Metallic materials - Sheet and strip - Determination of plastic strain ratio (ISO 10113:2020)

EN-ISO 10113 specifies a method for determining the plastic strain ratio of flat products (sheet and strip) made of metallic materials.

Metallische Werkstoffe - Blech und Band - Bestimmung der senkrechten Anisotropie (ISO 10113:2020)

Dieses Dokument legt ein Verfahren zur Bestimmung der senkrechten Anisotropie von Flachprodukten (Blech und Band) aus metallischen Werkstoffen fest.

Matériaux métalliques - Tôles et bandes - Détermination du coefficient d'anisotropie plastique (ISO 10113:2020)

Le présent document spécifie une méthode de détermination du coefficient d'anisotropie plastique des produits plats (tôles et bandes) en matériaux métalliques.

Kovinski materiali - Pločevina in trakovi - Ugotavljanje količnika plastične anizotropije (ISO 10113:2020)

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
23-Apr-2020
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
24-Feb-2020
Due Date
30-Apr-2020
Completion Date
24-Apr-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 10113:2020
01-junij-2020
Nadomešča:
SIST EN ISO 10113:2014
Kovinski materiali - Pločevina in trakovi - Ugotavljanje količnika plastične
anizotropije (ISO 10113:2020)

Metallic materials - Sheet and strip - Determination of plastic strain ratio (ISO

10113:2020)
Metallische Werkstoffe - Blech und Band - Bestimmung der senkrechten Anisotropie
(ISO 10113:2020)

Matériaux métalliques - Tôles et bandes - Détermination du coefficient d'anisotropie

plastique (ISO 10113:2020)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 10113:2020
ICS:
77.040.10 Mehansko preskušanje kovin Mechanical testing of metals
SIST EN ISO 10113:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 10113:2020
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SIST EN ISO 10113:2020
EN ISO 10113
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
February 2020
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 77.040.10 Supersedes EN ISO 10113:2014
English Version
Metallic materials - Sheet and strip - Determination of
plastic strain ratio (ISO 10113:2020)

Matériaux métalliques - Tôles et bandes - Metallische Werkstoffe - Blech und Band - Bestimmung

Détermination du coefficient d'anisotropie plastique der senkrechten Anisotropie (ISO 10113:2020)

(ISO 10113:2020)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 5 January 2020.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway,

Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 10113:2020 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 10113:2020
EN ISO 10113:2020 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 10113:2020
EN ISO 10113:2020 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN ISO 10113:2020) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 164

"Mechanical testing of metals" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 459/SC 1 “Test

methods for steel (other than chemical analysis)” the secretariat of which is held by AFNOR.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by August 2020, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by August 2020.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN ISO 10113:2014.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland,

Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of

North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the

United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 10113:2020 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 10113:2020 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 10113:2020
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SIST EN ISO 10113:2020
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 10113
Third edition
2020-01
Metallic materials — Sheet and strip
— Determination of plastic strain ratio
Matériaux métalliques — Tôles et bandes — Détermination du
coefficient d'anisotropie plastique
Reference number
ISO 10113:2020(E)
ISO 2020
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SIST EN ISO 10113:2020
ISO 10113:2020(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2020

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

on the internet or an intranet, without prior written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address

below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
CP 401 • Ch. de Blandonnet 8
CH-1214 Vernier, Geneva
Phone: +41 22 749 01 11
Fax: +41 22 749 09 47
Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 10113:2020
ISO 10113:2020(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Symbols .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

6 Test equipment....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

7 Test piece ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

8 Procedure..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

8.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6

8.2 Method without using any extensometer (manual method) .......................................................................... 7

8.2.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

8.2.2 Testing ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 7

8.2.3 Evaluation .............................................................................................................................................................................. 8

8.3 Method only with length extensometer (semi-automatic method) .......................................................... 8

8.3.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

8.3.2 Testing ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

8.3.3 Evaluation .............................................................................................................................................................................. 9

8.4 Method with width and length extensometer (automatic method) ......................................................... 9

8.4.1 General...................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.4.2 Testing ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

8.4.3 Evaluation .............................................................................................................................................................................. 9

9 Additional test results ..................................................................................................................................................................................11

10 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................12

Annex A (informative) Methods for investigating sources of errors in r-value determination ............13

Annex B (informative) International comparison of symbols used in the determination of

plastic strain ratio ............................................................................................................................................................................................23

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................24

© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 10113:2020
ISO 10113:2020(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 164, Mechanical testing of metals,

Subcommittee SC 2, Ductility testing, in collaboration with the European Committee for Standardization

(CEN) Technical Committee CEN/TC 459/SC 1, Test methods for steel (other than chemical analysis), in

accordance with the Agreement on technical cooperation between ISO and CEN (Vienna Agreement).

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 10113:2006), which has been technically

revised. The main changes compared to the previous edition are as follows:
— a new structure;
— the addition of the semi-automatic method (see 8.3);

— a clear differentiation between the manual, the semi-automatic and the automatic methods (see 8.2,

8.3 and 8.4);

— the addition of the methods of investigating sources of errors in r-value determination (see Annex A).

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 10113:2020
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 10113:2020(E)
Metallic materials — Sheet and strip — Determination of
plastic strain ratio
1 Scope

This document specifies a method for determining the plastic strain ratio of flat products (sheet and

strip) made of metallic materials.
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 6892-1:2019, Metallic materials — Tensile testing — Part 1: Method of test at room temperature

ISO 9513, Metallic materials — Calibration of extensometer systems used in uniaxial testing

ISO 80000-1, Quantities and units — Part 1: General
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 6892-1 and the following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at https:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1
plastic strain ratio

ratio of the true plastic width strain to the true plastic thickness strain in a test piece that has been

subjected to uniaxial tensile stress calculated using Formula (1)
p_b
r= (1)
p_a
where
ε is the true plastic thickness strain;
p_a
ε is the true plastic width strain.
p_b

Note 1 to entry: The above expression using a single point is only valid in the region where the plastic strain is

homogeneous.

Note 2 to entry: Since it is easier and more precise to measure changes in length than in thickness, the following

relationship derived from the law of constancy of volume is used up to the percentage plastic extension at

maximum force, A , to calculate the plastic strain ratio, r [see Formula (2)].
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 10113:2020
ISO 10113:2020(E)
 
 
 
r =
Lb (2)
 
 
 

Note 3 to entry: For some materials exhibiting a phase change during plastic deformation, the volume of the

measured section cannot always be assumed to be constant. In such cases, the procedure shall be defined and

agreed between the parties involved.

Note 4 to entry: As the value r depends on the orientation of the test piece relative to the rolling direction, as

well as on the strain, the symbol r can be supplemented by the angle which characterises this orientation and the

plastic (engineering) strain. For example r (see Table 1).
45/20
3.2
weighted average plastic strain ratio

weighted average as calculated using Formula (3) of the r values for different test piece orientations,

x/y

x, where r are determined using the same selected test method and at the same plastic (engineering)

x/y
strain, y, or plastic (engineering) strain range, α - β
rr++2r
0/y 90/y 45/y
r = (3)

Note 1 to entry: For some materials, other test piece orientations may be chosen, in which case formulas other

than Formula (3) shall be used.
3.3
degree of planar anisotropy

value calculated using Formula (4) where r values for different test piece orientations, x, are

x/y

determined using the same selected test method and at the same plastic (engineering) strain, y, or

plastic (engineering) strain range, α - β
rr+−2r
0/y 90/y 45/y
Δ=r (4)

Note 1 to entry: For some materials, other test piece orientations may be chosen, in which case formulas other

than Formula (4) shall be used.
3.4
Poisson´s ratio
ratio of the elastic width strain to the elastic length strain of the material
4 Symbols
The designations of the symbols used in this document are given in Table 1.
2 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 10113:2020
ISO 10113:2020(E)
Table 1 — General symbols, designations, definitions and units
Symbol Designation Unit
a original thickness of the test piece mm
a thickness of the test piece after straining and unloading mm
A percentage of plastic extension at maximum force %
b average original gauge width of the test piece mm
b average width of the test piece after straining and unloading mm
Δb instantaneous width reduction measured with a width extensometer mm

plastic (engineering) strain at which the plastic strain ratio should be determined

e (single point method, e = plastic (engineering) strain in percent) ; this value should be in %

py py
the range of work hardening of the individual test (equal or lower than A )

plastic (engineering) strain range at which the plastic strain ratio should be determined

(linear regression method, where e = lower limit of the plastic (engineering) strain in

e − e %
pα pβ b

percent and e = upper limit of the plastic (engineering) strain in percent) ; the value β

should be in the range of work hardening of the individual test (equal or lower than A )

e instantaneous plastic (engineering) width strain of the test piece during testing %

p_b

e instantaneous plastic (engineering) length strain of the test piece during testing %

p_l
ε true plastic thickness strain —
p_a
ε true plastic width strain —
p_b
ε true plastic length strain —
p_l
F force N
L original gauge length mm

length between the marks of the original gauge length, L , on the test piece after straining mm

and unloading

ΔL instantaneous extension of the original extensometer gauge length under load mm

L original extensometer gauge length mm

slope of the elastic part of the engineering stress/percentage length extension curve

m MPa
multiplied by 100 %

slope of the corresponding straight line of the true plastic width strain vs. true plastic

m —
length strain curve
r plastic strain ratio —
weighted average of r values —
x/y
Δr degree of planar anisotropy —

plastic strain ratio in x-direction (in degrees) relative to the rolling direction, and at

r —
x/y
plastic (engineering) strain e ( y in %)

plastic strain ratio in x-direction (in degrees) relative to the rolling direction, and at

r —
x/α-β
plastic (engineering) strain range from e to e (α and β in %)
pα pβ
R tensile strength MPa
S original cross-sectional area of the parallel length mm
S instantaneous cross-sectional area mm
v Poisson's ratio —
α, β, x, y variables used as subscripts —

NOTE 1 In the literature, the readers may encounter other symbols: for an international comparison of symbols, see

Annex B.
NOTE 2 1 MPa = 1 N/mm .
Normally, this value is specified in product standards.
Normally, these values are specified in product standards.
In some countries, r is used instead of r .
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 10113:2020
ISO 10113:2020(E)
5 Principle

The plastic strain ratio r is often used for the characterisation and qualification of materials, and for the

numerical simulation of forming processes.

To determine the plastic strain ratio, a test piece is subjected to a tensile test to a specified plastic

(engineering) strain and the plastic strain ratio, r, is calculated from measurements of the changes in

width and thickness after unloading or after subtraction of the elastic strains. However, it is easier

and more precise to measure changes in length than in thickness. Therefore, the plastic strain ratio r

is typically derived from changes in length and width using the law of constancy of volume, see

Formula (5).
εε++ε =0 (5)
p_ap_b p_l
where
is the true plastic thickness strain ε =ln ;
p_a
p_a
is the true plastic width strain ε =ln ;
p_b
p_b
is the true plastic length strain ε =ln .
p_l p_l

The law of constancy of volume is only applicable up to the percentage of plastic extension at maximum

force, A because after this point local necking starts and the used mathematical approaches are no

longer valid.

Several materials clearly show a slight local necking before A . This can lead to higher instantaneous

width reduction values and results in higher r-values, especially when an extensometer is used which

measures the instantaneous width reduction only in the central region of the gauge length. In these

cases, the following points are recommended:

a) extensometers for measurement of the instantaneous width reduction which are able to measure

the change of width in multiple locations ideally evenly distributed across the entire gauge length

(see Clause 6) should be used;

b) the parallel length of the test piece should be minimum six times of the original gauge width of the

test piece b .

The orientation of the test piece relative to the rolling direction, and the plastic (engineering) strain for

which the values of r are determined, are as specified in the relevant product standards.

An r-value greater than one describes a behaviour where the material deforms more in the width than

in the thickness (ε > ε ; see Figure 1). An r-value lower than one describes a behaviour where the

p_b p_a

material deforms more in the thickness than in the width (ε < ε ; see Figure 1). An r-value of one

p_b p_a

describes an isotropic forming behaviour in width and thickness (ε = ε ; see Figure 1).

p_b p_a
4 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 10113:2020
ISO 10113:2020(E)
Key
1 original cross-sectional area of the parallel length
2 material, deformed more in the width
3 isotropic material (same deformation in width and thickness [ε = ε ])
p_b p_a
4 material, deformed more in the thickness
Increase of plastic extension.
[1]
Figure 1 — Illustration of the cross-section changes for different r-values
6 Test equipment

The tensile testing machine used shall comply with the requirements of ISO 6892-1.

For the manual method (see 8.2), the device for the measurement of the original gauge length and the

gauge length after plastic straining and unloading shall be capable of measuring with an accuracy of

±0,2 % or better. The device used for determining the original width and the gauge width of the test

piece after plastic straining and unloading shall be capable of measuring with an accuracy of ±0,005 mm

or better.

For the semi-automatic method (see 8.3), an extensometer for length measurement in accordance with

ISO 9513, of class 1 or better, shall be used. The device used for determining the original width and the

gauge width of the test piece after plastic straining and unloading shall be capable of measuring with

an accuracy of ±0,005 mm or better.

For the automatic method (see 8.4), extensometers in accordance with ISO 9513, of class 1 or better in

the relevant strain range, shall be used. The device used for determining the original width shall be

capable of measuring with an accuracy of ±0,1 % or better.

NOTE When using a long gauge length and large extensions are applied, the maximum error of the class 1

extensometer can be greater than ±0,01 mm.
The method of gripping the test piece shall be as specified in ISO 6892-1.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 5
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SIST EN ISO 10113:2020
ISO 10113:2020(E)
7 Test piece

The test piece shall be taken in accordance with the requirements of the relevant product standard or, if

not specified therein, as agreed between the parties involved.

The type of the test piece and its preparation, including machining tolerances, the tolerances on shape

and the marking of the original gauge length, shall be as defined in ISO 6892-1:2019, Annex B. In

addition, within the gauge length the edges shall be sufficiently parallel that two width measurements

do not differ by more than 0,1 % of the mean of all the width measurements.

To reach a homogeneous strain distribution in the gauge length for all types of test pieces

(ISO 6892-1:2019, Annex B), the parallel length L shall be equal to or larger than (L + 2 b ).

c o o

The test piece thickness shall be the full sheet thickness, unless otherwise specified.

The parallel length of the test piece shall be free of surface defects (e.g. scratches).

8 Procedure
8.1 General

In general, tests are carried out at ambient temperature between 10 °C and 35 °C. Tests carried out

under controlled conditions, where required, shall be made at a temperature of (23 ± 5) °C.

In the range of evaluation, the strain rate of the parallel length shall be constant with a relative tolerance

of ±20 % and not exceed 0,008/s. Any strain rate changes should be finished at least 0,2 % strain before

the start of the range of evaluation.

NOTE In the case of coated material (e.g. galvanised or with organic coatings), the r-values obtained can

differ from those of base material without coating.

If, after the test, the test piece shows transverse bow (see Figure 2), the test shall be considered invalid,

and a new test shall be carried out, because the test results could be influenced.

6 © ISO 2020 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 10113:2020
ISO 10113:2020(E)
Key
1 transverse bow

Figure 2 — Schematic illustration of transverse bow in a test piece cross-section

The test may be performed by three different methods. Unless otherwise agreed, the choice of the

method is at the discretion of the producer or the test laboratory assigned by the producer.

If there are differences in results by using different methods, the origin of these differences shall be

investigated. Methods for investigations are described in Annex A.
8.2 Method without using any extensometer (manual method)
8.2.1 General

This method is based on the measurement of the relevant dimensions before and after straining without

using an extensometer for either length or width measurements.
8.2.2 Testing

The original gauge length L shall be marked by means of fine marks or scribed lines to an accuracy

of ±1,0 % and measured with an accuracy of 0,2 % or better. In cases that the marked gauge length is

known with an accuracy better than 0,2 %, it is not necessary to measure the gauge length of every

single test piece.

The original width of the test piece shall be measured with an accuracy better than ±0,005 mm at a

minimum of three points evenly distributed along the gauge length, including one measurement at each

end of the gauge length. The average value of these width measurements b shall be used in calculating

the plastic strain ratio.
© ISO 2020 – All rights reserved 7
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SIST EN ISO 10113:2020
ISO 10113:2020(E)

The test piece is installed in the testing machine and is strained to the desired level and unloaded.

NOTE It is not necessary to apply a preload before straining when using this method.

After unloading, the gauge length L of the test piece and the width b is measured in the same manner

1 1
and to the same accuracy as for the original gauge length and width.
8.2.3 Evaluation

The plastic (engineering) strain for each individual test shall be calculated according to Formu

...

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