Paints and varnishes - Evaluation of properties of coating systems related to the spray application process - Part 1: Vocabulary and preparation of test panels (ISO 28199-1:2021)

This document defines terms relating to the evaluation of coating materials in research, development
and production with regard to their suitability and safety for industrial processes and error analysis.
This document also specifies methods for the preparation of test panels and the subsequent
measurement of film thickness, colour, surface texture and other measurable surface properties.

Beschichtungsstoffe - Beurteilung spritzapplikationsbedingter Eigenschaften von Beschichtungssystemen - Teil 1: Begriffe und Vorbereitung der Probenplatten (ISO 28199-1:2021)

Dieses Dokument legt Begriffe zur Beurteilung von Beschichtungsstoffen in Forschung, Entwicklung und Produktion bezüglich ihrer Prozesseignung, Prozesssicherheit und Fehleranalyse fest.
Dieses Dokument legt auch Verfahren zum Vorbereiten der Probenplatten und zum anschließenden Messen von Schichtdicke, Farbe, Oberflächenstruktur und weiteren messbaren Oberflächeneigenschaften fest.

Peintures et vernis - Évaluation des propriétés des systèmes de revêtement liées au mode d'application par pulvérisation - Partie 1: Vocabulaire et préparation des panneaux d'essai (ISO 28199-1:2021)

Barve in laki - Vrednotenje lastnosti premaznih sistemov pri nanašanju s prašenjem - 1. del: Slovar in priprava preskusnih plošč (ISO 28199-1:2021)

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
14-Sep-2020
Publication Date
13-May-2021
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
07-May-2021
Due Date
12-Jul-2021
Completion Date
14-May-2021

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 28199-1:2021
01-junij-2021
Nadomešča:
SIST EN ISO 28199-1:2010
SIST EN ISO 28199-1:2010/AC:2010
Barve in laki - Vrednotenje lastnosti premaznih sistemov pri nanašanju s
prašenjem - 1. del: Slovar in priprava preskusnih plošč (ISO 28199-1:2021)

Paints and varnishes - Evaluation of properties of coating systems related to the spray

application process - Part 1: Vocabulary and preparation of test panels (ISO 28199-

1:2021)
Beschichtungsstoffe - Beurteilung spritzapplikationsbedingter Eigenschaften von
Beschichtungssystemen - Teil 1: Begriffe und Vorbereitung der Probenplatten (ISO
28199-1:2021)

Peintures et vernis - Évaluation des propriétés des systèmes de revêtement liées au

mode d'application par pulvérisation - Partie 1: Vocabulaire et préparation des panneaux

d'essai (ISO 28199-1:2021)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 28199-1:2021
ICS:
87.040 Barve in laki Paints and varnishes
SIST EN ISO 28199-1:2021 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 28199-1:2021
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 28199-1:2021
EN ISO 28199-1
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
April 2021
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 87.040 Supersedes EN ISO 28199-1:2009
English Version
Paints and varnishes - Evaluation of properties of coating
systems related to the spray application process - Part 1:
Vocabulary and preparation of test panels (ISO 28199-
1:2021)

Peintures et vernis - Évaluation des propriétés des Beschichtungsstoffe - Beurteilung

systèmes de revêtement liées au mode d'application spritzapplikationsbedingter Eigenschaften von

par pulvérisation - Partie 1: Vocabulaire et préparation Beschichtungssystemen - Teil 1: Begriffe und

des panneaux d'essai (ISO 28199-1:2021) Vorbereitung der Probenplatten (ISO 28199-1:2021)

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 10 March 2021.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2021 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 28199-1:2021 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 28199-1:2021
EN ISO 28199-1:2021 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 28199-1:2021
EN ISO 28199-1:2021 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 28199-1:2021) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 35 "Paints

and varnishes" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 139 “Paints and varnishes” the

secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by October 2021, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by October 2021.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN ISO 28199-1:2009.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 28199-1:2021 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 28199-1:2021 without any

modification.
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SIST EN ISO 28199-1:2021
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SIST EN ISO 28199-1:2021
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 28199-1
Second edition
2021-03
Paints and varnishes — Evaluation of
properties of coating systems related
to the spray application process —
Part 1:
Vocabulary and preparation of test
panels
Peintures et vernis — Évaluation des propriétés des systèmes de
revêtement liées au mode d'application par pulvérisation —
Partie 1: Vocabulaire et préparation des panneaux d'essai
Reference number
ISO 28199-1:2021(E)
ISO 2021
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 28199-1:2021
ISO 28199-1:2021(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2021

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 28199-1:2021
ISO 28199-1:2021(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

5 Apparatus ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6 Calibration .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

7 Sampling ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

8 Test panels .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

8.1 Substrate ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

8.2 Preparation of the test panel ...................................................................................................................................................... 7

8.3 Coating of the test panel ................................................................................................................................................................. 9

8.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.3.2 Version A (perforated panel) ................................................................................................................................. 9

8.3.3 Version B (non-perforated panel) ..................................................................................................................10

8.4 Film thickness .......................................................................................................................................................................................12

9 Procedure..................................................................................................................................................................................................................13

9.1 Conditioning the test panels .....................................................................................................................................................13

9.2 Test conditions .....................................................................................................................................................................................13

9.3 Number of test panels to be measured ...........................................................................................................................13

9.4 Test .................................................................................................................................................................................................................13

9.4.1 Measurement pattern ...............................................................................................................................................13

9.4.2 Film thickness .................................................................................................................................................................15

9.4.3 Colour .....................................................................................................................................................................................15

9.4.4 Surface texture ................................................................................................................................................................16

9.4.5 Mottling ...................................................................... ...........................................................................................................16

9.4.6 Gloss .........................................................................................................................................................................................16

10 Evaluation .................................................................................................................................................................................................................16

11 Precision ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................16

12 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................16

Annex A (informative) Examples of suitable application parameters ............................................................................17

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................22

© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 28199-1:2021
ISO 28199-1:2021(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 35, Paints and varnishes, Subcommittee

SC 9, General test methods for paints and varnishes, in collaboration with the European Committee for

Standardization (CEN) Technical Committee CEN/TC 139, Paints and varnishes, in accordance with the

Agreement on technical cooperation between ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement).

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 28199-1:2009), which has been technically

revised. It also incorporates the Technical Corrigendum ISO 28199-1:2009/Cor.1: 2009.

The main changes to the previous edition are as follows:

— the terms "minimum film-build", "locally related measurements" and "locally unrelated

measurements" have been deleted;

— the terms "bubble formation limit" and "cratering" have been moved to ISO 28199-3;

— the terms "measurement pattern" and "dynamic spray pattern" have been added;

— the distinction between long-wavelength and short-wavelength ranges for the surface texture (3.13)

has been deleted;

— the descriptions of the automatic painting machine (5.1) and the device for automatic positioning of

measuring devices (5.2) have been revised;
— the description of the film thickness wedge (8.4) has been revised;

— the measurement pattern for colour measurement (9.4.3) has been adapted in line with the

measurement pattern for texture measurement (9.4.4) for version A of the samples;

— the measurements of mottling (9.4.5) and gloss (9.4.6) have been added;

— examples of applications with high-speed rotation have been added as new Figure 2 and in Annex A;

— the normative references have been updated;
iv © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 28199-1:2021
ISO 28199-1:2021(E)
— the text has been editorially revised.
A list of all parts in the ISO 28199 series can be found on the ISO website.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 28199-1:2021
ISO 28199-1:2021(E)
Introduction

In many areas (e.g. car manufacture, industrial coatings, coatings for plastics) the coating materials

used are adapted to the specific application equipment and settings of the particular user. A coating

material is, therefore, to be understood as a semi-manufactured product that only achieves its final form

in combination with the specific application conditions. The adaptation to the application conditions is

therefore decisive for the quality of the coated product.

The test methods specified in ISO 28199 are based on studies by a working group of the European

Council for Automotive R&D (EUCAR).

They may be used for evaluation of coating materials in research, development and production with

regard to their suitability and safety for industrial processes, and error analysis. The properties to

be evaluated for coating materials and coatings depend on the film thickness, so a coating system

of increasing or constant thickness is applied to one or more test panels under defined conditions

depending on the surface properties to be tested.
The following characteristics are measured (in this document):
— film thickness in accordance with ISO 2808;
— surface texture;
— colour in accordance with ISO 18314-1;
— mottling;
— gloss in accordance with ISO 2813.
In combination with visual assessment, the following properties are determined:

— Colour stability or colour evaluation, process hiding power, redissolving, overspray absorption,

wetting, surface texture and mottling (ISO 28199-2). The surface texture can be measured both

independently of the film thickness and at constant film thickness. Mottling is preferably measured

at constant film thickness.

— Tendency to sagging, formation of bubbles, pinholing and hiding power (see ISO 28199-3).

vi © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 28199-1:2021
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 28199-1:2021(E)
Paints and varnishes — Evaluation of properties of coating
systems related to the spray application process —
Part 1:
Vocabulary and preparation of test panels
1 Scope

This document defines terms relating to the evaluation of coating materials in research, development

and production with regard to their suitability and safety for industrial processes and error analysis.

This document also specifies methods for the preparation of test panels and the subsequent

measurement of film thickness, colour, surface texture and other measurable surface properties.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 1513, Paints and varnishes — Examination and preparation of test samples
ISO 2808, Paints and varnishes — Determination of film thickness

ISO 3270, Paints and varnishes and their raw materials — Temperatures and humidities for conditioning

and testing

ISO 15528, Paints, varnishes and raw materials for paints and varnishes — Sampling

ISO 18314-1, Analytical colorimetry — Part 1: Practical colour measurement

ISO 28199-2, Paints and varnishes — Evaluation of properties of coating systems related to the spray

application process — Part 2: Colour stability, process hiding power, re-dissolving, overspray absorption,

wetting, surface texture and mottling

ISO 28199-3, Paints and varnishes — Evaluation of properties of coating systems related to the spray

application process — Part 3: Visual assessment of sagging, formation of bubbles, pinholing and hiding power

3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 28199-1:2021
ISO 28199-1:2021(E)
3.1
bubble

closed or already burst blister in a layer, arising when solvents or cleavage products evaporate from

chemical crosslinking

Note 1 to entry: If bubbles are caused by the process control, the formulation components or both, the viscosity of

the paint film has increased too rapidly during the drying phase so that solvents or reaction products still in the

paint film have built up at the polymer paint skin which forms, usually resulting in closed blisters and sometimes

resulting in burst blisters. Discontinuities can be identified in more detail using a cross-section.

3.2
colour stability

non-variability, or variability within agreed tolerances, of colour despite variation of influencing factors

Note 1 to entry: Examples of influencing factors are thickness and application method.

3.3
measurement pattern

distance between individual measurements on the test panel in the dx and dy directions

3.4
mottling

non-uniform appearance of a film caused by the presence of irregularly shaped, randomly distributed

areas on the surface that vary in colour and/or gloss
[SOURCE: ISO 4618:2014, 2.160]
3.5
overspray absorption

ability of a coating material already applied to absorb overspray particles of the same coating material

resulting from a subsequent application

Note 1 to entry: Evidence of poor overspray absorption is shown, for example, by raised surface texture (3.12)

and low colour stability (3.2) as well as mottling (3.4).
3.6
pinholing
presence of small holes in a film or coating resembling those made by a pin

Note 1 to entry: Pinholes can be caused by gas inclusions in the base coat that reveal a discontinuity after the

application of the clear coating material. They are often the result of inappropriate process parameters. Pinholes

are similar to craters and bubbles (3.1). Discontinuities can be identified in more detail using a cross-section.

[SOURCE: ISO 4618:2014, 2.195, modified — Note 1 to entry added.]
3.7
process hiding power

minimum thickness above which the complete coating system in combination with the colour of the

complete substrate achieves colour stability (3.2) or the colour location achieves a value agreed by the

interested parties

Note 1 to entry: See also “hiding power”, defined in ISO 4618:2014, 2.138, as “ability of a coating material or a

coating to obliterate the colour or the differences in colour of a substrate”.
3.8
redissolving

mutual effects between an already applied coating material and a subsequently applied coating material

where components of the subsequently applied coating interact with the already applied coating

Note 1 to entry: The interaction can be recognizable by a change in colour, for example.

2 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 28199-1:2021
ISO 28199-1:2021(E)
3.9
sagging

downward movement of a coating material during application and/or drying or curing in a vertical or

an inclined position that results in irregularities in the dry coat
[SOURCE: ISO 4618:2014, 2.221, modified — "or curing" added in the definition.]
3.10
static spray pattern

distribution of the coating material after spray application using defined parameters, with both coated

object and spray application system at rest
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 1.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 28199-1:2021
ISO 28199-1:2021(E)
Key
X width of the test panel, in millimetres
Y length of the test panel, in millimetres
Figure 1 — Example of a static spray pattern
3.11
dynamic spray pattern

distribution of the coating material after spray application using defined parameters, with coated

object and spray application system in relative motion
Note 1 to entry: See Figure 2.
4 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 28199-1:2021
ISO 28199-1:2021(E)
a) Pneumatically sprayed
b) Applied with high-speed electrostatic rotation — two-dimensional view
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 17 ----------------------
SIST EN ISO 28199-1:2021
ISO 28199-1:2021(E)
c) Applied with high-speed electrostatic rotation — three-dimensional view
Key
X width of the test panel, in millimetres
Y length of the test panel, in millimetres
Z film thickness, in micrometres
1 film thickness, in micrometres
NOTE Film thickness ranges shown in different colours.
Figure 2 — Example of a dynamic spray pattern
3.12
surface texture

visual appearance and visible recognisability of structures in the coating surface

Note 1 to entry: The recognizability of the surface texture depends on the topographic characteristics, the

observation distance and the image clarity of the surface. In the case of the so-called “orange peel” texture that

can occur with coatings, the ranges of surface wavelength are between 0,1 mm and 30 mm.

Certain characteristic parameters are calculated from these wavelength ranges by the interested parties.

The surface texture is influenced by the levelling (as defined in ISO 4618) of the still-liquid coating and by the

substrate, for example.
3.13
wetting

complete coverage of a substrate when a coating material forms a continuous film on a substrate

4 Principle

The coating material to be tested is applied to a test panel. Various optical properties are measured by

an appropriate procedure dependent on the film thickness.
6 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 28199-1:2021
ISO 28199-1:2021(E)
5 Apparatus
Use ordinary laboratory apparatus and the following.

5.1 Automatic painting machine, used to coat the specified test panels according to the procedure

and accuracy specified in this document.

The accuracy of the film thickness profiles (wedge-shaped or constant) produced has a decisive

influence on the reproducibility and repeatability of the results obtained when using this procedure,

and the application parameters should therefore be as close as possible to those of the process to be

simulated.
NOTE Examples of suitable application parameters are given in Annex A.

5.2 Device for automatic positioning of measuring devices. It shall be possible to position

the measuring devices that are used on the coated test panels based on the specified measurement

pattern (9.4.1) in a reproducible manner using the device for automatic positioning of measuring devices.

6 Calibration

The measuring devices are calibrated and, if necessary, adjusted in accordance with the specifications

or standards of the relevant manufacturers. The positioning accuracy of the measuring devices in

accordance with the manufacturers’ specifications shall be ensured by regular maintenance of the

equipment (control of inspection, measuring and test equipment).
7 Sampling

Take a representative sample of the product to be investigated, in accordance with ISO 15528.

Examine and prepare each sample for testing, in accordance with ISO 1513.
8 Test panels
8.1 Substrate
Unless otherwise agreed, use either:

a) version A: perforated panel (see Figure 3) of dimensions 300 mm × 570 mm × 0,75 mm; or

NOTE The perforation is needed for the determination of sagging only.
b) version B: panel (see Figure 3) of dimensions 200 mm × 500 mm × 0,75 mm.

Only metal panels of defined surface quality as agreed between interested parties shall be used for

testing.
8.2 Preparation of the test panel
Figure 3 shows examples of usual preparations for test panels.
© ISO 2021 – All rights reserved 7
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SIST EN ISO 28199-1:2021
ISO 28199-1:2021(E)
Dimensions in millimetres
a) Example 1 (version A) — Test panel before masking
b) Example 1 (version A) — Test panel after masking
8 © ISO 2021 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 28199-1:2021
ISO 28199-1:202
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN ISO 28199-1:2020
01-september-2020
Barve in laki - Vrednotenje lastnosti premaznih sistemov pri nanašanju - 1. del:
Slovar in priprava preskusnih plošč (ISO/DIS 28199-1:2020)

Paints and varnishes - Evaluation of properties of coating systems related to the

application process - Part 1: Relevant vocabulary and preparation of test panels
(ISO/DIS 28199-1:2020)
Beschichtungsstoffe - Beurteilung applikationsbedingter Eigenschaften von

Beschichtungssystemen - Teil 1: Begriffe und Vorbereitung der Probenplatten (ISO/DIS

28199-1:2020)

Peintures et vernis - Évaluation des propriétés des systèmes de revêtement liées au

mode d'application - Partie 1: Vocabulaire pertinent et préparation des panneaux d'essai

(ISO/DIS 28199-1:2020)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN ISO 28199-1
ICS:
87.040 Barve in laki Paints and varnishes
oSIST prEN ISO 28199-1:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 28199-1:2020
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 28199-1:2020
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
ISO/DIS 28199-1
ISO/TC 35/SC 9 Secretariat: BSI
Voting begins on: Voting terminates on:
2020-06-23 2020-09-15
Paints and varnishes — Evaluation of properties of coating
systems related to the application process —
Part 1:
Relevant vocabulary and preparation of test panels

Peintures et vernis — Évaluation des propriétés des systèmes de revêtement liées au mode d'application —

Partie 1: Vocabulaire pertinent et préparation des panneaux d'essai
ICS: 87.040
THIS DOCUMENT IS A DRAFT CIRCULATED
This document is circulated as received from the committee secretariat.
FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAL. IT IS
THEREFORE SUBJECT TO CHANGE AND MAY
NOT BE REFERRED TO AS AN INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD UNTIL PUBLISHED AS SUCH.
IN ADDITION TO THEIR EVALUATION AS
ISO/CEN PARALLEL PROCESSING
BEING ACCEPTABLE FOR INDUSTRIAL,
TECHNOLOGICAL, COMMERCIAL AND
USER PURPOSES, DRAFT INTERNATIONAL
STANDARDS MAY ON OCCASION HAVE TO
BE CONSIDERED IN THE LIGHT OF THEIR
POTENTIAL TO BECOME STANDARDS TO
WHICH REFERENCE MAY BE MADE IN
Reference number
NATIONAL REGULATIONS.
ISO/DIS 28199-1:2020(E)
RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED
TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS,
NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT
RIGHTS OF WHICH THEY ARE AWARE AND TO
PROVIDE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION. ISO 2020
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
oSIST prEN ISO 28199-1:2020
ISO/DIS 28199-1:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
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ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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oSIST prEN ISO 28199-1:2020
ISO/DIS 28199-1:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

5 Apparatus ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

6 Calibration .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

7 Sampling ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

8 Test panels .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 7

8.1 Substrate ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

8.2 Preparation of the test panel ...................................................................................................................................................... 7

8.3 Coating of the test panel ................................................................................................................................................................. 8

8.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

8.3.2 Version A (perforated panel) ................................................................................................................................. 8

8.3.3 Version B (non-perforated panel) ..................................................................................................................... 9

8.4 Film thickness .......................................................................................................................................................................................11

9 Procedure..................................................................................................................................................................................................................12

9.1 Conditioning the test panels .....................................................................................................................................................12

9.2 Test conditions .....................................................................................................................................................................................12

9.3 Number of test panels to be measured ...........................................................................................................................12

9.4 Test .................................................................................................................................................................................................................12

9.4.1 Measurement pattern ...............................................................................................................................................12

9.4.2 Film thickness .................................................................................................................................................................14

9.4.3 Colour .....................................................................................................................................................................................14

9.4.4 Surface texture ................................................................................................................................................................15

9.4.5 Mottling ...................................................................... ...........................................................................................................15

9.4.6 Gloss .........................................................................................................................................................................................15

10 Evaluation .................................................................................................................................................................................................................15

11 Precision ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................15

12 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................15

Annex A (informative) Examples of suitable application parameters ............................................................................16

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................21

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oSIST prEN ISO 28199-1:2020
ISO/DIS 28199-1:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 35, Paints and varnishes, Subcommittee

SC 9, General test methods for paints and varnishes.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 28199-1:2009), which has been

technically revised.
The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:

— the terms locally related measurements and locally unrelated measurements have been deleted;

— the terms measurement pattern (3.5) and dynamic spray pattern (3.15) have been added;

— the distinction between long-wavelength and short-wavelength ranges for the surface texture (3.16)

has been deleted;

— the descriptions of the automatic painting machine (5.1) and the device for automatic positioning of

measuring devices (5.2) have been revised;
— the description of the film thickness wedge (8.4) has been revised;

— the measurement pattern for colour measurement (9.4.3) has been adapted in line with the

measurement pattern for texture measurement (9.4.4) for Version A of the samples;

— the measurement of mottling (9.4.5) and gloss (9.4.6) has been added;

— examples of applications with high-speed rotation have been added as new Figure 2 and in Annex A;

— the normative references have been updated;
— the text has been editorially revised.
A list of all parts in the ISO 28199 series can be found on the ISO website.
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oSIST prEN ISO 28199-1:2020
ISO/DIS 28199-1:2020(E)

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
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oSIST prEN ISO 28199-1:2020
ISO/DIS 28199-1:2020(E)
Introduction

In many areas (e.g. car manufacture, industrial coatings, coatings for plastics) the coating materials

used are adapted to the specific application equipment and settings of the particular user. A coating

material is, therefore, to be understood as a semi-manufactured product that only achieves its final form

in combination with the specific application conditions. The adaptation to the application conditions is

therefore decisive for the quality of the coated product.

The test methods specified in ISO 28199 are based on studies by a Working Group of the European

Council for Automotive R&D (EUCAR).

They may be used for evaluation of coating materials in research, development and production with

regard to their suitability and safety for industrial processes, and error analysis. The properties to

be evaluated for coating materials and coatings depend on the film thickness, so a coating system

of increasing or constant thickness is applied to one or more test panels under defined conditions

depending on the surface properties to be tested.
The following characteristics are measured (in this part of ISO 28199):
— film thickness in accordance with ISO 2808;
— surface texture;
— colour in accordance with ISO 18314-1;
— mottling;
— gloss in accordance with ISO 2813.
In combination with visual assessment, the following properties are determined:

— colour stability/colour evaluation, process hiding power, re-dissolving, overspray absorption,

wetting, surface texture and mottling (ISO 28199-2). The surface texture can be measured both

independently of the film thickness and at constant film thickness. Mottling is preferably measured

at constant film thickness;

— tendency to sagging, formation of bubbles, pinholing and hiding power (ISO 28199-3).

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oSIST prEN ISO 28199-1:2020
DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/DIS 28199-1:2020(E)
Paints and varnishes — Evaluation of properties of coating
systems related to the application process —
Part 1:
Relevant vocabulary and preparation of test panels
1 Scope

This document defines terms relating to the evaluation of coating materials in research, development

and production with regard to their suitability and safety for industrial processes and error analysis.

This document specifies methods for the preparation of test panels and the subsequent measurement

of film thickness, colour, surface texture and other measurable surface properties.

2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 1513, Paints and varnishes — Examination and preparation of test samples
ISO 2808, Paints and varnishes — Determination of film thickness

ISO 3270, Paints and varnishes and their raw materials — Temperatures and humidities for conditioning

and testing
ISO 18314-1, Analytical colorimetry — Part 1: Practical colour measurement

ISO 15528, Paints, varnishes and raw materials for paints and varnishes — Sampling

ISO 28199-2, Paints and varnishes — Evaluation of properties of coating systems related to the application

process — Part 2: Colour stability, process hiding power, re-dissolving, overspray absorption, wetting,

surface texture and mottling

ISO 28199-3, Paints and varnishes — Evaluation of properties of coating systems related to the application

process — Part 3: Visual assessment of sagging, formation of bubbles, pinholing and hiding power

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions given in ISO 4618 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
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oSIST prEN ISO 28199-1:2020
ISO/DIS 28199-1:2020(E)
3.1
bubble

closed or already burst blister in a layer, arising when solvents or cleavage products evaporate from

chemical crosslinking

Note 1 to entry: If bubbles are caused by the process control and/or the formulation components, the viscosity

of the paint film has increased too rapidly during the drying phase so that solvents/reaction products still in the

paint film have built up at the polymer paint skin which forms, usually resulting in closed blisters and sometimes

resulting in burst blisters. Discontinuities can be identified in more detail using a cross-section.

3.2
bubble formation limit

start of a number agreed between the interested parties of bubbles in a measurement field

Note 1 to entry: A single bubble does not define the bubble formation limit. Bubbles at the edge of the measuring

area and in the perforated area of the panel (see Figure 3) should not be taken into account.

3.3
colour stability

non-variability, or variability within agreed tolerances, of colour despite variation of influencing factors

Note 1 to entry: Examples of influencing factors are thickness and application method.

3.4
cratering

formation in a film or coating of small circular depressions that persist after drying/curing

Note 1 to entry: Craters can extend into deeper layers of a coating or into the substrate.

Note 2 to entry: Cratering is caused by limited irregularities in the surface tension of the coating. Contamination

of the substrate or coating with incompatible materials such as small oil drops or particles are the most

frequent causes.
[SOURCE: ISO 4618:2014, 2.66]
3.5
measurement pattern

distance between individual measurements on the test panel in the dx and dy directions

3.6
minimum film-build

lowest thickness at which a coating material forms a continuous film on a substrate

3.7
mottling

non-uniform appearance of a film caused by presence of irregularly shaped, randomly distributed areas

on the surface that vary in colour and/or gloss
[SOURCE: ISO 4618:2014; 2.160]
3.8
overspray absorption

ability of a coating material already applied to absorb overspray particles of the same coating material

resulting from a subsequent application

Note 1 to entry: Evidence of poor overspray absorption is shown, for example, by raised surface texture and low

colour stability as well as mottling.
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oSIST prEN ISO 28199-1:2020
ISO/DIS 28199-1:2020(E)
3.9
pinholing
presence of small holes in a film or coating resembling those made by a pin

Note 1 to entry: Pinholes can be caused by gas inclusions in the base coat that reveal a discontinuity after the

application of the clear coating material. They are often the result of inappropriate process parameters. Pinholes

are similar to craters and bubbles. Discontinuities can be identified in more detail using a cross-section.

[SOURCE: ISO 4618:2014; 2.195 modified: note added]
3.10
pinholing limit

start of a number agreed between the contractual parties of pinholes in a measurement field

Note 1 to entry: A single pinhole does not define the pinholing limit. Pinholes at the edge of the measuring area

and in the perforated area of the panel (see Figure 3) are not taken into account.

3.11
process hiding power

minimum thickness above which the complete coating system in combination with the colour of the

complete substrate achieves colour stability or the colour location achieves a value agreed by the

contractual partners

Note 1 to entry: See also “hiding power”, defined in ISO 4618:2014, 2.138 as “ability of a coating material or a

coating to obliterate the colour or the differences in colour of a substrate”.
3.12
re-dissolving
mutual effects between an already applied coating
...

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