Interior air of road vehicles - Part 5: Screening method for the determination of the emissions of volatile organic compounds from vehicle interior parts and materials - Static chamber method

ISO 12219-5 specifies a chamber based, static headspace type method for measuring volatile organic compounds (VOCs), formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds which may diffuse from vehicle interior unit components into the cabin air. The chamber emission test is intended to provide characteristic emission of unit component to car interior of assembly level emission. It also specifies the emission test chamber, preparation of the test specimen, connection of the vapour sampling devices and test conditions. This method is valid for new car interior unit components intended for vehicles, and can also be used for car interior unit components disassembled from assembly of car interior trim or used cars. A set of multi-unit components could be applicable according to the test purpose. A dynamic mode operation of emission chamber could be applied if corroborative information of the unit component emission between this method and small chamber method (ISO 12219-4:2013) is desired. The specified analytical procedure for VOCs (ISO 16000-6) is valid for the determination of VOCs ranging in concentration from sub-μg/m3 to several mg/m3. The method is applicable to the measurement of non-polar and slightly polar VOCs ranging in volatility from n-C6 to n-C16. Some very volatile compounds (VVOC) and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) can also be analysed (see informative Annex D of ISO 16000-6:2011). This part of ISO 12219 is complementary to existing standards and provides third party test laboratories and manufacturing industry with an approach for: - comparing emissions from various unit components (sub-assemblies) with VOC emissions from related complete assemblies measured in other tests, - evaluating and categorising specific unit components by their VOC emission data, - comparing and correlating emission from unit components with VOC emission data obtained in other tests for the various materials used to make the unit component, - evaluating prototype, “low-emission” unit components during development.

Air intérieur des véhicules routiers - Partie 5: Méthode de criblage pour la détermination des émissions de composés organiques volatils des parties et matériaux intérieurs des véhicules - Méthode de la chambre statique

Notranji zrak v cestnih vozilih - 5. del: Presejalna metoda za določevanje emisij hlapnih organskih spojin iz notranjih delov in materialov - Metoda s statično komoro

Standard ISO 12219-5 določa metodo s statičnim vzorčevalnikom in komoro za merjenje hlapnih organskih spojin, formaldehida in drugih karbonilnih spojin, ki se lahko iz notranjih sestavnih delov enote vozila izločijo v zrak v kabini. Preskus emisij v komori je namenjen zagotavljanju značilnih emisij na ravni opreme, ki se izločijo iz sestavnih delov enote v notranjost avtomobila. Prav tako določa komoro za preskušanje emisij, pripravo vzorca preskušanja, povezavo naprav za vzorčenje pare in preskusne pogoje. Ta metoda velja za nove sestavne dele enot v notranjosti avtomobilov, namenjene vozilom, in se lahko uporablja tudi za sestavne dele enot v notranjosti avtomobilov, ki so odstranjeni s sestava notranje opreme vozila, ali za rabljene avtomobile. Niz sestavnih delov z več enotami se lahko uporablja glede na namen preskusa. Dinamično obratovanje kabine za emisije se lahko uporablja, če so želene informacije, ki bi potrdile informacije o emisijah iz sestavnih delov med to metodo in metodo z majhno komoro (ISO 12219-4:2013). Določeni analizni postopek za hlapne organske spojine (ISO 16000-6) velja za določanje hlapnih organskih spojin s koncentracijo od manj kot μg/m3 do več mg/m3. Metoda velja za merjenje nepolarnih in rahlo polarnih hlapnih organskih spojin s hlapljivostjo od n-C6 do n-C16. Analizirati je mogoče tudi nekatere zelo hlapne spojine in polhlapne organske spojine (glejte informativni dodatek D standarda ISO 16000-6:2011). Ta del standarda ISO 12219 dopolnjuje obstoječe standarde ter določa preskusne laboratorije tretjih oseb in predelovalno industrijo s pristopom za: - primerjavo emisij iz različnih sestavnih delov (podsestavov) z emisijami hlapnih organskih spojin iz povezanih celotnih sestavov, ki so merjeni z drugimi preskusi; - ocenjevanje in kategorizacijo določenih sestavnih delov glede na podatke o emisijah hlapnih organskih spojin; - primerjavo in povezavo emisij iz sestavnih delov s podatki o emisijah hlapnih organskih spojin, pridobljenih pri drugih preskusih za različne materiale, ki se uporabljajo za izdelavo sestavnega dela; - vrednotenje prototipnih sestavnih delov »z nizko stopnjo emisij« med razvojem.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
28-Feb-2013
Publication Date
07-Jul-2014
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
20-Jun-2014
Due Date
25-Aug-2014
Completion Date
08-Jul-2014

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 12219-5
First edition
2014-05-15
Interior air of road vehicles —
Part 5:
Screening method for the
determination of the emissions of
volatile organic compounds from
vehicle interior parts and materials —
Static chamber method
Air intérieur des véhicules routiers —
Partie 5: Méthode de criblage pour la détermination des émissions de
composés organiques volatils des parties et matériaux intérieurs des
véhicules — Méthode de la chambre statique
Reference number
ISO 12219-5:2014(E)
ISO 2014
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 12219-5:2014(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2014

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 12219-5:2014(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5 Instrument and reagent ................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Test chamber ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

5.3 Clean air ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

5.4 Buffer bag .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.5 Non-emitting cover ............................................................................................................................................................................. 4

5.6 Vapour sampling devices ............................................................................................................................................................... 5

6 Unit component sample preparation .............................................................................................................................................. 5

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.2 History of the unit component .................................................................................................................................................. 5

6.3 Packaging, transport and storage of the unit component .................................................................................. 5

6.4 Preparation of unit component specimens .................................................................................................................... 6

7 Verification of test conditions ................................................................................................................................................................. 6

7.1 Test temperature ................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

7.2 Recovery ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

7.3 Clean air ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

7.4 Background concentration levels............................................................................................................................................ 6

7.5 Airtightness ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

8 Standard test procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................... 7

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

8.2 Cleaning ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

8.3 Test .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

8.4 Vapour sample collection ............................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.5 Sealing the vapour sampling devices after vapour sample collection .................................................... 9

8.6 Sample analysis ...................................................................................................................................................................................10

9 Calculation of unit component values .........................................................................................................................................10

10 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................10

11 Quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) .........................................................................................................................11

12 Safety measures ..................................................................................................................................................................................................12

Annex A (informative) General description of the static test chamber .........................................................................13

Annex B (informative) Example of airtightness test and temperature stability of entire phases .....14

Annex C (informative) Comparison of VOCs concentration between the buffer bag inside and the

static chamber inside ...................................................................................................................................................................................16

Annex D (informative) A dynamic mode operation ...........................................................................................................................17

Annex E (informative) Comparison of the static mode and the dynamic mode operation .......................19

Annex F (informative) Correlation between the assembly-based method (ISO 12219-4) and the

unit component-based method (ISO 12219-5) ..................................................................................................................20

Annex G (informative) Correlation between the unit component-based method (ISO 12219-5) and

the material-base method (ISO 12219-3) ...............................................................................................................................22

© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 12219-5:2014(E)

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................24

iv © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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ISO 12219-5:2014(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 146, Air quality, Subcommittee SC 6, Indoor air.

ISO 12219 consists of the following parts, under the general title Interior air of road vehicles:

— Part 1: Whole vehicle test chamber — Specification and method for the determination of volatile organic

compounds in cabin interiors

— Part 2: Screening method for the determination of the emissions of volatile organic compounds from

vehicle interior parts and materials — Bag method

— Part 3 Screening method for the determination of the emissions of volatile organic compounds from

vehicle interior parts and materials — Micro-scale chamber method

— Part 4: Method for the determination of the emissions of volatile organic compounds from vehicle

interior parts and materials — Small chamber method

— Part 5: Screening method for the determination of the emissions of volatile organic compounds from

vehicle interior parts and materials — Static chamber method
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved v
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ISO 12219-5:2014(E)
Introduction

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are widely used in industry and may be emitted by many everyday

products and materials. They have attracted attention in recent years because of their impact on indoor

air quality. After homes and workplaces, people spend a lot of time in their vehicles. Therefore there is a

need for comprehensive and reliable information about the types of organic compounds in the interior

air of vehicles and also their concentrations. As part of measures to achieve acceptable indoor air quality

it is important to determine the material emissions of interior parts and to reduce them, if necessary, to

an acceptable level.

Measuring VOCs from vehicle interior trim components can be performed in several ways and the

approach selected depends upon the desired outcome and the material type. Complete assembly-

[1,5]

based measurements provide total emission results only, but cannot provide VOCs emission of

each constituent component. Rapid screening methods obtain VOCs emission data for cut components.

[2,3,6,7]

Therefore, VOCs emission data for constituent unit component of car interior trim is required for

reducing VOCs level in vehicles.

This part of ISO 12219 outlines a method of measuring the types and levels of chemicals emitted by

unit component-based car interior trim using a static chamber method based on the principles of static

headspace. Static chamber methods can provide diffusion data from unit components of vehicle interior

trim without emission from cutting planes. It can be used to verify the correlation between a material-

based method and an assembly-based method. Adjunctively, the static headspace chamber method is

simply modified to the dynamic headspace mode to obtain complementary information by connecting

of a supply of air for comparison.
[2] [3] [1]

Each measurement method such as bag / micro-scale chamber / small-chamber sampling offers

a complementary approach.

ISO 16000-3, ISO 16000-5, ISO 16000-6, ISO 16000-9, ISO 16000-10, ISO 16000-11, ISO 16000-24, and

ISO 16000-25 also focus on VOC and formaldehyde measurements. ISO 16017-1 and ISO 16017-2 focus

on VOC measurements.
vi © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 12219-5:2014(E)
Interior air of road vehicles —
Part 5:
Screening method for the determination of the emissions
of volatile organic compounds from vehicle interior parts
and materials — Static chamber method
1 Scope

This part of ISO 12219 specifies a chamber based, static headspace type method for measuring volatile

organic compounds (VOCs), formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds which may diffuse from

vehicle interior unit components into the cabin air. The chamber emission test is intended to provide

characteristic emission of unit component to car interior of assembly level emission. It also specifies the

emission test chamber, preparation of the test specimen, connection of the vapour sampling devices and

test conditions. This method is valid for new car interior unit components intended for vehicles, and can

also be used for car interior unit components disassembled from assembly of car interior trim or used

cars. A set of multi-unit components could be applicable according to the test purpose.

A dynamic mode operation of emission chamber could be applied if corroborative information of the unit

component emission between this method and small chamber method (ISO 12219-4:2013) is desired.

The specified analytical procedure for VOCs (ISO 16000-6) is valid for the determination of VOCs ranging

3 3

in concentration from sub-µg/m to several mg/m . The method is applicable to the measurement of

non-polar and slightly polar VOCs ranging in volatility from n-C to n-C . Some very volatile compounds

6 16

(VVOC) and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) can also be analysed (see informative Annex D of

ISO 16000-6:2011).

This part of ISO 12219 is complementary to existing standards and provides third party test laboratories

and manufacturing industry with an approach for:

— comparing emissions from various unit components (sub-assemblies) with VOC emissions from

related complete assemblies measured in other tests,

— evaluating and categorising specific unit components by their VOC emission data,

— comparing and correlating emission from unit components with VOC emission data obtained in

other tests for the various materials used to make the unit component,
— evaluating prototype, “low-emission” unit components during development.

NOTE 1 All volatile carbonyls except formaldehyde can be analysed by ISO 16000-6:2011 incorporating

informative Annex D.

NOTE 2 The dynamic mode operation is described in the informative Annex D of this part of ISO 12219.

2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 12219-4:2013, Interior air of road vehicles — Part 4: Method for the determination of the emissions of

volatile organic compounds from vehicle interior parts and materials — Small chamber method

© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 12219-5:2014(E)

ISO 16000-3:2011, Indoor air — Part 3: Determination of formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds in

indoor air and test chamber air — Active sampling method

ISO 16000-6:2011, Indoor air — Part 6: Determination of volatile organic compounds in indoor and test

chamber air by active sampling on Tenax TA sorbent, thermal desorption and gas chromatography using MS

or MS-FID
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
emission test chamber

enclosure ranging in size from 10 l to 500 l excluding buffer bag volume that permits the testing of

vapour-phase organic emissions from various types of vehicle interior trim unit components under

atmospheric pressure, and which is equipped with mixing fan for homogeneous mixing in the entire

chamber and buffer bag
Note 1 to entry: Adapted from ISO 16000-9:2006, definition 3.6.
Note 2 to entry: See Annex A for a description of the test chamber.

Note 3 to entry: The size of the buffer bag connection port shall be large enough for homogeneous mixing between

the bag and test chamber.
3.2
buffer bag

low-emitting, impermeable and low-sorption plastic bag having a large enough mouth for proper

connection to the test chamber and a capacity higher than the expansion volume that is due to heating

of the emission test chamber
3.3
test concentration

concentration of a specific volatile organic compounds, VOC , (or group of volatile organic compounds),

formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds collected from an emission test chamber outlet which has

been heated for a specified period of time with unit component test sample in it

Note 1 to entry: Adapted from ISO 16000-9:2006, definition 3.7 emission test chamber concentration.

3.4
background concentration

concentration of a specific volatile organic compounds, VOC , (or group of volatile organic compounds),

formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds collected from an emission test chamber outlet which has

been heated for a specified period of time without any test sample
Note 1 to entry: Adapted from ISO 12219-4:2013, definition 3.6.
3.5
unit component value

total mass of each target compound, (VOC or carbonyl) or TVOC emitted from unit component under the

prescribed test conditions
3.6
recovery rate

ratio of the total amount of VOC, formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds collected from an emission

test chamber to the known total amount of VOC, formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds supplied

[4]
to the emission test chamber in the same time period
Note 1 to entry: Adapted from ISO 16000-9:2006, definition 3.9, recovery.

Note 2 to entry: The recovery provides information about the performance of the entire method.

2 © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
ISO 12219-5:2014(E)
3.7
unit component

basic manufacturing unit of car trim interior part at the part manufacturing factory, and components

before assembling the assembly of car interior trim or disassembled components in the assembly of car

interior trim
3.8
volatile organic compound
VOC

organic compounds that are emitted from the unit components and all those detected in the chamber air

Note 1 to entry: For a detailed definition see ISO 16000-6.
3.9
total volatile organic compound
TVOC
sum of organic compounds eluting between and including n-hexane and n-hexadecane
Note 1 to entry: For a detailed definition see ISO 16000-6.
4 Principle

The principle of the test is to assess the emission rate of VOCs and carbonyls from unit components under

conditions of fixed temperature and no external air flow. It is a static headspace type method. The sample

is incubated in an emission test chamber containing clean air for a selected period at fixed temperature.

During the incubation, the air between the chamber inside and buffer bag is mixed thoroughly with a

mixing fan. The gas inside the test chamber is then sampled and analysed, after equilibrium has been

reached or at time, t, to determine the vapour-phase masses/concentrations of VOCs and carbonyls.

These data are used to characterize the car trim unit component in terms of their relative emission

rates.
5 Instrument and reagent
5.1 General

A test bed to determine VOCs and carbonyls emissions consists of the following required elements:

— a suitable emission test chamber to contain the test specimen of unit component;

— a regulated, pressurized supply of clean air for cleaning and checking airtightness;

— a non-emitting, temperature-controlled incubation chamber;

— low-emitting, low-sorptive plastic buffer bag with large diameter connection port;

— a non-emitting cover of buffer bag connection port;

— flow controlled pumps, to draw the air from the test chamber through the sampling devices;

— an inert, non-emitting flow meter to control the flow of air supplied to the test chamber;

— vapour sampling trains incorporating the sampling devices specified in ISO 16000-6 and ISO 16000-3

and associated analytical apparatus;
— pressure and humidity control and regulation apparatus.
An example of a static test chamber is shown schematically in Annex A.
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 3
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ISO 12219-5:2014(E)
5.2 Test chamber

The test chamber is an airtight container with the volume of 10 l to 500 l, excluding the volume of the

buffer bag. A typical standard test chamber size has a volume of 125 l ± 5 l. It shall be equipped with

a connection port for air supply for cleaning and airtightness checking, connection port for sampling

and large diameter port for buffer bag, and stir fan for mixing inside chamber and buffer bag. A stand

is installed inside to set off the unit component without touching the test chamber walls. The buffer

bag port should be blocked by non-emitting cover when the incubation chamber is cleaned at a high

temperature.
5.2.1 Materials

The chamber material shall be an inert, non-emitting and non-adsorbing material, such as surface treated

(polished) or inert coated stainless steel or deactivated glass. The sealing materials used for sealing the

lid of test chamber, shall be low emitting and low sorption and shall not contribute significantly to the

background concentration.
5.2.2 Airtightness

The test chamber, equipped with the buffer bag, shall be sealed securely so that the air leakage is less

than 0,5 % of the test chamber volume per minute during a period of 30 min or less than 5 % of air

supply flow rate at 1 000 Pa of excess pressure.
5.2.3 Cleaning

The test chamber should be freed of all particles or similar remains of the components with mechanical

purification methods. Remove any o-rings or gaskets and clean the test chamber components using

an alkaline detergent, followed by two separate rinses with distilled water or by using an appropriate

solvent and thoroughly dried.

Alternatively, the emission test chamber can be heated for cleaning. At this moment, the buffer bag is

removed and the buffer connection port should be blocked by a non-emitting cover. The empty emission

test chamber should be baked at a temperature of 180 °C up to 230 °C in an incubation chamber or

appropriate heating oven.

If the test chamber has an inert coating, care shall be taken not to damage the coating during cleaning

(e.g. by using abrasive cleaners and/or high pH).
5.3 Clean air

Clean air is used for maintaining excess pressure when checking airtightness of the test chamber, and

exchanging the test chamber air during cleaning. VOC, formaldehyde and other carbonyl compound

concentrations in the clean air shall be as low as possible so that they do not adversely affect the test

results.
5.4 Buffer bag

The bag has a large mouth for connection with the chamber. The capacity is large enough to contain the

desired sampling volume and expansion volume of the emission test chamber when it is heated in the

test procedure. The buffer bag is low emitting, impermeable, flexible and low-sorptive plastic. It shall

not contribute significantly to background VOC concentration. A new plastic bag should be used in each

emission test.
5.5 Non-emitting cover

A buffer connection port shall be covered with a non-emitting cover when the test chamber is cleaned

by heat and is operated by a dynamic mode described in Annex D. The material of the cover is generally

identical to that of the buffer bag connection port.
4 © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 12219-5:2014(E)
5.6 Vapour sampling devices

Tubes packed with sorbents (such as Tenax TA ) are used for sampling vapour-phase organics ranging

in volatility from n-hexane to n-hexadecane in ISO 16000-6:2011. Note that alternative sorbents or

sorbent combinations may be required for monitoring compounds over a wider volatility range. See

ISO 16017-1 or informative Annex D of ISO 16000-6:2011 for more details.

DNPH cartridges as described in ISO 16000-3 are used for the collecting and analysis of formaldehyde

and other carbonyl compounds.
6 Unit component sample preparation
6.1 General

When determining volatile organic emissions, the conditions the unit component was exposed to before

the test can have a considerable effect on the results, especially in quantitative tests. Therefore, it is

necessary to standardize the history and preparation procedure for the unit component.

NOTE If the emission results of the unit component attempt to be harmonized with the small chamber

method (ISO 12219-4:2013), the sample preparation for the unit component could follow the sample preparation

procedure (ISO 12219-4:2013, Clause 8 and 9.3.1).
6.2 History of the unit component

The components need to be checked at their delivery condition when used for tests in which the emissions

from a new part are to be measured.

Possibly, the adsorption of substances from the environment not in the original component also should

be expected. Therefore, the history of the component before conducting the test should be documented

as completely as possible.

If it is prepared by dismantling the assembly to a unit component, then the original assembly and this

procedure should be documented.
6.3 Packaging, transport and storage of the unit component

The unit component shall be thoroughly protected from chemical contamination or any physical

exposure, e.g. heat, light and humidity, until the start of the test.

During temporary storage and transport the component shall be kept in its packaging and a temperature

of 23 °C should not be exceeded during any period.

For a unit component of car interior trim, this can usually be achieved by wrapping each unit component

separately in aluminium foil and in a polyethylene bag or alternatively, in aluminised packaging lined

with polyethylene or clear polyvinyl fluoride film.

The component shall be labelled with the details of the type of product, date of manufacture (if known)

and/or any identification numbers or batch numbers.

Storage may affect the emission properties due to aging of the component. It is recommended to minimize

the storage time of the sample prior to testing.

1) Tenax TA is the trade name of a product manufactured by Supelco, Inc. This information is given for the

convenience of users of this International Standard and does not constitut
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 12219-5:2014
01-september-2014

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NRPRUR

Interior air of road vehicles - Part 5: Screening method for the determination of the

emissions of volatile organic compounds from vehicle interior parts and materials - Static

chamber method

Air intérieur des véhicules routiers - Partie 5: Méthode de criblage pour la détermination

des émissions de composés organiques volatils des parties et matériaux intérieurs des

véhicules - Méthode de la chambre statique
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 12219-5:2014
ICS:
13.040.20 Kakovost okoljskega zraka Ambient atmospheres
43.020 Cestna vozila na splošno Road vehicles in general
SIST ISO 12219-5:2014 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ISO 12219-5:2014
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST ISO 12219-5:2014
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 12219-5
First edition
2014-05-15
Interior air of road vehicles —
Part 5:
Screening method for the
determination of the emissions of
volatile organic compounds from
vehicle interior parts and materials —
Static chamber method
Air intérieur des véhicules routiers —
Partie 5: Méthode de criblage pour la détermination des émissions de
composés organiques volatils des parties et matériaux intérieurs des
véhicules — Méthode de la chambre statique
Reference number
ISO 12219-5:2014(E)
ISO 2014
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST ISO 12219-5:2014
ISO 12219-5:2014(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2014

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ISO 12219-5:2014
ISO 12219-5:2014(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................vi

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5 Instrument and reagent ................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Test chamber ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

5.3 Clean air ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

5.4 Buffer bag .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4

5.5 Non-emitting cover ............................................................................................................................................................................. 4

5.6 Vapour sampling devices ............................................................................................................................................................... 5

6 Unit component sample preparation .............................................................................................................................................. 5

6.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

6.2 History of the unit component .................................................................................................................................................. 5

6.3 Packaging, transport and storage of the unit component .................................................................................. 5

6.4 Preparation of unit component specimens .................................................................................................................... 6

7 Verification of test conditions ................................................................................................................................................................. 6

7.1 Test temperature ................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

7.2 Recovery ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

7.3 Clean air ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6

7.4 Background concentration levels............................................................................................................................................ 6

7.5 Airtightness ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 7

8 Standard test procedure ............................................................................................................................................................................... 7

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

8.2 Cleaning ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

8.3 Test .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

8.4 Vapour sample collection ............................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.5 Sealing the vapour sampling devices after vapour sample collection .................................................... 9

8.6 Sample analysis ...................................................................................................................................................................................10

9 Calculation of unit component values .........................................................................................................................................10

10 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................10

11 Quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) .........................................................................................................................11

12 Safety measures ..................................................................................................................................................................................................12

Annex A (informative) General description of the static test chamber .........................................................................13

Annex B (informative) Example of airtightness test and temperature stability of entire phases .....14

Annex C (informative) Comparison of VOCs concentration between the buffer bag inside and the

static chamber inside ...................................................................................................................................................................................16

Annex D (informative) A dynamic mode operation ...........................................................................................................................17

Annex E (informative) Comparison of the static mode and the dynamic mode operation .......................19

Annex F (informative) Correlation between the assembly-based method (ISO 12219-4) and the

unit component-based method (ISO 12219-5) ..................................................................................................................20

Annex G (informative) Correlation between the unit component-based method (ISO 12219-5) and

the material-base method (ISO 12219-3) ...............................................................................................................................22

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Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................24

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Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

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ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 146, Air quality, Subcommittee SC 6, Indoor air.

ISO 12219 consists of the following parts, under the general title Interior air of road vehicles:

— Part 1: Whole vehicle test chamber — Specification and method for the determination of volatile organic

compounds in cabin interiors

— Part 2: Screening method for the determination of the emissions of volatile organic compounds from

vehicle interior parts and materials — Bag method

— Part 3 Screening method for the determination of the emissions of volatile organic compounds from

vehicle interior parts and materials — Micro-scale chamber method

— Part 4: Method for the determination of the emissions of volatile organic compounds from vehicle

interior parts and materials — Small chamber method

— Part 5: Screening method for the determination of the emissions of volatile organic compounds from

vehicle interior parts and materials — Static chamber method
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Introduction

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are widely used in industry and may be emitted by many everyday

products and materials. They have attracted attention in recent years because of their impact on indoor

air quality. After homes and workplaces, people spend a lot of time in their vehicles. Therefore there is a

need for comprehensive and reliable information about the types of organic compounds in the interior

air of vehicles and also their concentrations. As part of measures to achieve acceptable indoor air quality

it is important to determine the material emissions of interior parts and to reduce them, if necessary, to

an acceptable level.

Measuring VOCs from vehicle interior trim components can be performed in several ways and the

approach selected depends upon the desired outcome and the material type. Complete assembly-

[1,5]

based measurements provide total emission results only, but cannot provide VOCs emission of

each constituent component. Rapid screening methods obtain VOCs emission data for cut components.

[2,3,6,7]

Therefore, VOCs emission data for constituent unit component of car interior trim is required for

reducing VOCs level in vehicles.

This part of ISO 12219 outlines a method of measuring the types and levels of chemicals emitted by

unit component-based car interior trim using a static chamber method based on the principles of static

headspace. Static chamber methods can provide diffusion data from unit components of vehicle interior

trim without emission from cutting planes. It can be used to verify the correlation between a material-

based method and an assembly-based method. Adjunctively, the static headspace chamber method is

simply modified to the dynamic headspace mode to obtain complementary information by connecting

of a supply of air for comparison.
[2] [3] [1]

Each measurement method such as bag / micro-scale chamber / small-chamber sampling offers

a complementary approach.

ISO 16000-3, ISO 16000-5, ISO 16000-6, ISO 16000-9, ISO 16000-10, ISO 16000-11, ISO 16000-24, and

ISO 16000-25 also focus on VOC and formaldehyde measurements. ISO 16017-1 and ISO 16017-2 focus

on VOC measurements.
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 12219-5:2014(E)
Interior air of road vehicles —
Part 5:
Screening method for the determination of the emissions
of volatile organic compounds from vehicle interior parts
and materials — Static chamber method
1 Scope

This part of ISO 12219 specifies a chamber based, static headspace type method for measuring volatile

organic compounds (VOCs), formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds which may diffuse from

vehicle interior unit components into the cabin air. The chamber emission test is intended to provide

characteristic emission of unit component to car interior of assembly level emission. It also specifies the

emission test chamber, preparation of the test specimen, connection of the vapour sampling devices and

test conditions. This method is valid for new car interior unit components intended for vehicles, and can

also be used for car interior unit components disassembled from assembly of car interior trim or used

cars. A set of multi-unit components could be applicable according to the test purpose.

A dynamic mode operation of emission chamber could be applied if corroborative information of the unit

component emission between this method and small chamber method (ISO 12219-4:2013) is desired.

The specified analytical procedure for VOCs (ISO 16000-6) is valid for the determination of VOCs ranging

3 3

in concentration from sub-µg/m to several mg/m . The method is applicable to the measurement of

non-polar and slightly polar VOCs ranging in volatility from n-C to n-C . Some very volatile compounds

6 16

(VVOC) and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) can also be analysed (see informative Annex D of

ISO 16000-6:2011).

This part of ISO 12219 is complementary to existing standards and provides third party test laboratories

and manufacturing industry with an approach for:

— comparing emissions from various unit components (sub-assemblies) with VOC emissions from

related complete assemblies measured in other tests,

— evaluating and categorising specific unit components by their VOC emission data,

— comparing and correlating emission from unit components with VOC emission data obtained in

other tests for the various materials used to make the unit component,
— evaluating prototype, “low-emission” unit components during development.

NOTE 1 All volatile carbonyls except formaldehyde can be analysed by ISO 16000-6:2011 incorporating

informative Annex D.

NOTE 2 The dynamic mode operation is described in the informative Annex D of this part of ISO 12219.

2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 12219-4:2013, Interior air of road vehicles — Part 4: Method for the determination of the emissions of

volatile organic compounds from vehicle interior parts and materials — Small chamber method

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ISO 16000-3:2011, Indoor air — Part 3: Determination of formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds in

indoor air and test chamber air — Active sampling method

ISO 16000-6:2011, Indoor air — Part 6: Determination of volatile organic compounds in indoor and test

chamber air by active sampling on Tenax TA sorbent, thermal desorption and gas chromatography using MS

or MS-FID
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.
3.1
emission test chamber

enclosure ranging in size from 10 l to 500 l excluding buffer bag volume that permits the testing of

vapour-phase organic emissions from various types of vehicle interior trim unit components under

atmospheric pressure, and which is equipped with mixing fan for homogeneous mixing in the entire

chamber and buffer bag
Note 1 to entry: Adapted from ISO 16000-9:2006, definition 3.6.
Note 2 to entry: See Annex A for a description of the test chamber.

Note 3 to entry: The size of the buffer bag connection port shall be large enough for homogeneous mixing between

the bag and test chamber.
3.2
buffer bag

low-emitting, impermeable and low-sorption plastic bag having a large enough mouth for proper

connection to the test chamber and a capacity higher than the expansion volume that is due to heating

of the emission test chamber
3.3
test concentration

concentration of a specific volatile organic compounds, VOC , (or group of volatile organic compounds),

formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds collected from an emission test chamber outlet which has

been heated for a specified period of time with unit component test sample in it

Note 1 to entry: Adapted from ISO 16000-9:2006, definition 3.7 emission test chamber concentration.

3.4
background concentration

concentration of a specific volatile organic compounds, VOC , (or group of volatile organic compounds),

formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds collected from an emission test chamber outlet which has

been heated for a specified period of time without any test sample
Note 1 to entry: Adapted from ISO 12219-4:2013, definition 3.6.
3.5
unit component value

total mass of each target compound, (VOC or carbonyl) or TVOC emitted from unit component under the

prescribed test conditions
3.6
recovery rate

ratio of the total amount of VOC, formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds collected from an emission

test chamber to the known total amount of VOC, formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds supplied

[4]
to the emission test chamber in the same time period
Note 1 to entry: Adapted from ISO 16000-9:2006, definition 3.9, recovery.

Note 2 to entry: The recovery provides information about the performance of the entire method.

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3.7
unit component

basic manufacturing unit of car trim interior part at the part manufacturing factory, and components

before assembling the assembly of car interior trim or disassembled components in the assembly of car

interior trim
3.8
volatile organic compound
VOC

organic compounds that are emitted from the unit components and all those detected in the chamber air

Note 1 to entry: For a detailed definition see ISO 16000-6.
3.9
total volatile organic compound
TVOC
sum of organic compounds eluting between and including n-hexane and n-hexadecane
Note 1 to entry: For a detailed definition see ISO 16000-6.
4 Principle

The principle of the test is to assess the emission rate of VOCs and carbonyls from unit components under

conditions of fixed temperature and no external air flow. It is a static headspace type method. The sample

is incubated in an emission test chamber containing clean air for a selected period at fixed temperature.

During the incubation, the air between the chamber inside and buffer bag is mixed thoroughly with a

mixing fan. The gas inside the test chamber is then sampled and analysed, after equilibrium has been

reached or at time, t, to determine the vapour-phase masses/concentrations of VOCs and carbonyls.

These data are used to characterize the car trim unit component in terms of their relative emission

rates.
5 Instrument and reagent
5.1 General

A test bed to determine VOCs and carbonyls emissions consists of the following required elements:

— a suitable emission test chamber to contain the test specimen of unit component;

— a regulated, pressurized supply of clean air for cleaning and checking airtightness;

— a non-emitting, temperature-controlled incubation chamber;

— low-emitting, low-sorptive plastic buffer bag with large diameter connection port;

— a non-emitting cover of buffer bag connection port;

— flow controlled pumps, to draw the air from the test chamber through the sampling devices;

— an inert, non-emitting flow meter to control the flow of air supplied to the test chamber;

— vapour sampling trains incorporating the sampling devices specified in ISO 16000-6 and ISO 16000-3

and associated analytical apparatus;
— pressure and humidity control and regulation apparatus.
An example of a static test chamber is shown schematically in Annex A.
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5.2 Test chamber

The test chamber is an airtight container with the volume of 10 l to 500 l, excluding the volume of the

buffer bag. A typical standard test chamber size has a volume of 125 l ± 5 l. It shall be equipped with

a connection port for air supply for cleaning and airtightness checking, connection port for sampling

and large diameter port for buffer bag, and stir fan for mixing inside chamber and buffer bag. A stand

is installed inside to set off the unit component without touching the test chamber walls. The buffer

bag port should be blocked by non-emitting cover when the incubation chamber is cleaned at a high

temperature.
5.2.1 Materials

The chamber material shall be an inert, non-emitting and non-adsorbing material, such as surface treated

(polished) or inert coated stainless steel or deactivated glass. The sealing materials used for sealing the

lid of test chamber, shall be low emitting and low sorption and shall not contribute significantly to the

background concentration.
5.2.2 Airtightness

The test chamber, equipped with the buffer bag, shall be sealed securely so that the air leakage is less

than 0,5 % of the test chamber volume per minute during a period of 30 min or less than 5 % of air

supply flow rate at 1 000 Pa of excess pressure.
5.2.3 Cleaning

The test chamber should be freed of all particles or similar remains of the components with mechanical

purification methods. Remove any o-rings or gaskets and clean the test chamber components using

an alkaline detergent, followed by two separate rinses with distilled water or by using an appropriate

solvent and thoroughly dried.

Alternatively, the emission test chamber can be heated for cleaning. At this moment, the buffer bag is

removed and the buffer connection port should be blocked by a non-emitting cover. The empty emission

test chamber should be baked at a temperature of 180 °C up to 230 °C in an incubation chamber or

appropriate heating oven.

If the test chamber has an inert coating, care shall be taken not to damage the coating during cleaning

(e.g. by using abrasive cleaners and/or high pH).
5.3 Clean air

Clean air is used for maintaining excess pressure when checking airtightness of the test chamber, and

exchanging the test chamber air during cleaning. VOC, formaldehyde and other carbonyl compound

concentrations in the clean air shall be as low as possible so that they do not adversely affect the test

results.
5.4 Buffer bag

The bag has a large mouth for connection with the chamber. The capacity is large enough to contain the

desired sampling volume and expansion volume of the emission test chamber when it is heated in the

test procedure. The buffer bag is low emitting, impermeable, flexible and low-sorptive plastic. It shall

not contribute significantly to background VOC concentration. A new plastic bag should be used in each

emission test.
5.5 Non-emitting cover

A buffer connection port shall be covered with a non-emitting cover when the test chamber is cleaned

by heat and is operated by a dynamic mode described in Annex D. The material of the cover is generally

identical to that of the buffer bag connection port.
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5.6 Vapour sampling devices

Tubes packed with sorbents (such as Tenax TA ) are used for sampling vapour-phase organics ranging

in volatility from n-hexane to n-hexadecane in ISO 16000-6:2011. Note that alternative sorbents or

sorbent combinations may be required for monitoring compounds over a wider volatility range. See

ISO 16017-1 or informative Annex D of ISO 16000-6:2011 for more details.

DNPH cartridges as described in ISO 16000-3 are used for the collecting and analysis of formaldehyde

and other carbonyl compounds.
6 Unit component sample preparation
6.1 General

When determining volatile organic emissions, the conditions the unit component was exposed to before

the test can have a considerable effect on the results, especially in quantitative tests. Therefore, it is

necessary to standardize the history and preparation procedure for the unit component.

NOTE If the emission results of the unit component attempt to be harmonized with the small chamber

method (ISO 12219-4:2013), the sample preparation for the unit component could follow the sample preparation

procedure (ISO 12219-4:2013, Clause 8 and 9.3.1).
6.2 History of the unit component

The components need to be checked at their delivery condition when used for tests in which the emissions

from a new part are to be measured.

Possibly, the adsorption of substances from the environment not in the original component also should

be expected. Therefore, the history of the co
...

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