Hydraulic turbines - Testing of control systems

Deals with the definition and the characteristics of control systems. It is not limited to the actual controller tasks but also includes other tasks which may be assigned to a control system, such as sequence control tasks, safety and provision for the actuating energy. The following systems are included, speed, power, opening, water level and flow control for all turbine types; electronic, electrical and fluid power devices; safety devices as well as start-up and shutdown devices.

Wasserturbinen - Prüfung von Regelsystemen

Turbines hydrauliques - Essais des systèmes de régulation

Traite de la définition et des caractéristiques des systèmes de régulation. Elle n'est pas limitée aux tâches effectives de régulation, mais inclut également d'autres tâches qui peuvent être assignées à un système de régulation, telles que les tâches de commande séquentielle, de sécurité, d'alimentation en énergie de manoeuvre. La présente norme couvre les systèmes suivants : régulation de vitesse, puissance, ouverture, niveau d'eau et débit de tous types de turbines; dispositifs électroniques, électriques et d'alimentation en fluide; dispositifs de sécurité; dispositifs de démarrage, et dispositifs d'arrêt.

Vodne turbine – Preskušanje krmilnih sistemov (IEC 60308:2005)

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
31-Aug-2005
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
01-Sep-2005
Due Date
01-Sep-2005
Completion Date
01-Sep-2005

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SLOVENSKI SIST EN 60308:2005
STANDARD
september 2005
Vodne turbine – Preskušanje krmilnih sistemov (IEC 60308:2005)
Hydraulic turbines – Testing of control systems (IEC 60308:2005)
ICS 27.140 Referenčna številka
SIST EN 60308:2005(en)

© Standard je založil in izdal Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje ali kopiranje celote ali delov tega dokumenta ni dovoljeno

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 60308
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM June 2005
ICS 27.140
English version
Hydraulic turbines –
Testing of control systems
(IEC 60308:2005)
Turbines hydrauliques – Wasserturbinen –
Essais des systèmes de régulation Prüfung von Regelsystemen
(CEI 60308:2005) (IEC 60308:2005)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2005-05-01. CENELEC members are bound to

comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European

Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on

application to the Central Secretariat or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other

language made by translation under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and

notified to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech

Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia,

Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden,

Switzerland and United Kingdom.
CENELEC
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
Central Secretariat: rue de Stassart 35, B - 1050 Brussels

© 2005 CENELEC - All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC members.

Ref. No. EN 60308:2005 E
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
EN 60308:2005 - 2 -
Foreword

The text of document 4/199/FDIS, future edition 2 of IEC 60308, prepared by IEC TC 4, Hydraulic

turbines, was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and was approved by CENELEC as

EN 60308 on 2005-05-01.
The following dates were fixed:
– latest date by which the EN has to be implemented
at national level by publication of an identical
national standard or by endorsement (dop) 2006-02-01
– latest date by which the national standards conflicting
with the EN have to be withdrawn (dow) 2008-05-01
Annex ZA has been added by CENELEC.
__________
Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 60308:2005 was approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard without any modification.
__________
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
- 3 - EN 60308:2005
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.

NOTE Where an international publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant

EN/HD applies.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC 60041 (mod) 1991 Field acceptance tests to determine the EN 60041 1994
hydraulic performance of hydraulic
turbines, storage pumps and pump-
turbines
IEC 60193 1999 Hydraulic turbines, storage pumps and EN 60193 1999
pump-turbines - Model acceptance tests
IEC 60545 - Guide for commissioning, operation and - -
maintenance of hydraulic turbines
IEC 61362 1998 Guide to specification of hydraulic turbine EN 61362 1998
control systems
IEC 61000-4-2 - Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) EN 61000-4-2 1995
Part 4-2: Testing and measurement
techniques - Electrostatic discharge
immunity test
1) 2)
IEC 61000-4-3 - Part 4-3: Testing and measurement EN 61000-4-3 2002
techniques - Radiated, radio-frequency,
electromagnetic field immunity test
IEC 61000-4-6 - Part 4-6: Testing and measurement - -
techniques - Immunity to conducted
disturbances, induced by radio-frequency
fields
ISO 4406 1999 Hydraulic fluid power - Fluids - Method for - -
coding the level of contamination by solid
particles
Undated reference.
Valid edition at date of issue.
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
NORME CEI
INTERNATIONALE IEC
60308
INTERNATIONAL
Deuxième édition
STANDARD
Second edition
2005-01
Turbines hydrauliques –
Essais des systèmes de régulation
Hydraulic turbines –
Testing of control systems
© IEC 2005 Droits de reproduction réservés ⎯ Copyright - all rights reserved

Aucune partie de cette publication ne peut être reproduite ni No part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any

utilisée sous quelque forme que ce soit et par aucun procédé, form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including

électronique ou mécanique, y compris la photocopie et les photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from

microfilms, sans l'accord écrit de l'éditeur. the publisher.

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Telephone: +41 22 919 02 11 Telefax: +41 22 919 03 00 E-mail: inmail@iec.ch Web: www.iec.ch

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Pour prix, voir catalogue en vigueur
For price, see current catalogue
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
60308 © IEC:2005 – 3 –
CONTENTS

FOREWORD.........................................................................................................................7

INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................................11

1 Scope and object..........................................................................................................13

2 Normative references...................................................................................................13

3 Terms and definitions, symbols and units ......................................................................15

4 Functions and components of hydro control systems .....................................................23

4.1 Control systems proper........................................................................................23

4.2 Other control systems and transitions...................................................................23

4.3 Control system components .................................................................................23

4.4 Safety functions, 4.14 of IEC 61362 .....................................................................25

4.5 Environmental protection, 4.16 of IEC 61362........................................................25

4.6 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)....................................................................25

5 Contractual stipulations................................................................................................25

5.1 Guarantees and acceptance tests ........................................................................25

5.2 Documentation....................................................................................................25

6 Control system tests .....................................................................................................27

6.1 General...............................................................................................................27

6.2 Recommendations on workshop tests ..................................................................27

6.3 Recommendations on field tests...........................................................................29

6.4 Electrical checks..................................................................................................31

6.5 Test of converters, amplifiers and actuators .........................................................35

6.6 Site tests of controller characteristics...................................................................49

6.7 Safety tests.........................................................................................................57

6.8 Test conditions to be fulfilled ...............................................................................61

6.9 Isolated network field tests ..................................................................................65

6.10 Role of controller for stability in interconnected power systems.............................69

7 Inaccuracies in controller tests......................................................................................71

8 Simulation of governing and control operations .............................................................77

8.1 General remarks..................................................................................................77

8.2 Simulator characteristics......................................................................................79

8.3 Inaccuracy of plant simulators, calculations of pressure surge and control

parameters..........................................................................................................79

Annex A (informative) Test procedures...............................................................................83

Annex B (informative) Recommendation for testing of turbine controllers ............................91

Annex C (informative) Field test of control systems...........................................................113

Annex D (informative) Control system test examples ........................................................119

Figure 1 – Servomotor cushioning time T ...........................................................................15

Figure 2 – Turbine control transmission ratio .......................................................................17

Figure 3 – Controlled system self-regulation factor ..............................................................19

Figure 4 – Oil flow Q function of input current I and pressure drop ∆p...................................35

Figure 5 – Electro hydraulic converter for high grade control system ....................................37

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60308 © IEC:2005 – 5 –

Figure 6 – Output stroke ∆s of a converter versus input current I..........................................39

Figure 7 – Performance curves of control valves..................................................................43

Figure 8 – Example of on-line simulated isolated grid test....................................................69

Figure D.1 – Insensitivity test under speed control with X-Y recording................................141

Figure D.2 – Insensitivity test under power control with time characteristics .......................143

Figure D.3 – Flutter test of 2 regulated quantities with X-Y recording .................................145

Figure D.4 − Measurement of a unit step response with PID speed controller ....................147

Figure D.5 – Measurement of a unit step response with speed control for determination

of PID controller parameters .............................................................................................149

Figure D.6 – Measurement of unit step response in isolated operation ...............................151

Figure D.7 – Measurement of a unit step responses with power control (Pelton turbine) .....153

Figure D.8 − Measurement of unit step responses with power control (pump turbine) .........155

Figure D.9 – Measurement of a unit step response with power control for determination

of PI-controller parameters...............................................................................................157

Figure D.10 – Measurement of a unit step response with head race level control................159

Figure D.11 – Measurement of the unit step responses with head race level control in

multi-unit operations .........................................................................................................161

Figure D. 12 – Measurement of a load rejection with transition into no-load operation ........163

Figure D.13 – Measurement of a load rejection with limit control of surge and suction

waves and with transition into no-load operation................................................................165

Figure D.14 – Measurement of a start-up process under load ............................................167

Figure D.15 – Measurement of changeover from full turbine load to synchronous

condenser operation .........................................................................................................169

Figure D.16 – Measurement of a power step response in on-line simulated isolation test....171

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
60308 © IEC:2005 – 7 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
HYDRAULIC TURBINES –
TESTING OF CONTROL SYSTEMS
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC provides no marking procedure to indicate its approval and cannot be rendered responsible for any

equipment declared to be in conformity with an IEC Publication.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 60308 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 4: Hydraulic

turbines.

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition published in 1970. This second

edition constitutes a technical revision.
The following is an explanation of the reasons for issuing a new edition.

For the testing of control systems, only the first edition of this standard (IEC 60308:1970,

International code for testing of speed governing systems for hydraulic turbines) was available

up till now. It was limited – as the name suggests – to speed governing. It is, therefore, the

intention of this second edition to expand the scope to include further functions of the overall

control system of hydro turbines. The scope of acceptance tests of such a system depends on

the guarantees stipulated in the specifications of a contract.
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
60308 © IEC:2005 – 9 –

Since new control concepts/algorithms are becoming more and more important besides and

beyond the PID principle, the following clauses do not refer to a specific algorithm (as did the

first edition of this standard).

It is noted that the testing of specific properties and the drawing-up of the corresponding

documentation involves costs which rise with increasing scope and the accuracy of the work

to be done. Therefore, a test should be limited to parameters, components and characteristics

which are indispensable for reliable and safe operation. Also the prescribed accuracy of

measurements should correspond to the requirements of operation. The code therefore

distinguishes in certain clauses the specific requirements for certain applications (for

example, peak load, base load, frequency control operation, etc.).
This standard is closely related to the IEC 61362.
The text of this standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
4/199/FDIS 4/209/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this standard can be found in the report on

voting indicated in the above table.

This publication has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The committee has decided that the contents of this publication will remain unchanged until

the maintenance result date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in

the data related to the specific publication. At this date, the publication will be

• reconfirmed;
• withdrawn;
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
60308 © IEC:2005 – 11 –
INTRODUCTION

The control functions of water turbines have undergone far-reaching changes and at the same

time gained in importance during the last few decades. This is shown in the fact that a new

standard has been developed: i.e. IEC 61362.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
60308 © IEC:2005 – 13 –
HYDRAULIC TURBINES –
TESTING OF CONTROL SYSTEMS
1 Scope and object

This International Standard deals with the definition and the characteristics of control systems

and is the basis for tender documents and technical tenders. It is not limited to the actual

controller tasks but also include other tasks which may be assigned to a control system, such

as for instance sequence control tasks, safety, provision for the actuating energy.

The testing of control systems for hydro turbines can generally fulfil the following tasks:

– verification of system characteristics as per contract specification;
– verification of general proper functioning in the workshop and/or on site;
– tests to prove the fulfilment of guarantees;

– assessment of the actual state of an existing control system with regard to the question of

repair or replacement.
This standard covers the following systems:
– speed, power, opening, water level and flow control for all turbine types;
– electronic, electrical and fluid power devices;
– safety devices;
– start-up, shutdown devices etc.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document.

For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition

of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

IEC 60041:1991, Field acceptance tests to determine the hydraulic performance of hydraulic

turbines, storage pumps and pump-turbines

IEC 60193: 1999, Hydraulic turbines, storage pumps and pump-turbines − Model acceptance

tests

IEC 60545, Guide for commissioning, operation and maintenance of hydraulic turbines

IEC 61362: 1998, Guide to specification of hydraulic turbine control systems

IEC 61000-4-2, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 4-2: Testing and measurement

techniques – Electrostatic discharge immunity test

IEC 61000-4-3, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 4-3: Testing and measurement

techniques – Radiated, radio-frequency, electromagnetic field immunity test

IEC 61000-4-6, Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – Part 4-6: Testing and measurement

techniques – Immunity to conducted disturbances, induced by radio-frequency fields

---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
60308 © IEC:2005 – 15 –

ISO 4406: 1999, Hydraulic fluid power − Fluids − Method for coding the level of contamination

by solid particles
3 Terms and definitions, symbols and units

For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions, symbols and units, as

well as the terms and definitions, symbols and units given in IEC 61362, apply.
Sub- Relative
Term Definition Quantity Unit
clause quantity
3.1 General definitions
∆n rev/min
3.1.1 speed deviation at a considered instant, the difference x
∆ω rad/s
between the actual speed of rotation and a
reference speed
∆f Hz
3.2 Performance under
major disturbances
3.2.1 servomotor elapsed time during which the rate of T s
cushioning time servomotor travel is retarded beginning at
a specified servomotor position to full
closed position (see Figure 1)
3.2.2 servomotor force net opening and/or closing force generated F N
by the servomotor when supplied with oil at
the minimum specified pressure
NOTE When penstock water pressure is
used to provide the closing force, the head
at which the servomotor shall be rated
should be stated. For spring operated
servomotors it is the net force exerted by
the servomotor when the spring is at its
maximum extended position
3.2.3 servomotor product of the maximum servomotor stroke
F × Y J = N⋅m
capacity and the force as described under 3.2.2
Y/Y
max
1,0
f t
IEC 036/05
Figure 1 – Servomotor cushioning time T
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
60308 © IEC:2005 – 17 –
Sub- Relative
Term Definition Quantity Unit
clause quantity
3.3 Terms relating to
the controlled
system
3.3.1 controlled system system controlled by the governing system
consisting of the hydraulic turbine, its
water supply and discharge passages, the
generator with voltage regulator and the
electric power network to which it is
connected
3.3.2 torque deviation power output deviation divided by ∆M N⋅m m
instantaneous angular speed
3.3.3 unit acceleration ratio of the angular momentum of the unit T s
constant to the guarantee torque
3.3.4 load acceleration ratio of the angular momentum, caused by s
constant the network referred to the guaranteed
torque of the unit
3.3.5 turbine control At a considered servomotor position, the
transmission ratio slope of the graph relating to the turbine
torque m at constant speed and head to
servomotor movement y (see Figure 2)
d(M M ) dm
t r t
e = =
dy dy
3.3.6 speed regulation graph showing the relative speed as a
graph
function of the relative power p = ,
when the controller is in equilibrium and
the command signal is constant
1,0
1,0
0 Y/Y
max
IEC 037/05
Figure 2 – Turbine control transmission ratio
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60308 © IEC:2005 – 19 –
Sub- Relative
Term Definition Quantity Unit
clause quantity
3.3.7 permanent speed slope of the speed regulation graph at a e
regulation specific point of operation
e = −
3.3.8 maximum power difference between the relative speeds e
change speed read from the speed regulation graph at
regulation zero power and rated power
3.3.9 controlled system at the speed considered, the slope of the
self-regulation graph relating to the torque deviation to
factor the speed at a specified servomotor
position and a specified load condition of
the network. The torque should be referred
to the rated torque P /ω and the speed
r r
referred to the rated speed ω
(see Figure 3)
3.3.10 turbine self- component of e due to the turbine e
n t
regulation factor
e =
P and ω are the same values as used to
r r
determine e (see Figure 3)
3.3.11 load self-regulation component of e due to the load e
n g
factor
Ȧ d(P/Ȧ)
e = = ×
dx P dx
n r n
P and ω are the same reference values
r r
as used to determine e (see Figure 3)
0 0
0 1,0
IEC 038/05
Figure 3 – Controlled system self-regulation factor
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
60308 © IEC:2005 – 21 –
Sub- Relative
Term Definition Quantity Unit
clause quantity
3.3.12 network load coefficient expressing the ratio of relative torque e
characteristic variation of the load to the relative speed variations.
The value to which the power variations, ∆P, to be
referred is the actual power, P , absorbed by the
network. For practical purposes, the constant, e , is
obtained from the formula:
∆P / P
e = −1
3.3.13 penstock time required for the pressure waves to travel 2 lengths T s
reflection time of the penstock:
T = 2
i = 1 i
where
a is the velocity of wave propagation in each section of
the penstock;
L is the length of each penstock section

3.3.14 water inertia time characteristic time at rated condition due to inertia of T s

the water in the water passages defined as:
Q L
r i
T =
W ¦
gH A
r i
i=1
where
A is the area of each section;
L is the corresponding length;
Q is the rated discharge;
H is the rated head;
g is the acceleration due to gravity
3.3.15 water hammer ratio of water inertia time, T , to penstock reflection h
W W
number time, T at guaranteed conditions.
(Allievi constant)
h =
maximum
3.3.16 maximum momentary change of speed, when a rev/min
max
momentary
specified load is suddenly changed (see IEC 60041)
speed variation rad/s
max
max
maximum
3.3.17 maximum momentary pressure variation, when a ∆H Pa
max
momentary
specified load is suddenly changed (see IEC 60041)
pressure variation
Can be calculated for different conditions.
---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
60308 © IEC:2005 – 23 –
4 Functions and components of hydro control systems

In this clause, the functions and components are listed, which may be subjected to tests and

verifications.
NOTE Again reference is made to IEC 61362 for explanation and definition.
4.1 Control systems proper
4.1.1 Primary modes
Standard Subclause
The primary modes are the following:
– speed control (no-load and synchronising, IEC 61362 3.1.1
isolated operation)
– power control IEC 61362 3.1.2
– opening control IEC 61362 3.1.3
4.1.2 Secondary modes
The secondary modes are the following:
– water level control or positioning IEC 61362 3.1.3
(opening) control
– flow control IEC 61362 4.15.4
– optimisation control (station control) IEC 61362 4.9
4.2 Other control systems and transitions
The other control systems and transitions are the following:
– surge control IEC 61362 4.15.2
– pressure control IEC 61362 4.15.1 and 4.15.3
– start up and synchronisation IEC 61362 4.13.1
– shutdowns and load rejections IEC 61362 4.13.2
– transitions between different control modes
4.3 Control system components
The control system components are the following:
– electro-hydraulic and electro-mechanical converters
– control valves
– servomotors
– pressure oil supply systems and IEC 61362 4.11
energy storage mechanisms
(accumulators, weights, springs)
– auxiliary power supply for electrical/electronical systems
---------------------- Page: 16 ----------------------
60308 © IEC:2005 – 25 –
4.4 Safety functions, 4.14 of IEC 61362
The safety functions are the following:
– safety shutdown
– overspeed protection
– interlocks
– creep detection
4.5 Environmental protection, 4.16 of IEC 61362
For control systems, the following aspects are relevant:
– vibrations
– climatic conditions
4.6 Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)
For control systems, the following aspects are relevant:
– electromagnetic compatibility IEC 61362 4.17
– electrical interference sources
5 Contractual stipulations
5.1 Guarantees and acceptance tests

In the process of verifying guarantees set up according to IEC 61362, the following is

recommended in case of new control systems for new plants as well as for existing power

...

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