this may

define which exposure routes are of relevance. If a new use is planned, a renewed assessment shall be

carried out. Average-, worst- or reasonable-case exposure can be evaluated, and depending on the purpose

of the exposure assessment, the data needs can differ for these situations.

If receptors are not directly exposed to a contaminant, exposure assessment needs to consider the various

ways by which indirect exposure might occur, and its significance. A contaminant can also undergo

transformations through biological, chemical or physical means that might affect its toxicity, availability and

mobility. The risk depends on both the concentration of a contaminant and the route of exposure (skin contact,

inhalation, ingestion, etc.). For this reason, analysis of the changes that the contaminant undergoes as a

result of these transformations and phase transfer processes prior to exposure is an important part of

exposure assessment.

Characterization of soil and sites with respect to exposure routes and quantification of the actual exposure is

described in 4.2. Characterization of soil and sites with respect to source identification and characterization is

described in 5.3, where reference to other relevant International Standards is also made.

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4.2 Exposure routes
4.2.1 General
Human exposure from soil contamination may occur through different media.
The following routes of exposure directly from the soil exist:
 soil ingestion;
 dermal contact.
Airborne exposure due to volatilization comprises
 inhalation and ingestion of fugitive dust,
 elevation of outdoor concentrations,
 intrusion of vapours in buildings.
Exposure through the food chain comprises

 consumption of plants, including crops and cultivated plants, wild plants and fungi,

 consumption of animals and animal products, including wild animals.

Exposure routes connected to surface and groundwater are not included in this International Standard. These

routes also include exposure due to showering, dishwashing and other domestic use of water, ingestion of fish

and of piped water polluted by contaminated soil or groundwater surrounding the pipe. It should be noted that

these routes can be very relevant pathways in the overall exposure pattern.

Transfer of contaminants from soil to surface waters is highly site-specific and depends on run-off volume,

peak flowrate, soil erodability, slope length and steepness, sorption capacity of the soil, type of vegetation

cover, and distance to receiving body. In practice, surface water pollution is usually monitored via direct

measurement. With regard to exposure in connection with groundwater, ISO 15175 shall be followed.

The actual exposure routes depend on the site use.

 Playgrounds and private gardens (kitchen and ornamental) can be considered to cause the highest

degree of human exposure during use. This use may imply close (skin) contact to the soil, ingestion of

soil, ingestion of plants grown in the soil (and of soil on these plants) as well as inhalation of dust and

vapours.

 Agricultural zones can be the principal exposure route through the food chain. The size of these areas

means that, except when the farmer and his/her family consume part of production, crops are widely

distributed to a large population. On the other hand, if the soil is the only source of contamination, the

consumption of goods produced in the contaminated area represents only a very small part of those

consumed by the population (through dilution with other product sources);

 Parks may be used in ways exposing humans to inhalation of dust and vapours, skin contact with

soil/dust and, to a lesser degree than gardens, ingestion of soil;

 Sports facilities mainly give rise to exposure via inhalation of soil/dust and skin contact with soil/dust;

 Consolidated surfaces such as parking lots, roads, etc. give rise to exposure via inhalation of vapours and

from accumulation of fine dust;

 Buildings (homes, schools, kindergartens, offices, industry and shops) give rise to exposure via vapours;

soil carried into the buildings may cause inhalation and/or ingestion of dust.

 Industry can comprise consolidated and unconsolidated areas, park-like areas and buildings. The

information needed for evaluation of human exposure in these types of areas have been listed above.

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The actual exposure time can differ between similar site uses, due to differences in climate and actual site use

patterns (e.g. number of days per week the site is in use).

An overview of relevant exposure routes for each site use is given in Annex A (informative).

In the following, the characterization of soils with respect to the different exposure routes is described. The

uptake patterns and thus the importance of the different exposure routes will vary depending on the properties

of the contaminants in question.
4.2.2 Soil ingestion

Soil ingestion by children happens through ingestion of dust, sucking of dirty fingers and by actual eating of

soil. Distinction should be made between inadvertent and accidental intake and deliberate long-term persistent

behaviour (Pica behaviour). In general Pica behaviour should be regarded as a special case, not necessarily

relevant for the actual assessment.

NOTE Some young children go through a short period of exploratory soil ingestion.

Adults mainly ingest soil as dust, e.g. in connection with gardening, and as soil on non-cleaned vegetables

and fruit. In the case of the characterization of a specific site, the actual behaviour should be taken into

account.

To assess soil ingestion, the contaminant content usually taken into account is that resulting from extraction

with strong extractants [this content is known as (pseudo)total for metals]. In addition, the hypothesis of total

absorption of the contaminant in the digestive track is often made. A few animal experiments carried out show

that this hypothesis is not always relevant, at least for metals. Methods (employing slightly weaker extractants)

used for the description of uptake of metals from toys have also been used for this type of assessment. The

potential for absorption of a given contaminant can vary with the soil particle size, and information on

particle-size distribution may be relevant.

NOTE (Pseudo)total concentration is defined by the actual method of analysis, including the specific extraction

method utilized, see 5.5.
4.2.3 Dermal contact

Skin contact with contaminated soil could be caused by dust reaching the skin through atmospheric deposition,

by playing or by working with the soil. It should be noted that there is a distinction between skin contact in e.g.

a private home and workplace contact, since the latter is usually regulated by health and safety at work. It

should be noted that work-related matters are not covered by this International Standard.

For an assessment of this route of exposure, the information needed is the (pseudo)total concentration of

each substance in the soil. For calculations of the efficiency of uptake through skin, once the soil particles

have reached this surface, the parameters determining the bioavailability may be useful. In evaluation of soil

contaminants in connection with skin contact, distinction should be made between contaminants that can be

absorbed through the skin and substances potentially causing other effects, such as rashes from hyper-

sensitivity.
4.2.4 Inhalation of dust

The actual importance of dust inhalation (and digestion) as an exposure route is connected to the actual site

use [e.g. motorcycle scrambling and soccer fields are site uses where dust inhalation (and digestion) can play

a major role]. Climatic conditions and vegetation cover also influence the actual exposure.

Calculations pertaining to uptake via dust can be based on general models for dust in air. For a detailed

assessment of the uptake of contaminants from inhaled dust, the parameters determining the bioavailability

can be useful. The concentration level usually varies with particle size, the smallest particles usually

containing the highest concentrations and having the longest exposure times. This should be taken into

account if only measurements of the average concentrations are available.
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4.2.5 Inhalation of vapours (outdoors)

Assessment of the inhalation of vapours should primarily be based on measurements of soil air concentrations,

preferably by passive sampling methods. If this is not possible or otherwise not relevant (e.g. in the case of

planned activities that would alter the distance between the contaminated zone and the receptors, for example

by inserting venting systems), calculations of air flux from the contaminated soil volume to surface can be

performed. The relevant soil parameters for these calculations would be (together with information on the

depth of the vapour dose zone and variations therein):
 concentration;
 porosity;
 water content;
 bulk density;
 organic carbon fraction.

Relevant substance parameters such as water and organic carbon partition coefficients, Henry's constant, and

vapour pressure should also be determined. Porosity and water content are also relevant, together with soil

type for the characterization of soil air concentrations at depths less than actually measured, and thus of the

soil contaminants' contribution to outdoor air concentrations.
4.2.6 Inhalation of vapours (indoors)

Inhalation of vapours indoors can be assessed on the same basis as outdoor vapours, plus data relevant for

the estimation of diffusion and advective (crack) transport through the relevant floor construction. These data

may include information on pressure differences between the contaminated area in the soil and the target

indoor area due to e.g. temperature differences, wind, changes in atmospheric pressure and the ventilation

pattern of the building.
4.2.7 Intake via plants

The amount of contaminants taken up and accumulated by plants depends on the physico-chemical

characteristics of the contaminant, the type of soil (including soil characteristics), the type and part of the plant

that is consumed, and even climate. It should be noted that plants are contaminated by both root uptake and

deposition on the leaves, etc. Intake by humans also depends on how a plant is treated before consumption

(washing, peeling, cooking, packaging, etc.). Care should be taken in using general models for the

assessment of plant uptake in a specific case. Results of experimental studies on accumulation by plants

should be used when available, if they have been obtained under conditions similar to those of the assessed

site.

It is important to be aware of the total exposure via plant uptake, taking local conditions into account and the

influence hereon of possible additional exposure caused by soil contamination.

For the assessment of the exposure of humans to organic compounds via plants, the relevant parameters

may include the following: organic carbon fraction, w ; content (fraction) of clay particles, w ; cation

OC CM

exchange capacity of the soil, CEC; soil pH; soil bulk density; soil water content; organic carbon partition

coefficient, K ; and redox potential.

Uptake of metals can be evaluated based on e.g. (pseudo)total concentration, clay content, organic carbon

content, CEC, distribution coefficients and pH. Plant uptake can also (at least for some metals) be estimated

via extraction tests utilizing dilute, non-complexing or organic complexing salts or diluted acids.

The importance of the different parameters mentioned varies not only with the soil, but also with the

vegetation and individual species and variety of plants.
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4.2.8 Intake via animals

Intake by animals is usually mainly due to direct ingestion of soil from the surface layer or from soil adhering to

forage. To a lesser degree, it comes from consumption of fodder after plant uptake and accumulation. The

degree of accumulation of the contaminants by animals depends on the properties of the soil, the level of

contamination and other components of the diet.
5 Characterization of soil and sites
5.1 Relevant soil processes and parameters
During transport of contaminants in soil, the contaminants are a
...

NORME ISO
INTERNATIONALE 15800
Première édition
2003-12-15
Qualité du sol — Caractérisation des sols
relative à l'exposition des personnes
Soil quality — Characterization of soil with respect to human exposure
Numéro de référence
ISO 15800:2003(F)
ISO 2003
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ISO 15800:2003(F)
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ii © ISO 2003 — Tous droits réservés
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ISO 15800:2003(F)
Sommaire Page

Avant-propos..................................................................................................................................................... iv

Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................ v

1 Domaine d'application.......................................................................................................................... 1

2 Références normatives......................................................................................................................... 1

3 Termes et définitions ............................................................................................................................ 1

4 Caractérisation de sols et de sites relative à l'exposition des personnes...................................... 4

4.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2 Voies d'exposition................................................................................................................................. 5

5 Caractérisation des sols et des sites.................................................................................................. 8

5.1 Processus et paramètres pertinents du sol .......................................................................................8

5.2 Échantillonnage .................................................................................................................................. 10

5.3 Caractérisation du site ....................................................................................................................... 11

5.4 Caractérisation du sol ........................................................................................................................ 12

5.5 Caractérisation de la contamination ................................................................................................. 16

6 Traitement, évaluation et qualité des données................................................................................ 20

Annexe A (informative) Voies d'exposition en fonction de l'utilisation réelle du site............................... 22

Annexe B (informative) Industries et substances polluantes correspondantes........................................ 23

Bibliographie .................................................................................................................................................... 24

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ISO 15800:2003(F)
Avant-propos

L'ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation) est une fédération mondiale d'organismes nationaux de

normalisation (comités membres de l'ISO). L'élaboration des Normes internationales est en général confiée

aux comités techniques de l'ISO. Chaque comité membre intéressé par une étude a le droit de faire partie du

comité technique créé à cet effet. Les organisations internationales, gouvernementales et non

gouvernementales, en liaison avec l'ISO participent également aux travaux. L'ISO collabore étroitement avec

la Commission électrotechnique internationale (CEI) en ce qui concerne la normalisation électrotechnique.

Les Normes internationales sont rédigées conformément aux règles données dans les Directives ISO/CEI,

Partie 2.

La tâche principale des comités techniques est d'élaborer les Normes internationales. Les projets de Normes

internationales adoptés par les comités techniques sont soumis aux comités membres pour vote. Leur

publication comme Normes internationales requiert l'approbation de 75 % au moins des comités membres

votants.

L'attention est appelée sur le fait que certains des éléments du présent document peuvent faire l'objet de

droits de propriété intellectuelle ou de droits analogues. L'ISO ne saurait être tenue pour responsable de ne

pas avoir identifié de tels droits de propriété et averti de leur existence.

L'ISO 15800 a été élaborée par le comité technique ISO/TC 190, Qualité du sol, sous-comité SC 7, Évaluation

des sols et des sites.
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ISO 15800:2003(F)
Introduction

Des caractérisations de sols et de sites relatives à l'exposition des personnes sont effectuées dans le monde

entier. En général, elles sont planifiées et conduites par des bureaux d'études ou des groupes d'experts. Les

données issues de ces caractérisations sont utilisées pour l'évaluation de l'exposition des personnes. En

outre, ces caractérisations interviennent non seulement dans les processus de prises de décisions au niveau

des entreprises, des individus et des instances locales et nationales mais aussi dans les recommandations et

réglementations édictées par des instances nationales et internationales.

Les évaluations relatives aux effets potentiels sur la santé des personnes, dus à l'exposition, peuvent être

utilisées dans les cadres suivants:
 classification des sites contaminés;

 recommandations relatives à la réhabilitation des sites, des sols et des matériaux du sol, par exemple

fixation de priorités pour la dépollution;
 décisions quant à l'usage futur/planifié des sites contaminés;

 décisions à propos de l'élimination/du traitement/de la réutilisation des sols/matériaux du sol pollués ou

dépollués.

Les données nécessaires à l'évaluation de l'exposition des personnes dépendent, dans une certaine mesure,

de la façon dont l'exposition est évaluée. Ainsi, les calculs peuvent reposer sur des scénarios nécessitant

chacun des données différentes.

L'étendue des investigations nécessaires à cette évaluation peut varier en fonction du niveau de

contamination et de l'usage du site en question. Dans certains cas, l'évaluation de l'exposition potentielle sur

la santé des personnes ne peut s'appuyer que sur des informations concernant les substances présentes

dans le sol, leurs niveaux de concentration et les paramètres pertinents du sol. Dans d'autres cas, des

informations plus détaillées sur la disponibilité de la substance se révèlent nécessaires. Ces informations

dépendront de la nature et de la concentration de la substance, des paramètres pertinents du sol et du type

d'exposition concernant l'usage du site en question. En outre, la méthode et les stratégies d'échantillonnage

peuvent découler de l'usage du site et des voies d'exposition possibles.

En raison des dépenses élevées qui tendent à s'imposer à la fois pour les propriétaires fonciers privés et les

fonds publics destinés aux mesures correctives concernant les terres contaminées, aux mouvements

généraux de capitaux et aux entreprises industrielles/commerciales, la demande en matière de Normes

internationales concernant la caractérisation des sols contaminés est très forte, notamment au regard de la

santé des personnes.

Les Normes internationales associées à ce domaine complexe viendront à l'appui de la création d'une base

scientifique commune pour l'échange d'informations, le développement des connaissances et d'une solide

évaluation commerciale.
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NORME INTERNATIONALE ISO 15800:2003(F)
Qualité du sol — Caractérisation des sols relative à l'exposition
des personnes
1 Domaine d'application

La présente Norme internationale spécifie les lignes directrices concernant la nature et l'étendue de la

caractérisation des sols nécessaire à l'évaluation de l'exposition des personnes aux substances pouvant être

à l'origine d'effets néfastes.

La présente Norme internationale ne prend pas en compte les possibilités de normalisation des calculs qui

sont utilisés pour l'évaluation de l'exposition des personnes.

En outre, la présente Norme internationale ne tient pas compte des informations nécessaires à l'évaluation de

l'exposition des personnes relative à des produits contaminants lixiviés depuis le sol vers les eaux de surface

et/ou souterraines ou transférés par écoulement. De la même manière, elle ne prend pas en compte les

aspects liés à la radioactivité et aux bactéries pathogènes présentes dans le sol et à l'exposition potentielle

des personnes qui en découle.
2 Références normatives

Les documents de référence suivants sont indispensables pour l'application du présent document. Pour les

références datées, seule l'édition citée s'applique. Pour les références non datées, la dernière édition du

document de référence s'applique (y compris les éventuels amendements).

ISO 10381-1, Qualité du sol — Échantillonnage — Partie 1: Lignes directrices pour l'établissement des

programmes d'échantillonnage

ISO 10381-5, Qualité du sol — Échantillonnage — Partie 5: Lignes directrices relatives à l'investigation des

sols pollués en sites urbains et industriels
ISO 11074 (toutes les parties), Qualité du sol — Vocabulaire
ISO 11259:1998, Qualité du sol — Description simplifiée du sol

ISO 15175, Qualité du sol — Caractérisation des sols en relation avec la nappe phréatique

3 Termes et définitions

Pour les besoins du présent document, les termes et définitions donnés dans l'ISO 11074 (toutes les parties)

et dans l'ISO 11259:1998 ainsi que les suivants s'appliquent.
3.1
biodisponibilité

degré d'absorption ou de métabolisation, dans le corps humain, des substances présentes dans une matrice

du sol

NOTE Dans le contexte de la présente Norme internationale, cette définition fait référence à la disponibilité dans le

corps humain.
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ISO 15800:2003(F)
3.2
biodégradation

décomposition d'une substance ou d'un produit chimique par un organisme vivant, généralement des

bactéries
3.3
contaminant
substance ou agent présent(e) dans le sol et résultant d'une activité humaine
cf. polluant (3.10)

NOTE Cette définition ne laisse présumer en aucune manière que des dommages résultent de la présence du

contaminant.
3.4
objectifs en matière de qualité des données

spécification relative aux limites de détection, à la précision, à la reproductibilité et à la répétabilité

nécessaires pour les données analytiques et autres

NOTE Il est possible que des objectifs génériques en matière de qualité des données soient parfois définis au niveau

national. Les objectifs en matière de qualité des données peuvent également englober le volume de données requis pour

une zone de terre (ou une partie d'un site) afin de permettre une comparaison efficace avec des lignes directrices ou des

normes génériques ou pour une estimation du risque spécifique à un site ou à un matériau.

3.5
exposition
réception d'une dose de substance
3.6
évaluation de l'exposition

processus utilisé pour établir si, et en quelle proportion, un récepteur peut être placé en situation d'exposition

vis-à-vis d'une source contaminée
3.7
voies d'exposition
trajet qu'utilise la substance pour passer de la source au récepteur
NOTE Chaque voie d'exposition est un lien entre une source et un récepteur.
3.8
eaux souterraines

eaux, à l'exception des eaux capillaires, situées au-dessous de la surface de la terre ou au-dessous du lit d'un

courant d'eau, d'un plan d'eau ou d'autres eaux de surface, quelle que soit la formation ou la structure

géologique dans lesquelles ces eaux sont retenues, s'écoulent, percolent ou se déplacent

3.9
danger

propriété inhérente à une substance, à un mode opératoire ou à un événement de provoquer un dommage

3.10
polluant

substance qui, en raison de ses propriétés, de sa quantité ou de sa concentration, a un effet néfaste sur les

fonctions et l'utilisation du sol
3.11
récepteur
personne potentiellement exposée
3.12
risque
combinaison de la probabilité d'un dommage et de sa gravité
[Guide ISO/CEI 51:1999]
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ISO 15800:2003(F)
3.13
analyse du risque

utilisation des informations disponibles pour identifier le danger et estimer le risque

3.14
évaluation du risque
processus d'analyse et de caractérisation du risque
3.15
caractérisation du risque

évaluation et conclusion basées sur l'identification du risque et sur l'évaluation de l'exposition et des effets

3.16
site

zone définie, qui, dans ce contexte, est souvent contaminée par des activités humaines

3.17
caractérisation du site

collecte de données offrant des informations pertinentes pour l'évaluation de l'exposition

3.18
sol

couche supérieure de la croûte terrestre composée de particules minérales, de matière organique, d'eau, d'air

et d'organismes
[ISO 11074-1:1996]
3.19
fonctions du sol
fonctions définissant l'importance du sol pour l'homme et l'environnement
[ISO 11074-4:1999]
3.20
source

sol ou composant du sol qui libère une substance ou un agent dangereux auquel les humains peuvent être

exposés
3.21
sous-sol

matériaux situés en dessous du sol superficiel et au-dessus de la roche (mère) solide du dessous

NOTE D'une manière générale, la structure d'origine de la roche a été entièrement ou partiellement dégradée par

des processus de pédogenèse.
3.22
eaux de surface

lacs, étangs, réservoirs d'accumulation, sources, cours d'eau, estuaires, terrains marécageux, arrivées d'eau,

canaux, océans dans les limites territoriales correspondantes ainsi que tous les autres milieux aqueux, qu'ils

soient naturels ou artificiels, intérieurs ou côtiers, doux ou salés
3.23
sol superficiel

partie supérieure d'un sol naturel, généralement de couleur brune, contenant plus de substances organiques

et de nutriments que le sous-sol
[ISO 11074-4:1999]
3.24
élément trace
élément à faible concentration dans les matériaux du sol

NOTE Un élément trace peut être essentiel à faible concentration et nocif à forte concentration.

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ISO 15800:2003(F)
4 Caractérisation de sols et de sites relative à l'exposition des personnes
4.1 Introduction

Les caractérisations de sols et de sites relatives à l'exposition des personnes sont généralement effectuées

dans le cadre de l'évaluation du risque.

Dans ce contexte, un site contaminé se caractérise par une zone définie, par exemple par les limites de

propriété, et contaminée par des activités humaines passées ou présentes. Dans de nombreux pays, les sites

contaminés sont dûment signalés auprès du public en raison d'une législation spécifique.

Une évaluation du risque comporte les éléments suivants:
 l'identification du danger;
 l'évaluation de la relation dose-effet;
 l'évaluation de l'exposition;
 et, à partir des éléments précédents, la caractérisation du risque.

D'une manière générale, les évaluations du risque et de l'exposition sont effectuées à partir d'un ou de

plusieurs scénarios définis, par exemple pour obtenir des critères généraux relatifs au scénario ou à partir de

données relatives à un site spécifique.

La présente Norme internationale inclut l'évaluation de l'exposition en tant qu'élément relatif à l'exposition des

personnes.

L'évaluation de l'exposition est un processus d'évaluation de l'intensité, de la fréquence et de la durée de

l'exposition des personnes à un contaminant, et se compose des éléments suivants:

 l'identification et la caractérisation de la source;
 l'identification des voies d'exposition;
 l'identification des récepteurs/groupes cibles pertinents;
 et, à partir des éléments précédents, l'exposition réelle des personnes.

Des évaluations d'exposition peuvent être effectuées pour évaluer soit l'exposition totale d'un groupe de

récepteurs donnés (par exemple la population exposée au risque), soit l'exposition supplémentaire due à une

source ou à une activité donnée. La présente Norme internationale concerne seulement le risque

supplémentaire issu de la contamination des sols.

Une analyse des voies d'exposition constitue une condition préalable à l'évaluation des effets potentiels sur la

santé des personnes. À ce titre, l'évaluation peut également prendre en compte l'utilisation réelle et planifiée

du site; cette caractéristique peut en effet permettre de définir les voies d'exposition pertinentes. Si une

nouvelle utilisation est planifiée, il faut alors renouveler l'évaluation. L'exposition peut être évaluée selon un

scénario moyen, pire ou raisonnable; en fonction des objectifs de l'évaluation, les besoins en données

peuvent être différents.

Lorsque les récepteurs ne sont pas directement exposés à un contaminant, l'évaluation de l'exposition doit

prendre en compte les différents moyens par lesquels une exposition indirecte peut se produire et leur

importance. Un contaminant peut également subir des transformations biologiques, chimiques ou physiques

susceptibles de modifier sa toxicité, sa disponibilité et sa mobilité. Le risque dépend à la fois de la

concentration du contaminant et des voies d'exposition (contact avec la peau, inhalation, ingestion, etc.). Pour

cette raison, l'analyse des modifications subies par le contaminant en raison des transformations et des

processus de transfert de phase précédant l'exposition constitue une composante importante de l'évaluation

de l'exposition.
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ISO 15800:2003(F)

La caractérisation des sols et des sites en ce qui concerne les voies d'exposition et la quantification de

l'exposition réelle est décrite en 4.2. La caractérisation des sols et des sites en ce qui concerne l'identification

et la caractérisation de la source est décrite en 5.3, où il est également fait référence à d'autres Normes

internationales pertinentes.
4.2 Voies d'exposition
4.2.1 Généralités

L'exposition des personnes à la contamination des sols peut se produire par le biais de milieux différents.

L'exposition directe à partir du sol correspond aux voies suivantes:
 ingestion de terre;
 contact dermique.

L'exposition atmosphérique par volatilisation de certains produits regroupe les phénomènes suivants:

 inhalation et ingestion de poussières fugaces;
 augmentation des concentrations extérieures;
 intrusion de vapeurs dans les locaux.
L'exposition liée à la chaîne alimentaire englobe les voies suivantes:

 consommation de plantes, notamment les cultures, les plantes sauvages et les champignons;

 consommation d'animaux et de produits d'origine animale, y compris les animaux sauvages.

La présente Norme internationale ne tient pas compte des voies d'exposition relatives aux eaux de surface et

aux eaux souterraines. Ces voies prennent en compte l'exposition due aux douches, aux lavages de vaisselle

et aux autres usages domestiques de l'eau, à l'ingestion de poisson et d'eau du réseau polluée par des sols

ou des eaux souterraines contaminés en contact avec les canalisations d'alimentation. Il convient de noter

que ces voies peuvent être très pertinentes dans le schéma global d'exposition.

Le transfert de contaminants depuis le sol vers les eaux de surface est très spécifique au site et dépend du

volume de ruissellement, du débit de pointe, de la sensibilité à l'érosion des sols, de la longueur et de

l'inclinaison de la pente, de la capacité d'absorption du sol, du type de couverture végétale et de l'éloignement

du milieu récepteur. En pratique, la surveillance de la pollution des eaux de surface est effectuée à l'aide de

mesurages directs. En ce qui concerne l'exposition par l'intermédiaire des eaux souterraines, l'ISO 15175 doit

être appliquée.

Les voies d'exposition effectives dépendent de l'utilisation du site, comme décrit ci-dessous.

 Les terrains de jeu pour enfants et les jardins privés (potagers et d'agrément) peuvent être considérés

comme conduisant au plus haut degré d'exposition des personnes qui les utilisent. Cette utilisation peut

impliquer un contact proche (de la peau) avec le sol, l'ingestion de terre ou de plantes ayant poussé dans

le sol (et de la terre restée collée à ces plantes) ainsi qu'une inhalation de poussières et de vapeurs.

 Les zones agricoles peuvent représenter la principale voie d'exposition par le biais de la chaîne

alimentaire. La surface de ces zones implique que, sauf dans le cas où l'agriculteur consommerait avec

sa famille une partie de la production, les cultures sont largement distribuées dans la population. Par

ailleurs, si le sol représente la seule source de contamination, la consommation des denrées produites

dans la zone contaminée représente seulement une très faible partie de la consommation de la

population (par un phénomène de dilution avec d'autres sources de produits).

 Les parcs peuvent être source d'exposition des personnes par inhalation de poussières et de vapeurs,

par contact de la peau avec la terre/poussière et, dans une moindre mesure par rapport aux jardins, par

ingestion de terre.
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 Les installations sportives provoquent principalement une exposition par le biais de l'inhalation de

terre/poussière et du contact de la peau avec la terre/poussière.

 Les surfaces compactées, telles que les parcs de stationnement, les routes, etc., sont source d'exposition

par l'inhalation de vapeurs et l'accumulation de poussière fine.

 Les bâtiments (maisons, écoles, jardins d'enfants, bureaux, usines et magasins) sont source d'exposition

par des vapeurs; le sol transporté dans les bâtiments peut provoquer une exposition par inhalation et/ou

ingestion de poussières.

 L'industrie peut comprendre des surfaces compactées et d'autres non compactées, des zones

assimilables à des parcs et des bâtiments. Les informations nécessaires à l'évaluation de l'exposition des

personnes pour ces types de zones ont été répertoriées plus haut.

Le temps d'exposition réel peut être différent pour des sites de même nature, selon les modes d'utilisation, en

raison des différences de climat et de caractéristiques réelles d'utilisation (par exemple le nombre de jours par

semaine où le site est utilisé).

À titre d'information, l'Annexe A récapitule les voies d'exposition importantes pour chacune des utilisations des

sites.

La description ci-après traite de la caractérisation des sols en ce qui concerne les différentes voies

d'exposition. Les modèles d'absorption, et par conséquent l'importance des différentes voies d'exposition,

varient en fonction des propriétés des contaminants concernés.
4.2.2 Ingestion de sol

L'ingestion de sol par les enfants se produit quand ces derniers avalent de la poussière, mettent leurs doigts

sales à la bouche et mangent réellement de la terre. Il convient d'établir une distinction entre une absorption

par inadvertance ou accidentelle et un comportement délibéré et persistant à long terme (allotriophagie).

D'une manière générale, il convient de considérer l'allotriophagie comme un cas spécifique, et donc pas

nécessairement pertinent pour une évaluation réelle.

NOTE 1 Certains jeunes enfants passent par une courte période d'exploration pendant laquelle ils ingèrent de la terre.

Les adultes absorbent principalement de la terre sous forme de poussières, en jardinant par exemple, mais

aussi directement sur les légumes et les fruits non préalablement nettoyés. Dans le cas de la caractérisation

d'un site donné, il convient de tenir compte du comportement réel.

Pour évaluer l'exposition par ingestion de terre, la teneur en contaminant généralement prise en considération

est celle obtenue par extraction avec des solvants d'extraction forts [cette teneur est appelée teneur

(pseudo)totale dans le cas des métaux]. De plus, l'hypothèse de l'absorption totale du contaminant par le

système digestif est souvent avancée, mais quelques expérimentations animales montrent qu'elle n'est pas

toujours pertinente, du moins pour les métaux. Des méthodes (employant des solvants d'extraction

légèrement plus faibles) servant à décrire l'absorption de métaux présents dans des jouets ont également été

utilisées pour ce type d'évaluation. La capacité d'absorption d'un contaminant donné peut varier selon la taille

des particules du sol; dans ce cas, les informations relatives à la distribution granulométrique peuvent se

révéler pertinentes.

NOTE 2 La concentration (pseudo)totale est définie par la méthode d'analyse réelle et notamment par la méthode

d'extraction spécifique utilisée (voir en 5.5).
4.2.3 Contact dermique

Le contact de la peau avec le sol contaminé peut être dû à la poussière qui atteint la peau par le biais de

dépôts atmosphériques, en jouant ou en travaillant avec le sol. Il convient de noter qu'il existe une distinction

entre le contact de la peau qui intervient dans un lieu comme une habitation privée et le contact sur un lieu de

travail, puisque ce dernier fait généralement l'objet d'une réglementation particulière en matière d'hygiène et

de sécurité. Il convient de noter que les questions relatives aux lieux de travail ne sont pas traitées dans la

présente Norme internationale.
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ISO 15800:2003(F)

Les informations nécessaires à l'évaluation de cette voie d'exposition comprennent la concentration

(pseudo)totale de chacune des substances présentes dans le sol. Les paramètres permettant de déterminer

la biodisponibilité peuvent se révéler utiles pour mener des calculs relatifs aux capacités d'absorption de la

peau (une fois que les particules du sol ont atteint cette surface). Dans le cadre de l'évaluation des

contaminants du sol par rapport au contact de la peau, il convient d'établir une distinction entre les

contaminants pouvant être absorbés par celle-ci et les substances susceptibles de provoquer d'autres effets,

tels que les réactions d'hypersensibilité.
4.2.4 Inhalation de poussières

La véritable importance de l'inhalation des poussières (et leur digestion) en tant que voie d'exposition est

principalement liée à l'utilisation réelle du site [par exemple, des manifestations de moto-cross et des terrains

de football représentent des sites où l'inhalation de poussières (et leur digestion) peuvent jouer un rôle

majeur]. Les conditions climatiques et la couverture végétale influencent également l'exposition réelle.

Les calculs concernant l'absorption par la poussière peuvent s'appuyer sur des modèles généraux se

rapportant à la poussière présente dans l'air. Les paramètres permettant de déterminer la biodisponibilité

peuvent se révéler utiles pour mener une évaluation détaillée relative à l'absorption de contaminants à partir

de la poussière inhalée. D'une manière générale, le niveau de concentration varie selon la taille des particules,

les plus petites qui contiennent généralement les concentrations les plus élevées, restent plus longtemps en

suspension. Il convient de prendre en compte cette information si seuls les mesurages des concentrations

moyennes sont disponibles.
4.2.5 Inhalation de vapeurs (en plein air)

Il convient de baser l'évaluation de l'inhalation de vapeurs essentiellement sur des mesurages relatifs à la

concentration dans l'air du sol, de préférence par des méthodes d'échantillonnage passives. Si cela se révèle

impossible ou inapproprié (par exemple dans le cadre d'activités planifiées qui pourraient modifier la distance

entre la zone contaminée et le récepteur, notamment par l'insertion de systèmes de ventilation

...

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