Water quality - Sampling - Part 11: Guidance on sampling of groundwaters

This part of ISO 5667 provides guidance on the sampling of groundwaters. It informs the user of the necessary considerations when planning and undertaking groundwater sampling to survey the quality of groundwater supply, to detect and assess groundwater contamination and to assist in groundwater resource management, protection and remediation. The guidance includes sampling of groundwater from both the saturated (below water table) zone and the unsaturated (above the water table) zone.

Qualité de l'eau - Échantillonnage - Partie 11: Lignes directrices pour l'échantillonnage des eaux souterraines

Kakovost vode - Vzorčenje - 11. del: Navodilo za vzorčenje podzemne vode

Ta del ISO 5667 določa navodilo za vzorčenje podzemne vode. Uporabnika informira o nujnih premislekih pri načrtovanju in izvajanju vzorčenja podzemne vode za pregledovanje kakovosti zaloge podzemne vode, za zaznavanje in ocenjevanje onesnaženja podzemne vode in za pomoč pri upravljanju virov podzemnih voda, njihovem varovanju in sanaciji. Navodilo vključuje vzorčenje podzemne vode iz nasičene cone (pod vodno ravnijo) in nenasičene cone (nad vodno ravnijo).

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
19-Jul-2009
Publication Date
03-Jun-2010
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
12-May-2010
Due Date
17-Jul-2010
Completion Date
04-Jun-2010

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 5667-11
Second edition
2009-04-15
Water quality — Sampling —
Part 11:
Guidance on sampling of groundwaters
Qualité de l'eau — Échantillonnage —
Partie 11: Lignes directrices pour l'échantillonnage des eaux
souterraines
Reference number
ISO 5667-11:2009(E)
ISO 2009
---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
ISO 5667-11:2009(E)
PDF disclaimer

This PDF file may contain embedded typefaces. In accordance with Adobe's licensing policy, this file may be printed or viewed but

shall not be edited unless the typefaces which are embedded are licensed to and installed on the computer performing the editing. In

downloading this file, parties accept therein the responsibility of not infringing Adobe's licensing policy. The ISO Central Secretariat

accepts no liability in this area.
Adobe is a trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated.

Details of the software products used to create this PDF file can be found in the General Info relative to the file; the PDF-creation

parameters were optimized for printing. Every care has been taken to ensure that the file is suitable for use by ISO member bodies. In

the unlikely event that a problem relating to it is found, please inform the Central Secretariat at the address given below.

COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2009

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or

ISO's member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2009 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
ISO 5667-11:2009(E)
Contents Page

Foreword............................................................................................................................................................ iv

Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... vi

1 Scope ..................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ........................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions........................................................................................................................... 1

4 Sampling strategy and programme design........................................................................................ 4

4.1 General................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2 Selection of sampling point location.................................................................................................. 4

4.3 Groundwater parameter selection ...................................................................................................... 7

4.4 Sampling frequency.............................................................................................................................. 7

5 Types of monitoring installation and sampling method................................................................... 8

5.1 General................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.2 Unsaturated zone monitoring.............................................................................................................. 8

5.3 Saturated zone .................................................................................................................................... 11

6 Sampling procedures ......................................................................................................................... 15

6.1 Purging ................................................................................................................................................ 15

6.2 Trial pits ............................................................................................................................................... 19

6.3 Sampling of free-phase contaminants (DNAPLs and LNAPLs) ..................................................... 19

6.4 Materials for sampling equipment .................................................................................................... 19

6.5 Prevention of contamination ............................................................................................................. 20

7 Safety precautions.............................................................................................................................. 21

8 Sample identification and records.................................................................................................... 22

9 Quality assurance/quality control..................................................................................................... 23

Annex A (informative) Calculation of sampling frequency using nomogram............................................ 24

Annex B (informative) Example of a report — Sampling from groundwaters............................................ 25

Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 26

© ISO 2009 – All rights reserved iii
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
ISO 5667-11:2009(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 5667-11 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 147, Water quality, Subcommittee SC 6,

Sampling (general methods).

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 5667-11:1993) and ISO 5667-18:2001, which

have been technically revised.

ISO 5667 consists of the following parts, under the general title Water quality — Sampling:

⎯ Part 1: Guidance on the design of sampling programmes and sampling techniques
⎯ Part 3: Guidance on the preservation and handling of water samples
⎯ Part 4: Guidance on sampling from lakes, natural and man-made

⎯ Part 5: Guidance on sampling of drinking water from treatment works and piped distribution systems

⎯ Part 6: Guidance on sampling of rivers and streams
⎯ Part 7: Guidance on sampling of water and steam in boiler plants
⎯ Part 8: Guidance on the sampling of wet deposition
⎯ Part 9: Guidance on sampling from marine waters
⎯ Part 10: Guidance on sampling of waste waters
⎯ Part 11: Guidance on sampling of groundwaters
⎯ Part 12: Guidance on sampling of bottom sediments
⎯ Part 13: Guidance on sampling of sludges from sewage and water treatment works

⎯ Part 14: Guidance on quality assurance of environmental water sampling and handling

⎯ Part 15: Guidance on preservation and handling of sludge and sediment samples
iv © ISO 2009 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
ISO 5667-11:2009(E)
⎯ Part 16: Guidance on biotesting of samples
⎯ Part 17: Guidance on sampling of suspended sediments
⎯ Part 19: Guidance on sampling of marine sediments

⎯ Part 20: Guidance on the use of sampling data for decision making — Compliance with thresholds and

classification systems

⎯ Part 21: Guidance on sampling of drinking water distributed by tankers or means other than distribution

pipes
⎯ Part 22: Guidance on design and installation of groundwater sample points

⎯ Part 23: Determination of significant pollutants in surface waters using passive sampling

This part of ISO 5667 should be read in conjunction with other parts, in particular ISO 5667-1 and ISO 5667-3.

© ISO 2009 – All rights reserved v
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
ISO 5667-11:2009(E)
Introduction

This part of ISO 5667 is a revision of both ISO 5667-11:1993, Guidance on sampling of groundwaters and

ISO 5667-18:2001, Guidance on sampling of groundwater at contaminated sites.

The guidance in this part of ISO 5667 can be used in parallel with other guidance on water quality sampling

and/or investigation of contaminated or potentially contaminated sites, as any groundwater sampling from

such sites is likely to form part of a much wider investigation programme.

Development of a groundwater sampling programme depends on the purposes of the investigation.

A definition of the purpose of groundwater sampling is an essential prerequisite for identifying the principles to

be applied to a particular sampling problem.

The principles set out in this part of ISO 5667 can be used to satisfy the following more detailed objectives:

a) to determine the suitability of groundwater as a source of drinking water or industrial/agricultural water;

b) to identify, at an early stage, contamination of aquifers caused by potentially hazardous surface or

sub-surface activities (e.g. the operation of waste disposal sites, land contamination, industrial

developments, mineral exploitation, agricultural practices, changes in land use) and its potential to impact

on surface waters and other potential receptors in the vicinity of the site;

c) to establish whether migration of contaminants is occurring in order to assess the impact on groundwater

quality and to calibrate and validate suitable groundwater quality models;

d) to develop an understanding of groundwater quality and flow variations, including those caused by

deliberate actions (e.g. variations in groundwater pumping regimes, groundwater recharge caused by

effluent, surface clean-up activities arising from contaminated sites), in order to achieve optimal resource

management, provide data for undertaking risk assessment and to enable enforcement of pollution-

control law;

e) to assist in the selection of remedial measures and remediation process design, and monitor the

performance and effectiveness of these measures or facility design;

f) to demonstrate compliance with licence conditions, or collect evidence for regulatory purposes;

g) to identify and characterise discrete aquifer water bodies.
Examples of situations where this guidance can be used include:

⎯ general surveys of groundwater quality for chemical and microbiological assessment;

⎯ investigation of present or former industrial sites with a history of potentially contaminatory activities;

⎯ groundwater investigation and monitoring of waste disposal (landfill) sites;

⎯ investigation of sites where natural and/or artificial processes have led to potential land and groundwater

contamination;

⎯ investigation of sites where products have been spilled or released as a result of accidents or other

unforeseen events, e.g. transportation accidents.

The guidance contained in this part of ISO 5667 covers selection of sampling points, selection of sampling

installations and devices, groundwater parameter selection and sampling frequency.

vi © ISO 2009 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
ISO 5667-11:2009(E)

Prescriptive guidance on methods and applications is not possible. Therefore, this guidance provides

information on the most commonly applied, and available, techniques and lists their advantages,

disadvantages and limitations of use where these are known. When considering design of sampling strategies,

the properties of the groundwater (aquifer) system, monitoring point design, contaminant source(s), pathways

for migration and the receptors need to be considered.
© ISO 2009 – All rights reserved vii
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 5667-11:2009(E)
Water quality — Sampling —
Part 11:
Guidance on sampling of groundwaters
1 Scope

This part of ISO 5667 provides guidance on the sampling of groundwaters. It informs the user of the

necessary considerations when planning and undertaking groundwater sampling to survey the quality of

groundwater supply, to detect and assess groundwater contamination and to assist in groundwater resource

management, protection and remediation. This part of ISO 5667 does not apply to sampling related to the

day-to-day operational control of groundwater abstractions for potable purposes. The guidance includes

sampling of groundwater from both the saturated (below water table) zone and the unsaturated (above the

water table) zone.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.
ISO 772, Hydrometry — Vocabulary and symbols

ISO 5667-1:2006, Water quality — Sampling — Part 1: Guidance on the design of sampling programmes and

sampling techniques

ISO 5667-3, Water quality — Sampling — Part 3: Guidance on the preservation and handling of water

samples

ISO 5667-14, Water quality — Sampling — Part 14: Guidance on quality assurance of environmental water

sampling and handling
ISO 6107-2, Water quality — Vocabulary — Part 2
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 6107-2, ISO 772 and the following

apply.
3.1
piezometer

device consisting of a tube or pipe with a porous element or perforated section (surrounded by a filter) on the

lower part (piezometer tip), which is installed and sealed into the ground at an appropriate level within the

saturated zone for the purposes of water level measurement, hydraulic pressure measurement and/or

groundwater sampling
NOTE Adapted from ISO 6107-2:2006.
© ISO 2009 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 5667-11:2009(E)
3.2
nested piezometers
bundled piezometer installation

group of piezometers installed to different depths within a single larger diameter borehole

NOTE 1 In general, each piezometer should be designed to allow sampling over a specific depth interval within the

aquifer. Piezometer tips are isolated from each other by installing a permanent impermeable seal between them.

NOTE 2 Adapted from ISO 6107-2:2006.
3.3
multiple boreholes

group of individual boreholes or piezometers installed to different depths separately, but in close proximity, to

form a monitoring network adequate for the purposes of an investigation
NOTE Adapted from ISO 6107-2:2006.
3.4
multi-level sampler

single installation for sampling groundwater from discrete depths or depth intervals within the sub-surface

NOTE 1 The device can be installed directly into the ground or into a pre-existing, or purpose-drilled, borehole. When

installed into a borehole, integral packers (or similar sealing devices) are used to isolate the individual horizons within the

groundwater system that are to be sampled.
NOTE 2 Adapted from ISO 6107-2:2006.
3.5
aquifer

geological water-bearing formation (bed or stratum) of permeable rock, or unconsolidated material (e.g. sand

and gravels) capable of yielding significant quantities of water
[4]
NOTE Adapted from ISO 6107-3:1993 .
3.6
consolidated aquifer
aquifer comprising material which is compact due to cementation or compression
3.7
saturated zone

part of an aquifer in which the pore spaces of the formation are completely filled with water

[ISO 6107-2:2006]
3.8
unsaturated zone

part of an aquifer in which the pore spaces of the formation are not totally filled with water

[ISO 6107-2:2006]
3.9
groundwater

water in the saturated zone and/or unsaturated zone of an underground geological formation or artificial

deposit such as made ground, e.g. fill material
2 © ISO 2009 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
ISO 5667-11:2009(E)
3.10
perched groundwater

isolated body of groundwater, which is limited in lateral and vertical extent, located within the unsaturated

zone overlying a much more extensive groundwater body and isolated above by a discontinuous poorly

permeable surface (discontinuous aquitard)
NOTE Adapted from ISO 6107-2:2006, “perched water table”.
3.11
receptor

entity (human, animal, water, vegetation, building services, etc.) that is vulnerable to the adverse effect(s) of a

hazardous substance or agent
NOTE Adapted from ISO 6107-2:2006.
3.12
packer

device or material that inflates or expands for temporarily isolating specified vertical sections within boreholes

to allow groundwater sampling from discrete zones or locations within the borehole or aquifer

NOTE Adapted from ISO 6107-2:2006.
3.13
field capacity

maximum amount of water that a soil or rock can retain after gravitational water has drained away

NOTE Adapted from ISO 6107-2:2006.
3.14
dense non-aqueous phase liquids
DNAPLs

organic compounds that have very low water solubility and a density greater than that of water

EXAMPLE Chlorinated hydrocarbons such as trichloroethane.
NOTE 1 Adapted from ISO 6107-2:2006.

NOTE 2 When present in sufficient quantities, DNAPLs form a separate phase from the water.

3.15
light non-aqueous phase liquids
LNAPLs

organic compounds that have very low water solubility and a density less than that of water

EXAMPLE Petroleum products.
NOTE 1 Adapted from ISO 6107-2:2006.

NOTE 2 When present in sufficient quantities, LNAPLs form a separate phase from the water.

3.16
well
borehole

〈groundwater sampling〉 hole sunk into the ground, either by drilling (boring) or digging, to obtain groundwater

or for observation purposes
[3]

NOTE This definition differs from the one given in both ISO 772:— and ISO 6707-1:2004 .

© ISO 2009 – All rights reserved 3
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
ISO 5667-11:2009(E)
3.17
spring
groundwater emerging naturally through the surface of the land
[4]
[ISO 6107-3:1993 ]
3.18
pore water
water that fills the pores or cavities within a body of rock or soil
3.19
casing

tubular retaining structure, which is installed in a drilled borehole or excavated well, to maintain the borehole

opening
[ISO 772:—]

NOTE In the context of groundwater sampling, “maintain the borehole opening” means the prevention of the ingress

of solid aquifer material into the borehole or control of groundwater entry to the borehole at specific depths via a (well)

screen. The structure can be temporary or permanent.
4 Sampling strategy and programme design
4.1 General

Groundwater sampling can be carried out as a single exercise, as part of a larger site or environmental

investigation, or as part of a regional/national programme. Regardless of the purpose, a rational approach

should be taken that clearly defines the objectives, determines the level of information needed, and identifies

the various stages of the investigation. Consideration should also be given to practical constraints such as site

access, infrastructure, and the distance between the site and analytical laboratories.

It should be noted that, normally, groundwater sampling from the saturated zone alone cannot fully assess the

level of contamination in the subsurface in situations where an unsaturated zone of considerable thickness

exists. The potential consequence of ignoring the unsaturated zone is that the unsaturated zone and

groundwater system could become extensively contaminated before any tangible evidence of leakage or

contamination is evident in samples collected from below the water table.
4.2 Selection of sampling point location
4.2.1 General

The location of monitoring installations, the design of the network, and the selection of monitoring points for

investigating groundwater quality should take account of:
a) the hydrogeological setting of the investigation site;
b) the past and future use(s) of the site;
c) the purpose of the exercise;
d) the anticipated or known groundwater quality;
e) the nature and extent of any likely contamination.
4 © ISO 2009 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
ISO 5667-11:2009(E)

All of these factors should be considered during the preliminary stages of the monitoring programme to enable

the most appropriate and effective sampling strategy to be implemented. This information can be obtained by

examining all available information held by site owners (or their agents), local, regional and national regulatory

agencies and other data holders. Table 1 provides an overview of the steps involved in planning an

investigation strategy and for sampling groundwater.

When using existing monitoring points to obtain and gain access to groundwater, it is necessary to determine

borehole constructional details and characteristics to define from which strata the sample is being obtained.

When new boreholes are being constructed specifically for sampling, the design of the borehole (e.g. the open

area and length) and the method of construction need to be chosen, not only to meet the sampling

requirement, but also to minimise contamination or disturbance of the aquifer.
4.2.2 Surveillance of groundwater quality for potable supply

When monitoring the quality of groundwater for potable supply use, boreholes, wells and springs that are

sampled should be monitored for those parameters that are relevant to the use of the water. Where

appropriate, national raw water sampling and monitoring requirements should be referred to for more detailed

advice. When selecting sampling points for water supply surveillance, it is recommended that some boreholes

remote from the abstraction are also monitored, in order to examine the effect of the abstraction on the

dynamic characteristics of the aquifer (e.g. the natural groundwater flow, the variation in thickness of the

saturated zone).
4.2.3 Point source contamination of groundwater

To establish the extent of groundwater contamination and the direction and rate of contaminant migration,

monitoring points should be located inside and outside any contaminated area(s). Monitoring points outside

the contaminant source area should be located in positions up gradient and down gradient of the sites with

respect to the hydraulic gradient as a minimum. A greater number of sample points should be positioned down

gradient, both inside and outside of any contaminant plume.

Where analysis indicates that complex geology underlies the site or that contaminants with a broad range of

physical and chemical properties are likely to be present, increase the number of monitoring points to

adequately characterise the contaminant distribution in three dimensions. In addition to investigating the

lateral variation caused by heterogeneity, the sampling strategy should also be designed to investigate any

vertical variations.

Care should be taken when identifying the prevailing flow regime as localised recharge to the subsurface can

alter the regional hydraulic gradient. This can result in groundwater flow and contaminant transportation in a

direction that is contrary to flow imposed by the regional gradient. Dense non-aqueous phase liquids

(DNAPLs) can also move in a different direction and at a different rate to that of groundwater because their

chemical and physical properties are different to those of water (density effects). Their migration is also

affected by the geological structure of the low permeability layer underlying the saturated aquifer.

Light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs) also have different chemical properties to those of water. Their

migration and distribution are affected by the geological structure, chemical interactions within the unsaturated

zone and zone of water table fluctuation, as well as partitioning between aqueous and gaseous phases.

Where sampling is aimed at providing an early warning of the impact of contaminants on receptors, monitoring

points should be located between the contaminant source (and plume) and the potential receptors as well as

within the zone of contamination. For example, at landfill sites, monitoring points should be established around

the outside of, but close to, the landfill at appropriate depths.

Sample points within the zone of contamination and outside (both up and down hydraulic gradient) should be

installed to measure performance and effectiveness of remediation, for demonstrating compliance to licence

conditions and to determine the quality of groundwater flowing into the area of investigation.

© ISO 2009 – All rights reserved 5
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
ISO 5667-11:2009(E)
6 © ISO 2009 – All rights reserved

Table 1 — Procedural steps for sampling groundwater (adapted from Reference [13])

Step (with reference to other
Procedure Essential elements Notes
parts of ISO 5667)
Collation of available data
Desk study
Investigation/monitoring strategy Geological, geochemical and
Identify data sources
(ISO 5667-1) hydrogeological characterisation
Develop conceptual model
Reconnaissance survey
Design borehole/sampling point
See 4.2, 4.3 and 4.4
network and sampling programme
Assessment/selection of existing monitoring points
See Clause 5
Borehole design, material selection
Facility installation/selection Installation of monitoring points by drilling
and installation technique
Borehole/well cleaning and development See 6.1
Hydrologic measurements
Water level measurements
Borehole/well inspection Hydrogeological characterisation
↓ Hydraulic testing
Removal or isolation of stagnant water
Representative groundwater See 6.1
Borehole/well purging
Determination of purging parameters
Verification of representative See 6.2
groundwater
(e.g. EC, pH, temperature, redox potential)
Sample collection by appropriate
See 5.2 and 5.3
mechanism
Unfiltered sample
Field filtered sample
Field determination of sensitive
parameters, pH, electrical
Sample collection
conductivity, temperature,
Organics (all)
Dissolved trace metals for
Filtration
redox potential, dissolved oxygen
specific geochemical
Alkalinity/pH
Field determinations
as appropriate
information
Dissolved gases
(ISO 5667-1, ISO 5667-3, this part
See 6.4 and 6.5
Head-space free samples
Sulfide and other sensitive
Sensitive inorganic species,
of ISO 5667)
Minimal aeration or
inorganics, e.g. iron(II)
e.g. nitrite, ammonium
de-pressurisation
Major ions
Tracer metals for mobile
Minimal air contact
Blanks and spiked samples should
(colloidal) loads
be prepared in accordance with
Sample preservation
Microbiological agents
ISO 5667-14
Storage and transport of samples
Minimal loss of sample integrity
See Clauses 7, 8 and 9
prior to analysis
(ISO 5667-3)
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
ISO 5667-11:2009(E)
4.2.4 Diffuse contamination of groundwater

When designing monitoring networks to identify extensive diffuse-source pollution of aquifers, the use of

existing sampling points in the form of large capacity production boreholes is recommended, as they can

provide integrated samples from a large volume of the aquifer. However, in some cases of localised or

low-intensity pollution, the use of this type of borehole can dilute the contamination to levels below the

analytical detection limit: in these cases, smaller capacity pumped boreholes are recommended. The part of

the aquifer which is most sensitive to pollution is that nearest the boundary between the saturated and

unsaturated zones. At least one of the sampling boreholes should therefore have a screen near to the surface

of the saturated zone. Other purpose-drilled boreholes should be completed and screened over different depth

intervals of the aquifer. Sampling boreholes should be located throughout the area of interest. It is

recommended that sites be chosen to represent the different hydrogeological and land-use conditions and

areas considered to be particularly vulnerable to diffuse pollution.
4.3 Groundwater parameter selection

The parameters selected for analysis should reflect the nature of the investigation and/or the former, current,

and proposed future use of the site. In some cases, certain parameters and/or contaminants will be the

subject of national regulations. Focusing only on these, however, could be inadequate for providing the

complete picture of groundwater quality under
...

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST ISO 5667-11:2010
01-julij-2010
1DGRPHãþD
SIST ISO 5667-11:1996
SIST ISO 5667-18:2001
SIST ISO 5667-18:2001/Cor 1:2009
.DNRYRVWYRGH9]RUþHQMHGHO1DYRGLOR]DY]RUþHQMHSRG]HPQHYRGH
Water quality - Sampling - Part 11: Guidance on sampling of groundwaters

Qualité de l'eau - Échantillonnage - Partie 11: Lignes directrices pour l'échantillonnage

des eaux souterraines
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: ISO 5667-11:2009
ICS:
13.060.10 Voda iz naravnih virov Water of natural resources
13.060.45 Preiskava vode na splošno Examination of water in
general
SIST ISO 5667-11:2010 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST ISO 5667-11:2010
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST ISO 5667-11:2010
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 5667-11
Second edition
2009-04-15
Water quality — Sampling —
Part 11:
Guidance on sampling of groundwaters
Qualité de l'eau — Échantillonnage —
Partie 11: Lignes directrices pour l'échantillonnage des eaux
souterraines
Reference number
ISO 5667-11:2009(E)
ISO 2009
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST ISO 5667-11:2010
ISO 5667-11:2009(E)
PDF disclaimer

This PDF file may contain embedded typefaces. In accordance with Adobe's licensing policy, this file may be printed or viewed but

shall not be edited unless the typefaces which are embedded are licensed to and installed on the computer performing the editing. In

downloading this file, parties accept therein the responsibility of not infringing Adobe's licensing policy. The ISO Central Secretariat

accepts no liability in this area.
Adobe is a trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated.

Details of the software products used to create this PDF file can be found in the General Info relative to the file; the PDF-creation

parameters were optimized for printing. Every care has been taken to ensure that the file is suitable for use by ISO member bodies. In

the unlikely event that a problem relating to it is found, please inform the Central Secretariat at the address given below.

COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2009

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,

electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below or

ISO's member body in the country of the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2009 – All rights reserved
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST ISO 5667-11:2010
ISO 5667-11:2009(E)
Contents Page

Foreword............................................................................................................................................................ iv

Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... vi

1 Scope ..................................................................................................................................................... 1

2 Normative references ........................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions........................................................................................................................... 1

4 Sampling strategy and programme design........................................................................................ 4

4.1 General................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2 Selection of sampling point location.................................................................................................. 4

4.3 Groundwater parameter selection ...................................................................................................... 7

4.4 Sampling frequency.............................................................................................................................. 7

5 Types of monitoring installation and sampling method................................................................... 8

5.1 General................................................................................................................................................... 8

5.2 Unsaturated zone monitoring.............................................................................................................. 8

5.3 Saturated zone .................................................................................................................................... 11

6 Sampling procedures ......................................................................................................................... 15

6.1 Purging ................................................................................................................................................ 15

6.2 Trial pits ............................................................................................................................................... 19

6.3 Sampling of free-phase contaminants (DNAPLs and LNAPLs) ..................................................... 19

6.4 Materials for sampling equipment .................................................................................................... 19

6.5 Prevention of contamination ............................................................................................................. 20

7 Safety precautions.............................................................................................................................. 21

8 Sample identification and records.................................................................................................... 22

9 Quality assurance/quality control..................................................................................................... 23

Annex A (informative) Calculation of sampling frequency using nomogram............................................ 24

Annex B (informative) Example of a report — Sampling from groundwaters............................................ 25

Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 26

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Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies

(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO

technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been

established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and

non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards

adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an

International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

ISO 5667-11 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 147, Water quality, Subcommittee SC 6,

Sampling (general methods).

This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 5667-11:1993) and ISO 5667-18:2001, which

have been technically revised.

ISO 5667 consists of the following parts, under the general title Water quality — Sampling:

⎯ Part 1: Guidance on the design of sampling programmes and sampling techniques
⎯ Part 3: Guidance on the preservation and handling of water samples
⎯ Part 4: Guidance on sampling from lakes, natural and man-made

⎯ Part 5: Guidance on sampling of drinking water from treatment works and piped distribution systems

⎯ Part 6: Guidance on sampling of rivers and streams
⎯ Part 7: Guidance on sampling of water and steam in boiler plants
⎯ Part 8: Guidance on the sampling of wet deposition
⎯ Part 9: Guidance on sampling from marine waters
⎯ Part 10: Guidance on sampling of waste waters
⎯ Part 11: Guidance on sampling of groundwaters
⎯ Part 12: Guidance on sampling of bottom sediments
⎯ Part 13: Guidance on sampling of sludges from sewage and water treatment works

⎯ Part 14: Guidance on quality assurance of environmental water sampling and handling

⎯ Part 15: Guidance on preservation and handling of sludge and sediment samples
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⎯ Part 16: Guidance on biotesting of samples
⎯ Part 17: Guidance on sampling of suspended sediments
⎯ Part 19: Guidance on sampling of marine sediments

⎯ Part 20: Guidance on the use of sampling data for decision making — Compliance with thresholds and

classification systems

⎯ Part 21: Guidance on sampling of drinking water distributed by tankers or means other than distribution

pipes
⎯ Part 22: Guidance on design and installation of groundwater sample points

⎯ Part 23: Determination of significant pollutants in surface waters using passive sampling

This part of ISO 5667 should be read in conjunction with other parts, in particular ISO 5667-1 and ISO 5667-3.

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Introduction

This part of ISO 5667 is a revision of both ISO 5667-11:1993, Guidance on sampling of groundwaters and

ISO 5667-18:2001, Guidance on sampling of groundwater at contaminated sites.

The guidance in this part of ISO 5667 can be used in parallel with other guidance on water quality sampling

and/or investigation of contaminated or potentially contaminated sites, as any groundwater sampling from

such sites is likely to form part of a much wider investigation programme.

Development of a groundwater sampling programme depends on the purposes of the investigation.

A definition of the purpose of groundwater sampling is an essential prerequisite for identifying the principles to

be applied to a particular sampling problem.

The principles set out in this part of ISO 5667 can be used to satisfy the following more detailed objectives:

a) to determine the suitability of groundwater as a source of drinking water or industrial/agricultural water;

b) to identify, at an early stage, contamination of aquifers caused by potentially hazardous surface or

sub-surface activities (e.g. the operation of waste disposal sites, land contamination, industrial

developments, mineral exploitation, agricultural practices, changes in land use) and its potential to impact

on surface waters and other potential receptors in the vicinity of the site;

c) to establish whether migration of contaminants is occurring in order to assess the impact on groundwater

quality and to calibrate and validate suitable groundwater quality models;

d) to develop an understanding of groundwater quality and flow variations, including those caused by

deliberate actions (e.g. variations in groundwater pumping regimes, groundwater recharge caused by

effluent, surface clean-up activities arising from contaminated sites), in order to achieve optimal resource

management, provide data for undertaking risk assessment and to enable enforcement of pollution-

control law;

e) to assist in the selection of remedial measures and remediation process design, and monitor the

performance and effectiveness of these measures or facility design;

f) to demonstrate compliance with licence conditions, or collect evidence for regulatory purposes;

g) to identify and characterise discrete aquifer water bodies.
Examples of situations where this guidance can be used include:

⎯ general surveys of groundwater quality for chemical and microbiological assessment;

⎯ investigation of present or former industrial sites with a history of potentially contaminatory activities;

⎯ groundwater investigation and monitoring of waste disposal (landfill) sites;

⎯ investigation of sites where natural and/or artificial processes have led to potential land and groundwater

contamination;

⎯ investigation of sites where products have been spilled or released as a result of accidents or other

unforeseen events, e.g. transportation accidents.

The guidance contained in this part of ISO 5667 covers selection of sampling points, selection of sampling

installations and devices, groundwater parameter selection and sampling frequency.

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Prescriptive guidance on methods and applications is not possible. Therefore, this guidance provides

information on the most commonly applied, and available, techniques and lists their advantages,

disadvantages and limitations of use where these are known. When considering design of sampling strategies,

the properties of the groundwater (aquifer) system, monitoring point design, contaminant source(s), pathways

for migration and the receptors need to be considered.
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 5667-11:2009(E)
Water quality — Sampling —
Part 11:
Guidance on sampling of groundwaters
1 Scope

This part of ISO 5667 provides guidance on the sampling of groundwaters. It informs the user of the

necessary considerations when planning and undertaking groundwater sampling to survey the quality of

groundwater supply, to detect and assess groundwater contamination and to assist in groundwater resource

management, protection and remediation. This part of ISO 5667 does not apply to sampling related to the

day-to-day operational control of groundwater abstractions for potable purposes. The guidance includes

sampling of groundwater from both the saturated (below water table) zone and the unsaturated (above the

water table) zone.
2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated

references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced

document (including any amendments) applies.
ISO 772, Hydrometry — Vocabulary and symbols

ISO 5667-1:2006, Water quality — Sampling — Part 1: Guidance on the design of sampling programmes and

sampling techniques

ISO 5667-3, Water quality — Sampling — Part 3: Guidance on the preservation and handling of water

samples

ISO 5667-14, Water quality — Sampling — Part 14: Guidance on quality assurance of environmental water

sampling and handling
ISO 6107-2, Water quality — Vocabulary — Part 2
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 6107-2, ISO 772 and the following

apply.
3.1
piezometer

device consisting of a tube or pipe with a porous element or perforated section (surrounded by a filter) on the

lower part (piezometer tip), which is installed and sealed into the ground at an appropriate level within the

saturated zone for the purposes of water level measurement, hydraulic pressure measurement and/or

groundwater sampling
NOTE Adapted from ISO 6107-2:2006.
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3.2
nested piezometers
bundled piezometer installation

group of piezometers installed to different depths within a single larger diameter borehole

NOTE 1 In general, each piezometer should be designed to allow sampling over a specific depth interval within the

aquifer. Piezometer tips are isolated from each other by installing a permanent impermeable seal between them.

NOTE 2 Adapted from ISO 6107-2:2006.
3.3
multiple boreholes

group of individual boreholes or piezometers installed to different depths separately, but in close proximity, to

form a monitoring network adequate for the purposes of an investigation
NOTE Adapted from ISO 6107-2:2006.
3.4
multi-level sampler

single installation for sampling groundwater from discrete depths or depth intervals within the sub-surface

NOTE 1 The device can be installed directly into the ground or into a pre-existing, or purpose-drilled, borehole. When

installed into a borehole, integral packers (or similar sealing devices) are used to isolate the individual horizons within the

groundwater system that are to be sampled.
NOTE 2 Adapted from ISO 6107-2:2006.
3.5
aquifer

geological water-bearing formation (bed or stratum) of permeable rock, or unconsolidated material (e.g. sand

and gravels) capable of yielding significant quantities of water
[4]
NOTE Adapted from ISO 6107-3:1993 .
3.6
consolidated aquifer
aquifer comprising material which is compact due to cementation or compression
3.7
saturated zone

part of an aquifer in which the pore spaces of the formation are completely filled with water

[ISO 6107-2:2006]
3.8
unsaturated zone

part of an aquifer in which the pore spaces of the formation are not totally filled with water

[ISO 6107-2:2006]
3.9
groundwater

water in the saturated zone and/or unsaturated zone of an underground geological formation or artificial

deposit such as made ground, e.g. fill material
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3.10
perched groundwater

isolated body of groundwater, which is limited in lateral and vertical extent, located within the unsaturated

zone overlying a much more extensive groundwater body and isolated above by a discontinuous poorly

permeable surface (discontinuous aquitard)
NOTE Adapted from ISO 6107-2:2006, “perched water table”.
3.11
receptor

entity (human, animal, water, vegetation, building services, etc.) that is vulnerable to the adverse effect(s) of a

hazardous substance or agent
NOTE Adapted from ISO 6107-2:2006.
3.12
packer

device or material that inflates or expands for temporarily isolating specified vertical sections within boreholes

to allow groundwater sampling from discrete zones or locations within the borehole or aquifer

NOTE Adapted from ISO 6107-2:2006.
3.13
field capacity

maximum amount of water that a soil or rock can retain after gravitational water has drained away

NOTE Adapted from ISO 6107-2:2006.
3.14
dense non-aqueous phase liquids
DNAPLs

organic compounds that have very low water solubility and a density greater than that of water

EXAMPLE Chlorinated hydrocarbons such as trichloroethane.
NOTE 1 Adapted from ISO 6107-2:2006.

NOTE 2 When present in sufficient quantities, DNAPLs form a separate phase from the water.

3.15
light non-aqueous phase liquids
LNAPLs

organic compounds that have very low water solubility and a density less than that of water

EXAMPLE Petroleum products.
NOTE 1 Adapted from ISO 6107-2:2006.

NOTE 2 When present in sufficient quantities, LNAPLs form a separate phase from the water.

3.16
well
borehole

〈groundwater sampling〉 hole sunk into the ground, either by drilling (boring) or digging, to obtain groundwater

or for observation purposes
[3]

NOTE This definition differs from the one given in both ISO 772:— and ISO 6707-1:2004 .

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3.17
spring
groundwater emerging naturally through the surface of the land
[4]
[ISO 6107-3:1993 ]
3.18
pore water
water that fills the pores or cavities within a body of rock or soil
3.19
casing

tubular retaining structure, which is installed in a drilled borehole or excavated well, to maintain the borehole

opening
[ISO 772:—]

NOTE In the context of groundwater sampling, “maintain the borehole opening” means the prevention of the ingress

of solid aquifer material into the borehole or control of groundwater entry to the borehole at specific depths via a (well)

screen. The structure can be temporary or permanent.
4 Sampling strategy and programme design
4.1 General

Groundwater sampling can be carried out as a single exercise, as part of a larger site or environmental

investigation, or as part of a regional/national programme. Regardless of the purpose, a rational approach

should be taken that clearly defines the objectives, determines the level of information needed, and identifies

the various stages of the investigation. Consideration should also be given to practical constraints such as site

access, infrastructure, and the distance between the site and analytical laboratories.

It should be noted that, normally, groundwater sampling from the saturated zone alone cannot fully assess the

level of contamination in the subsurface in situations where an unsaturated zone of considerable thickness

exists. The potential consequence of ignoring the unsaturated zone is that the unsaturated zone and

groundwater system could become extensively contaminated before any tangible evidence of leakage or

contamination is evident in samples collected from below the water table.
4.2 Selection of sampling point location
4.2.1 General

The location of monitoring installations, the design of the network, and the selection of monitoring points for

investigating groundwater quality should take account of:
a) the hydrogeological setting of the investigation site;
b) the past and future use(s) of the site;
c) the purpose of the exercise;
d) the anticipated or known groundwater quality;
e) the nature and extent of any likely contamination.
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All of these factors should be considered during the preliminary stages of the monitoring programme to enable

the most appropriate and effective sampling strategy to be implemented. This information can be obtained by

examining all available information held by site owners (or their agents), local, regional and national regulatory

agencies and other data holders. Table 1 provides an overview of the steps involved in planning an

investigation strategy and for sampling groundwater.

When using existing monitoring points to obtain and gain access to groundwater, it is necessary to determine

borehole constructional details and characteristics to define from which strata the sample is being obtained.

When new boreholes are being constructed specifically for sampling, the design of the borehole (e.g. the open

area and length) and the method of construction need to be chosen, not only to meet the sampling

requirement, but also to minimise contamination or disturbance of the aquifer.
4.2.2 Surveillance of groundwater quality for potable supply

When monitoring the quality of groundwater for potable supply use, boreholes, wells and springs that are

sampled should be monitored for those parameters that are relevant to the use of the water. Where

appropriate, national raw water sampling and monitoring requirements should be referred to for more detailed

advice. When selecting sampling points for water supply surveillance, it is recommended that some boreholes

remote from the abstraction are also monitored, in order to examine the effect of the abstraction on the

dynamic characteristics of the aquifer (e.g. the natural groundwater flow, the variation in thickness of the

saturated zone).
4.2.3 Point source contamination of groundwater

To establish the extent of groundwater contamination and the direction and rate of contaminant migration,

monitoring points should be located inside and outside any contaminated area(s). Monitoring points outside

the contaminant source area should be located in positions up gradient and down gradient of the sites with

respect to the hydraulic gradient as a minimum. A greater number of sample points should be positioned down

gradient, both inside and outside of any contaminant plume.

Where analysis indicates that complex geology underlies the site or that contaminants with a broad range of

physical and chemical properties are likely to be present, increase the number of monitoring points to

adequately characterise the contaminant distribution in three dimensions. In addition to investigating the

lateral variation caused by heterogeneity, the sampling strategy should also be designed to investigate any

vertical variations.

Care should be taken when identifying the prevailing flow regime as localised recharge to the subsurface can

alter the regional hydraulic gradient. This can result in groundwater flow and contaminant transportation in a

direction that is contrary to flow imposed by the regional gradient. Dense non-aqueous phase liquids

(DNAPLs) can also move in a different direction and at a different rate to that of groundwater because their

chemical and physical properties are different to those of water (density effects). Their migration is also

affected by the geological structure of the low permeability layer underlying the saturated aquifer.

Light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs) also have different chemical properties to those of water. Their

migration and distribution are affected by the geological structure, chemical interactions within the unsaturated

zone and zone of water table fluctuation, as well as partitioning between aqueous and gaseous phases.

Where sampling is aimed at providing an early warning of the impact of contaminants on receptors, monitoring

points should be located between the contaminant source (and plume) and the potential receptors as well as

within the zone of contamination. For example, at landfill sites, monitoring points should be established around

the outside of, but close to, the landfill at appropriate depths.

Sample points within the zone of contamination and outside (both up and down hydraulic gradient) should be

installed to measure performance and effectiveness of remediation, for demonstrating compliance to licence

conditions and to determine the quality of groundwater flowing into the area of investigation.

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Table 1 — Procedural steps for sampling groundwater (adapted from Reference [13])

Step (with reference to other
Procedure Essential elements Notes
parts of ISO 5667)
Collation of available data
Desk study
Investigation/monitoring strategy Geological, geochemical and
Identify data sources
(ISO 5667-1) hydrogeological characterisation
Develop conceptual model
Reconnaissance survey
Design borehole/sampling point
See 4.2, 4.3 and 4.4
network and sampling programme
Assessment/selection of existing monitoring points
See Clause 5
Borehole design, material selection
Facility installation/selection Installation of monitoring points by drilling
and installation technique
Borehole/well cleaning and development See 6.1
Hydrologic measurements
Water level measurements
Borehole/well inspection Hydrogeological characterisation
↓ Hydraulic testing
Removal or isolation of stagnant water
Representative groundwater See 6.1
Borehole/well purging
Determination of purging parameters
Verification of representative See 6.2
groundwater
(e.g. EC, pH, temperature, redox potential)
Sample collection by appropriate
See 5.2 and 5.3
mechanism
Unfiltered sample
Field filtered sample
Field determination of sensitive
parameters, pH, electrical
Sample collection
conductivity, temperature,
Organics (all)
Dissolved trace metals for
Filtration
redox potential, dissolved oxygen
specific geochemical
Alkalinity/pH
Field determinations
as appropriate
information
Dissolved gases
(ISO 5667-1, ISO 5667-3, this part
See 6.4 and 6.5
Head-space free samples
Sulfide and other sensitive
Sensitive inorganic species,
of ISO 5667)
Minimal aeration or
inorganics, e.g. iron(II)
e.g. nitrite, ammonium
de-pressurisation
Major ions
Tracer metals for mobile
Minimal air contact
Blanks and spiked samples should
(colloidal) loads
be prepared in accordance with
Sample preservation
Microbiological agents
ISO 5667-14
Storage and transport of samples
Minimal loss of sample integrity
See Clauses 7, 8 and 9
prior to analysis
(ISO 5667-3)
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4.2.4 Diffuse contamination of groundwater

When designing monitoring networks to identify extensive diffuse-source pollution of aquifers, the use of

existing sampling points in the form of large capacity production boreholes is recommended, as they can

provide integrated samples from a large
...

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