Water quality - Sampling - Part 6: Guidance on sampling of rivers and streams (ISO 5667-6:2014)

This part of ISO 5667 sets out the principles to be applied to the design of sampling programmes, sampling techniques, and the handling of water samples from rivers and streams for physical and chemical assessment. It is not applicable to the sampling of estuarine or coastal waters nor for microbiological sampling.
NOTE 1 Procedures for microbiological sampling are given in ISO 19458.
This part of ISO 5667 is neither applicable to the examination of sediment, suspended solids or biota, nor to dammed stretches of rivers or streams. Also, it is not applicable to passive sampling of surface waters (see ISO 5667‑23).
NOTE 2 In cases where naturally occurring or artificially constructed dams result in the retention or storage of water for several days or more, the stretch of the river or stream should be considered as a standing water body. For sampling purposes, see ISO 5667‑4.

Wasserbeschaffenheit - Probenahme - Teil 6: Anleitung zur Probenahme aus Fließgewässern (ISO 5667-6:2014)

Dieser Teil von ISO 5667 legt die Grundsätze für die Erstellung von Probenahmeprogrammen, Probenahme¬techniken und die Handhabung von Wasserproben aus Fließgewässern zur physikalischen und chemischen Bewertung fest.
Er gilt nicht für die Probenahme aus Ästuaren und Küstengewässern sowie die mikrobiologische Probenahme.
ANMERKUNG 1   Die Vorgehensweisen für mikrobiologische Probenahmen sind in ISO 19458 [10] festgelegt.
Dieser Teil von ISO 5667 gilt weder für die Untersuchung von Sediment, suspendierten Feststoffen oder Biota, noch für aufgestaute Strecken von Fließgewässern. Er gilt ebenfalls nicht für die Anwendung von Passivsammlern in Oberflächengewässern (siehe ISO 5667 23).
ANMERKUNG 2   Führen natürliche oder künstliche Dämme zur Rückhaltung oder Speicherung von Wasser über einige Tage oder länger, so ist zu prüfen, ob die Strecke des Fließgewässers nicht besser als ein stehender Wasserkörper betrachtet werden sollte. In Bezug auf Probenahmezwecke siehe ISO 5667 4.

Qualité de l'eau - Échantillonnage - Partie 6: Lignes directrices pour l'échantillonnage des rivières et des cours d'eau (ISO 5667-6:2014)

L'ISO 5667-6:2014 décrit les principes qui doivent être appliqués lors de l'élaboration des programmes d'échantillonnage, des techniques d'échantillonnage et lors de la manipulation d'échantillons d'eau provenant de rivières et de cours d'eau pour l'évaluation physique et chimique.
Elle ne s'applique ni à l'échantillonnage des eaux estuariennes ou côtières ni à l'échantillonnage microbiologique.
NOTE 1 Les modes opératoires applicables à l'échantillonnage microbiologique sont indiqués dans l'ISO 19458.[10]
L'ISO 5667-6:2014 ne s'applique ni à l'étude des sédiments, des matières solides en suspension ou du biote, ni aux sections artificielles des rivières ou des cours d'eau. Elle ne s'applique pas non plus à l'échantillonnage passif des eaux de surface (voir l'ISO 5667‑23).
NOTE 2 Si des retenues naturelles ou artificielles retiennent l'eau pendant plusieurs jours, il convient que la section de la rivière ou du cours d'eau soit considérée comme une étendue d'eau stagnante. Pour connaître les objectifs d'échantillonnage, voir l'ISO 5667‑4.

Kakovost vode - Vzorčenje - 6. del: Navodilo za vzorčenje rek in potokov (ISO 5667-6:2014)

Ta del standarda ISO 5667 določa načela za uporabo pri načrtovanju programov vzorčenja, tehnik vzorčenja in upravljanja z vodnimi vzorci rek ter potokov za fizikalno in kemično analizo. Ne uporablja se za vzorčenje rečnih ali obalnih voda ali za mikrobiološko vzorčenje. OPOMBA 1: postopki za mikrobiološko vzorčenje so podani v standardu ISO 19458. Ta del standarda ISO 5667 se ne uporablja za preučevanje usedlin, neraztopljenih trdnih snovi ali živih organizmov niti za zajezene dele rek ali potokov. Poleg tega se ne uporablja za pasivno vzorčenje površinskih voda (glej ISO 5667 23). OPOMBA 2: v primerih, ko naravni ali umetno zgrajeni jezovi zadržujejo vodo več dni ali še dlje, naj bi ta del reke ali potoka upoštevali kot stoječo vodo. Za namene vzorčenja glejte ISO 5667 4.

General Information

Status
Published
Public Enquiry End Date
01-Feb-2016
Publication Date
17-May-2017
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
02-Feb-2017
Due Date
09-Apr-2017
Completion Date
18-May-2017

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 5667-6:2017
01-junij-2017

.DNRYRVWYRGH9]RUþHQMHGHO1DYRGLOR]DY]RUþHQMHUHNLQSRWRNRY ,62



Water quality - Sampling - Part 6: Guidance on sampling of rivers and streams (ISO 5667

-6:2014)
Wasserbeschaffenheit - Probenahme - Teil 6: Anleitung zur Probenahme aus
Fließgewässern (ISO 5667-6:2014)

Qualité de l'eau - Échantillonnage - Partie 6: Lignes directrices pour l'échantillonnage

des rivières et des cours d'eau (ISO 5667-6:2014)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 5667-6:2016
ICS:
13.060.10 Voda iz naravnih virov Water of natural resources
13.060.45 Preiskava vode na splošno Examination of water in
general
SIST EN ISO 5667-6:2017 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 5667-6:2017
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SIST EN ISO 5667-6:2017
EN ISO 5667-6
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
September 2016
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 13.060.10; 13.060.45
English Version
Water quality - Sampling - Part 6: Guidance on sampling of
rivers and streams (ISO 5667-6:2014)

Qualité de l'eau - Échantillonnage - Partie 6: Lignes Wasserbeschaffenheit - Probenahme - Teil 6: Anleitung

directrices pour l'échantillonnage des rivières et des zur Probenahme aus Fließgewässern (ISO 5667-

cours d'eau (ISO 5667-6:2014) 6:2014)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 30 April 2016.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2016 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 5667-6:2016 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 5667-6:2017
EN ISO 5667-6:2016 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

Annex ZA (informative) A-deviation ........................................................................................................................ 4

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SIST EN ISO 5667-6:2017
EN ISO 5667-6:2016 (E)
European foreword

The text of ISO 5667-6:2014 has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 147 “Water quality” of

the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and has been taken over as EN

ISO 5667-6:2016 by Technical Committee CEN/TC 230 “Water analysis” the secretariat of which is held

by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by March 2017, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by March 2017.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent

rights.

Please see informative Annex ZA (A-deviation), which is an integral part of this document.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 5667-6:2014 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 5667-6:2016 without any

modification.
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SIST EN ISO 5667-6:2017
EN ISO 5667-6:2016 (E)
Annex ZA
(informative)
A-deviation

A-deviation: National deviation due to regulations, the alteration of which is for the time being outside

the competence of the CEN-CENELEC national member.
This European Standard does not fall under any Directive of the EU.

In the relevant CEN-CENELEC countries (Estonia), these A-deviations are valid instead of the provisions

of the European Standard until they have been removed.
Clause Deviation
1 According to the regulation of Estonian Minister of the Environment no 30,

06.05.2002 "Sampling procedure", paragraph 15, only three methods described in the

standard, are permitted to use for sampling from surface water in Estonia – discrete

sampling, composite sampling or continuous sampling.
6 According to the regulation of Estonian Minister of the Environment no 30,

06.05.2002 "Sampling procedure", paragraph 9, clause 4, temperature for storage and

transportation of sample must be between 2 °C-5 °C.
7 According to the regulation of Estonian Minister of the Environment no 30,

06.05.2002 "Sampling procedure", paragraph 16, clause 3 , a sample must be collected

from the depth of surface water of 25 cm. If the depth of water in the stream is less

than 50 cm, the sample must be collected at a depth of 1/3.
7.2 According to the regulation of Estonian Minister of the Environment no 30,
06.05.2002 "Sampling procedure", paragraph 14, clause 3, sampling from near the

bridges is not recommended. If it is necessary, a sample must be collected from the

upstream side of the bridge.
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SIST EN ISO 5667-6:2017
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 5667-6
Third edition
2014-07-15
Water quality — Sampling —
Part 6:
Guidance on sampling of rivers and
streams
Qualité de l’eau — Échantillonnage —
Partie 6: Lignes directrices pour l’échantillonnage des rivières et des
cours d’eau
Reference number
ISO 5667-6:2014(E)
ISO 2014
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SIST EN ISO 5667-6:2017
ISO 5667-6:2014(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2014

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
ISO copyright office
Case postale 56 • CH-1211 Geneva 20
Tel. + 41 22 749 01 11
Fax + 41 22 749 09 47
E-mail copyright@iso.org
Web www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 5667-6:2017
ISO 5667-6:2014(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

Introduction ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................vii

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Design of sampling programme ............................................................................................................................................................ 3

5 Sampling location ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 4

5.1 Sampling point selection ................................................................................................................................................................ 4

5.2 Frequency and time of sampling ............................................................................................................................................. 8

6 Preparation for sampling ............................................................................................................................................................................ 8

7 Sampling at specific locations................................................................................................................................................................. 9

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9

7.2 Sampling from bridges ..................................................................................................................................................................10

7.3 In-stream sampling ..........................................................................................................................................................................11

7.4 Sampling from the bank side ...................................................................................................................................................11

7.5 Sampling from craft .........................................................................................................................................................................12

7.6 Sampling under ice ...........................................................................................................................................................................12

8 Sampling methods ...........................................................................................................................................................................................12

8.1 Single, discrete samples ...............................................................................................................................................................12

8.2 Sampling from specific depths ...............................................................................................................................................12

9 Sampling equipment .....................................................................................................................................................................................13

9.1 Single, discrete samples ...............................................................................................................................................................13

9.2 Sampling of surface layers for LNAPL (e.g. oils) or surface films .............................................................14

9.3 Devices for sampling from specific depths ..................................................................................................................14

9.4 Automatic sampling devices .....................................................................................................................................................14

9.5 Other sampling equipment ........................................................................................................................................................15

10 Taking the sample ............................................................................................................................................................................................15

10.1 Risk factors ..............................................................................................................................................................................................15

10.2 Arrival on site ........................................................................................................................................................................................15

10.3 Rinsing the equipment ..................................................................................................................................................................16

10.4 Direct sampling ....................................................................................................................................................................................16

10.5 Indirect sampling using a sampling vessel ..................................................................................................................16

10.6 Sampling through ice ......................................................................................................................................................................17

10.7 Sampling of surface layers or films.....................................................................................................................................17

10.8 Sampling by increments...............................................................................................................................................................17

10.9 Adding preservatives in the field..........................................................................................................................................17

10.10 Labelling ....................................................................................................................................................................................................17

11 Stabilization, transport, and storage of samples .............................................................................................................17

11.1 Stabilization ............................................................................................................................................................................................17

11.2 Transportation .....................................................................................................................................................................................18

11.3 Security and traceability of samples during storage and delivery ..........................................................18

12 Quality assurance .............................................................................................................................................................................................18

12.1 Avoidance of contamination .....................................................................................................................................................18

12.2 Sample identification and records ......................................................................................................................................19

12.3 Assurance and quality control ................................................................................................................................................19

13 Reports.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................19

13.1 Analytical reports ..............................................................................................................................................................................19

13.2 Sampling protocols ...........................................................................................................................................................................20

© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 5667-6:2017
ISO 5667-6:2014(E)

14 Certification, registration, or accreditation ..........................................................................................................................20

15 Safety precautions ...........................................................................................................................................................................................20

Annex A (informative) Calculation of complete mixing distance .........................................................................................22

Annex B (informative) Example of a report - Sampling from rivers and streams ..............................................23

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................26

iv © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 5667-6:2017
ISO 5667-6:2014(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical Barriers

to Trade (TBT) see the following URL: Foreword - Supplementary information

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 147, Water Quality, Subcommittee SC 6, Sampling.

This third edition cancels and replaces the second edition (ISO 5667-6:2005), which has been technically

revised.

ISO 5667 consists of the following parts, under the general title Water quality — Sampling:

— Part 1: Guidance on the design of sampling programmes and sampling techniques
— Part 3: Preservation and handling of water samples
— Part 4: Guidance on sampling from lakes, natural and man-made

— Part 5: Guidance on sampling of drinking water from treatment works and piped distribution systems

— Part 6: Guidance on sampling of rivers and streams
— Part 7: Guidance on sampling of water and steam in boiler plants
— Part 8: Guidance on the sampling of wet deposition
— Part 9: Guidance on sampling from marine waters
— Part 10: Guidance on sampling of waste waters
— Part 11: Guidance on sampling of groundwaters
— Part 12: Guidance on sampling of bottom sediments
— Part 13: Guidance on sampling of sludges

— Part 14: Guidance on quality assurance and quality control of environmental water sampling and

handling

— Part 15: Guidance on the preservation and handling of sludge and sediment samples

© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 5667-6:2017
ISO 5667-6:2014(E)
— Part 16: Guidance on biotesting of samples
— Part 17: Guidance on sampling of bulk suspended solids
— Part 19: Guidance on sampling of marine sediments

— Part 20: Guidance on the use of sampling data for decision making — Compliance with thresholds and

classification systems

— Part 21: Guidance on sampling of drinking water distributed by tankers or means other than distribution

pipes

— Part 22: Guidance on the design and installation of groundwater monitoring points

— Part 23: Guidance on passive sampling in surface water
vi © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 5667-6:2017
ISO 5667-6:2014(E)
Introduction

An understanding of the purpose of sampling is an essential prerequisite to identifying the principles

to be applied to a particular sampling problem. Examples of the purposes of sampling programmes

commonly devised for rivers and streams are as follows:

a) to determine the suitability of the water quality of a river or stream within a river basin for a

particular use, such as
1) a source of drinking water,
2) for agricultural use (e.g. all types of irrigation, live-stock watering),
3) for the maintenance or development of fisheries,
4) for amenity use (e.g. aquatic sports and swimming), and
5) for conservation and protection of aquatic life;
b) to assess the impact of human activities on the quality of water, such as

1) study of the effects of waste discharge or accidental spillages on a receiving water,

2) assessment of the impact of land use on river or stream quality,

3) assessment of the effect of the accumulation and release of substances including contaminants

from bottom deposits on aquatic biota within the water mass, or on bottom deposits,

4) study of the effects of abstraction, river regulation, and river-to-river water transfers on the

chemical quality of rivers and their aquatic biota, and

5) study of the effects of river engineering works on the water quality (e.g. addition or removal of

weirs, changes to channel or bed structure).
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved vii
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SIST EN ISO 5667-6:2017
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SIST EN ISO 5667-6:2017
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 5667-6:2014(E)
Water quality — Sampling —
Part 6:
Guidance on sampling of rivers and streams

WARNING — The focus of this part of ISO 5667 is the collection and integrity of water samples. The

collection of these samples can be hazardous and attention is therefore drawn to the existence

in some countries of legislative requirements for the safety of personnel. It is essential that all

sampling personnel have had thorough health and safety training for the conditions they are

likely to encounter.
1 Scope

This part of ISO 5667 sets out the principles to be applied to the design of sampling programmes,

sampling techniques, and the handling of water samples from rivers and streams for physical and

chemical assessment.

It is not applicable to the sampling of estuarine or coastal waters nor for microbiological sampling.

[10]
NOTE 1 Procedures for microbiological sampling are given in ISO 19458.

This part of ISO 5667 is neither applicable to the examination of sediment, suspended solids or biota, nor

to dammed stretches of rivers or streams. Also, it is not applicable to passive sampling of surface waters

(see ISO 5667-23).

NOTE 2 In cases where naturally occurring or artificially constructed dams result in the retention or storage

of water for several days or more, the stretch of the river or stream should be considered as a standing water body.

For sampling purposes, see ISO 5667-4.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 5667-1, Water quality — Sampling — Part 1: Guidance on the design of sampling programmes and

sampling techniques

ISO 5667-3, Water quality — Sampling — Part 3: Preservation and handling of water samples

ISO 5667-11, Water quality — Sampling — Part 11: Guidance on sampling of groundwaters

ISO 5667-14, Water quality — Sampling — Part 14: Guidance on quality assurance and quality control of

environmental water sampling and handling
ISO 6107-2:2006, Water quality — Vocabulary — Part 2
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 5667-11, ISO 6107-2, and the

following apply.
© ISO 2014 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 5667-6:2017
ISO 5667-6:2014(E)
3.1
automatic sampling

process whereby samples are taken either discretely or continuously, independently of human

intervention, and according to a predetermined programme
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-2:2006, 9]
3.2
composite sample

two or more samples or sub-samples, mixed together in appropriate known proportions (either

discretely or continuously), from which the average value of a desired characteristic can be obtained

Note 1 to entry: The proportions are usually based on time or flow measurements.
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-2:2006, 29]
3.3
continuous sampling
process whereby a sample is taken continuously from a body of water
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-2:2006, 32]
3.4
discrete sampling
process whereby single samples are taken from a body of water
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-2:2006, 40]
3.5
incremental sampling

technique in which small samples are taken because of a low flow rate (with the possibility of

contamination by bottom deposits) or because of restricted access (e.g. where a sample is obtained

through a small aperture), these small samples then being aggregated to form a composite sample

Note 1 to entry: All the liquid contained in the small samples is used, unlike blending of aliquots used to make a

flow-proportional sample (see 9.4).
3.6
isokinetic sampling

technique in which the sample from a water stream passes into the orifice of a sampling probe with a

velocity equal to that of the stream in the immediate vicinity of the probe
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-2:2006, 56]
3.7
light non-aqueous-phase liquid
LNAPL

organic compound that has low water solubility and a density less than that of water

EXAMPLE Petroleum products.

[SOURCE: ISO 5667-11:2009, 3.15, modified — Singular forms replace plural forms.]

3.8
random sampling

form of sampling whereby the chances of obtaining different concentration values of a determinand are

precisely those defined by the probability distribution of the determinand in question

2 © ISO 2014 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 5667-6:2017
ISO 5667-6:2014(E)
3.9
river

natural body of water flowing continuously or intermittently along a well-defined course into an ocean,

sea, lake, inland depression, marsh, or other watercourse
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-2:2006, 109]
3.10
sampling site
general area or location from which samples are taken
3.11
sampling point
precise position within a sampling location from which samples are taken
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-2:2006, 117]
3.12
stream

water flowing continuously or intermittently along a well-defined course, as for a river, but generally on

a smaller scale
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-2:2006, 137]
3.13
sub-sample
portion removed from a sample and intended to be representative of that sample
3.14
systematic sampling

sampling whereby the samples are taken at predetermined intervals, often equally spaced in time

4 Design of sampling programme

Sampling is usually the first step in carrying out an investigation and largely determines the quality

of the whole investigation. It is therefore recommended that a detailed sampling strategy be drawn

up, often based upon a preliminary investigation in which an assessment has identified the important

aspects. Both the purpose and the ambient situation determine the way in which the sampling is carried

out. Consideration of time-of-travel data can influence choice of sampling locations depending on the

objective of the survey. General aspects for sampling programme design can be found in ISO

...

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