Aircraft ground support equipment - General requirements - Part 2: Stability and strength requirements, calculations and test methods

This Part of EN 1915 specifies the conditions to be taken into consideration when calculating the strength and the stability of GSE according to EN 1915-1 and the EN 12312 series under intended use conditions. It also specifies general test methods.
NOTE   The methods given in this standard demonstrate one way of achieving an acceptable safety level. Methods that produce comparable results may be used.
This Part of EN 1915 does not establish additional requirements for the following:
-   operation elsewhere than in an airport environment;
-   operation in severe conditions, e.g. ambient temperature below -20  C or over 50  C, tropical or saturated salty atmospheric environment;
-   hazards caused by wind velocity in excess of the figures given in this European Standard;
-   earthquake, flood, landslide, lightning and more generally any natural catastrophe.
This Part of EN 1915 is not applicable to GSE which are manufactured before the date of publication by CEN of this Standard.

Luftfahrt-Bodengeräte - Allgemeine Anforderungen - Teil 2: Standsicherheits- und Festigkeitsanforderungen, Berechnungen und Prüfverfahren

Dieser Teil von EN 1915 fasst die Bedingungen zusammen, die bei der Berechnung der Festigkeit und der
Standsicherheit von Luftfahrt-Bodengeräten entsprechend !EN 1915-1" und der Normenreihe EN 12312
für die bestimmungsgemäße Verwendung zu beachten sind. Sie gibt auch die Voraussetzungen an, unter
denen Prüfungen durchzuführen sind.
ANMERKUNG Die in dieser Norm angegebenen Methoden bieten einen möglichen Weg zum Erreichen eines annehmbaren
Sicherheitsniveaus. Methoden, die vergleichbare Ergebnisse liefern, dürfen ebenfalls angewendet werden.
In diesem Teil von EN 1915 sind für folgende Aspekte keine zusätzlichen Festlegungen enthalten:
- Betrieb außerhalb des Flughafens;
- Betrieb unter erschwerten Bedingungen, z. B. bei Umgebungstemperaturen unter −20 °C oder über
50 °C, in tropischer oder in gesättigter Salz-Atmosphäre;
- Gefährdungen aus Windgeschwindigkeiten oberhalb der in dieser Europäischen Norm angegebenen
Werte;
- Erdbeben, Überschwemmungen, Erdrutsche, Blitze und allgemein jede Art von Naturkatastrophen.
Dieser Teil von EN 1915 ist nicht auf Bodengeräte anzuwenden, die vor der Veröffentlichung dieser Norm
durch CEN hergestellt wurden.

Matériel au sol pour aéronefs - Exigences générales - Partie 2: Prescriptions de stabilité et de résistance mécanique, calculs et méthodes d'essai

Podporna oprema na tleh za letalski promet - Splošne zahteve - 2. del: Zahteve za stabilnost in vzdržljivost, izračuni in preskusni postopki

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
06-Apr-2009
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - National Implementation/Publication (Adopted Project)
Start Date
01-Apr-2009
Due Date
06-Jun-2009
Completion Date
07-Apr-2009

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Luftfahrt-Bodengeräte - Allgemeine Anforderungen - Teil 2: Standsicherheits- und Festigkeitsanforderungen, Berechnungen und PrüfverfahrenMatériel au sol pour aéronefs - Exigences générales - Partie 2: Prescriptions de stabilité et de résistance mécanique, calculs et méthodes d'essaiAircraft ground support equipment - General requirements - Part 2: Stability and strength requirements, calculations and test methods49.100Oprema za servis in vzdrževanje na tlehGround service and maintenance equipmentICS:Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 1915-2:2001+A1:2009SIST EN 1915-2:2002+A1:2009en,de01-junij-2009SIST EN 1915-2:2002+A1:2009SLOVENSKI

STANDARD
SIST EN 1915-2:2002+A1:2009
EUROPEAN STANDARD NORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE NORM
EN 1915-2:2001+A1
March 2009 ICS 49.100 Supersedes EN 1915-2:2001English Version

Aircraft ground support equipment - General requirements - Part 2: Stability and strength requirements, calculations and test methods

Matériel au sol pour aéronefs - Exigences générales - Partie 2: Prescriptions de stabilité et de résistance mécanique, calculs et méthodes d'essai

Luftfahrt-Bodengeräte - Allgemeine Anforderungen - Teil 2: Standsicherheits- und Festigkeitsanforderungen, Berechnungen und Prüfverfahren This European Standard was approved by CEN on 6 January 2001 and includes Amendment 1 approved by CEN on 15 February 2009.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre:
Avenue Marnix 17,

B-1000 Brussels © 2009 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Members. Ref. No. EN 1915-2:2001+A1:2009: ESIST EN 1915-2:2002+A1:2009

EN 1915-2:2001+A1:2009 (E) 2 Contents Page Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................4Introduction .........................................................................................................................................................61 Scope ......................................................................................................................................................62 Normative references ............................................................................................................................73 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................84 List of hazards ........................................................................................................................................95

!!!!Safety requirements and/or protective measures"""" ...................................................................95.1 General ....................................................................................................................................................95.2 Requirements for the strength calculation of steel constructions ...................................................95.2.1 General remarks.....................................................................................................................................95.2.2 Loads and load combinations ........................................................................................................... 105.2.3 Materials .............................................................................................................................................. 125.2.4 Factors for stress calculations .......................................................................................................... 125.2.5 Combined stresses ............................................................................................................................. 125.2.6 Fatigue ................................................................................................................................................. 125.3 Requirements for the calculation of safety related machinery parts ............................................ 135.3.1 Chain lifting elements ........................................................................................................................ 135.3.2 Cylinders, pipes and hoses used in lifting systems ....................................................................... 135.3.3 Wire rope lifting elements .................................................................................................................. 135.3.4 Winches ............................................................................................................................................... 145.3.5 Winching plants .................................................................................................................................. 145.3.6 Stabilizers ............................................................................................................................................ 145.4 Stability calculations .......................................................................................................................... 145.4.1 Loads and forces ................................................................................................................................ 155.4.2 Ground slope ....................................................................................................................................... 155.4.3 Elastic deflection ................................................................................................................................ 155.4.4 Flat tyres .............................................................................................................................................. 155.4.5 Load combinations ............................................................................................................................. 155.4.6 Stability criteria ................................................................................................................................... 166 Information for use ............................................................................................................................. 167 Verification of safety requirements and/or measures ..................................................................... 167.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 167.2 Verification of strength ...................................................................................................................... 177.2.1 Test loads ............................................................................................................................................ 177.2.2 Test procedure .................................................................................................................................... 177.2.3 Test results .......................................................................................................................................... 177.3 Verification of stability ....................................................................................................................... 187.3.1 General ................................................................................................................................................. 187.3.2 Test loads ............................................................................................................................................ 187.3.3 Test procedure .................................................................................................................................... 187.3.4 Test results .......................................................................................................................................... 19Annex A (informative)

Examples for load geometry ..................................................................................... 20Annex B (normative)

Wind shape factors ...................................................................................................... 26Annex ZA (informative)

!!!!Relationship between this European Standard and the Essential Requirements of EU Directive 98/37/EC"""" ...................................................................................... 28SIST EN 1915-2:2002+A1:2009

EN 1915-2:2001+A1:2009 (E) 3 Annex ZB (informative)

!!!!Relationship between this European Standard and the Essential Requirements of EU Directive 2006/42/EC"""" .................................................................................. 29Bibliography ...................................................................................................................................................... 30 SIST EN 1915-2:2002+A1:2009

EN 1915-2:2001+A1:2009 (E) 4 Foreword This document (EN 1915-2:2001+A1:2009) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 274 "Aircraft ground support equipment", the secretariat of which is held by DIN. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by September 2009, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by December 2009. This document includes Amendment 1, approved by CEN on 2009-02-15. This document supersedes EN 1915-2:2001. The start and finish of text introduced or altered by amendment is indicated in the text by tags ! ". This European Standard has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directive(s). !For relationship with EU Directive(s), see informative Annexes ZA and ZB, which are integral parts of this document." EN 1915 - Aircraft ground support equipment - General requirements consists of: Part 1: Basic safety requirements Part 2: Stability and strength requirements, calculations and test methods Part 3: Vibration measurement methods Part 4: Noise measurement methods.

A further European Standard (EN 12312) in several parts covering specific requirements for different aircraft ground support equipment is in preparation. The parts of EN 12312 - Aircraft ground support equipment - Specific requirements are: Part 1: Passenger stairs Part 12: Potable water service equipment Part 2: Catering vehicles Part 13: Lavatory service equipment Part 3: Conveyor belt vehicles Part 14: Disabled/Incapacitated passenger

Part 4: Passenger boarding bridges
boarding equipment
Part 5: Aircraft fuelling equipment

Part 15: Baggage and equipment tractors Part 6: Deicers and deicing/antiicing equipment Part 16: Air start equipment Part 7: Aircraft movement equipment Part 17: Air conditioning equipment Part 8: Maintenance stairs and platforms Part 18: Oxygen/Nitrogen units Part 9: Container/Pallet loaders Part 19: Aircraft jacks, axle jacks and hydraulic Part 10: Container/Pallet transfer transporters

tail stanchions Part 11: Container/Pallet dollies and loose load
Part 20: Ground power equipment. Trailers SIST EN 1915-2:2002+A1:2009
EN 1915-2:2001+A1:2009 (E) 5

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom. SIST EN 1915-2:2002+A1:2009

EN 1915-2:2001+A1:2009 (E) 6

Introduction The abbreviation GSE means a complete item of aircraft ground support equipment in the context of this European Standard. When compiling this European Standard it was assumed that:  components without specific requirements are: a) designed in accordance with the usual engineering practices, welding and calculation codes including all failure modes; b) made of materials with adequate strength and of suitable quality; c) made of materials free of defects;  components are kept in good repair and working order, so that the required characteristics remain despite wear;  by design of the load bearing elements, a safe operation of the machine is assured for loading ranges from zero to 100 % of the rated possibilities and during tests;  a negotiation took place between the user and the manufacturer concerning particular conditons for the use and places of use of the GSE;  the place of operation allows a safe use of GSE. The extent to which hazards are covered is indicated in the scope of this European Standard. The minimum essential criteria are considered to be of primary importance in providing safe, economical and usable GSE. Deviation from the recommended methods and conditions should occur only after careful consideration, extensive testing and thorough in service evaluation have shown alternative methods or conditions to be satisfactory. This European Standard is a Type C standard as defined in !EN ISO 12100". 1 Scope This Part of EN 1915 specifies the conditions to be taken into consideration when calculating the strength and the stability of GSE according to !EN 1915-1" and the EN 12312 series under intended use conditions. It also specifies general test methods. NOTE The methods given in this standard demonstrate one way of achieving an acceptable safety level. Methods that produce comparable results may be used. This Part of EN 1915 does not establish additional requirements for the following:  operation elsewhere than in an airport environment; SIST EN 1915-2:2002+A1:2009

EN 1915-2:2001+A1:2009 (E) 7  operation in severe conditions, e.g. ambient temperature below -20 °C or over 50 °C, tropical or saturated salty atmospheric environment;  hazards caused by wind velocity in excess of the figures given in this European Standard;  earthquake, flood, landslide, lightning and more generally any natural catastrophe. This Part of EN 1915 is not applicable to GSE which are manufactured before the date of publication by CEN of this Standard. 2 Normative references !The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies." !deleted text" EN 1915-1:2001, Aircraft ground support equipment – General requirements – Part 1: Basic safety requirements !EN 1915-3, Aircraft ground support equipment - General requirements - Part 3: Vibration measurement methods and reduction EN 1915-4, Aircraft ground support equipment - General requirements - Part 4: Noise measurement methods and reduction EN 12312 (all parts), Aircraft ground support equipment - Specific requirements" !deleted text" !EN ISO 3834-1, Quality requirements for fusion welding of metallic materials - Part 1: Criteria for the selection of the appropriate level of quality requirements (ISO 3834-1:2005) EN ISO 3834-2, Quality requirements for fusion welding of metallic materials - Part 2: Comprehensive quality requirements (ISO 3834-2:2005) EN ISO 3834-3, Quality requirements for fusion welding of metallic materials - Part 3: Standard quality requirements (ISO 3834-3:2005) EN ISO 3834-4, Quality requirements for fusion welding of metallic materials - Part 4: Elementary quality requirements (ISO 3834-4:2005) EN ISO 5817, Welding - Fusion-welded joints in steel, nickel, titanium and their alloys (beam welding excluded) - Quality levels for imperfections (ISO 5817:2003, corrected version:2005, including Technical Corrigendum 1:2006) EN ISO 12100-1:2003, Safety of machinery - Basic concepts, general principles for design - Part 1: Basic terminology, methodology (ISO 12100-1:2003) EN ISO 12100-2:2003, Safety of machinery - Basic concepts, general principles for design - Part 2: Technical principles (ISO 12100-2:2003) ISO 2408, Steel wire ropes for general purposes - Minimum requirements" ISO 8625-1:1993, Aerospace – Fluid systems – Vocabulary – Part 1: General terms and definitions relating to pressure SIST EN 1915-2:2002+A1:2009

EN 1915-2:2001+A1:2009 (E) 8 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this Part of EN 1915 the terms and definitions of !EN ISO 12100-1:2003 and

EN ISO 12100-2:2003" and EN 1915-1:2001 apply. Additional terms and definitions are: 3.1 component mass mass of that part of the GSE, for which the strength is to be calculated 3.2 rated load maximum mass (including persons) a GSE or a part of it is intended to carry 3.3 local loads loads derived from the rated load for the calculation of the strength of particular parts of the GSE 3.4 snow load maximum mass of snow or ice the GSE is intended to carry 3.5

static test load test load or combination of test, used to simulate operational loading 3.6 dynamic forces forces resulting from acceleration of a mass (e. g. acceleration forces, retardation forces, centrifugal forces) 3.7 secondary dynamic forces forces caused by the movement of persons. These forces act horizontally at the centre of gravity of the body of a person. The centre of gravity of persons is assumed to be 1,1 m above the standing area 3.8 retardation forces forces on particular parts of GSE caused by the maximum deceleration of the GSE. These forces act at the centre of gravity of the particular part in the direction of motion 3.9 spring reaction force force in the suspension under the condition of loading 3.10 wind load force acting on a GSE or part of it due to wind pressure. This force acts horizontally at the geometric centre of the body of the GSE 3.11 tipping edge those part(s) of the GSE in contact with the ground, located farthest out on the most heavily loaded side 3.12 tipping moment total of the products of those forces which tend to tip the GSE, and their distance normal to the tipping edge SIST EN 1915-2:2002+A1:2009

EN 1915-2:2001+A1:2009 (E) 9

3.13 bursting pressure pressure at which a component bursts or shows excessive leakage due to structural failure [ISO 8625-1 : 1993] 3.14 maximum working pressure highest pressure at which the system is to operate 4 List of hazards !Complementary to the hazards dealt with in the other parts of EN 1915 and in the different parts of

EN 12312 this part of EN 1915 deals with the following hazards:"  mass and velocity (kinetic energy of elements in controlled or uncontrolled motion);  inadequacy of mechanical strength;  break-up during operation;  loss of stability / tipping of GSE. 5 !!!!Safety requirements and/or protective measures"""" 5.1 General !GSE shall comply with the safety requirements and/or protective measures of this clause, with the requirements of EN 1915-1, EN 1915-3 and EN 1915-4 as relevant, as well as with the requirements of the relevant part of EN 12312. In addition, the machine shall be designed according to the principles of EN ISO 12100 for relevant but not significant hazards, which are not dealt with by this document." NOTE Where a standard automotive chassis is used, the manufacturer of the GSE should pay attention to and appropriate gross mass rating for the intended use. 5.2 Requirements for the strength calculation of steel constructions 5.2.1 General remarks The method of calculation shall take into account the complexity of each individual type of GSE. The pertinence of the method of calculation shall be stated in the technical file. Calculations shall be performed in accordance with either  recognized engineering design methods and engineering codes;  finite elements analysis;  actual stress measurements or combinations of these. NOTE Information about load geometry is given in annex A. SIST EN 1915-2:2002+A1:2009

EN 1915-2:2001+A1:2009 (E) 10 The source of the design methods and engineering codes, if generally accessible, shall be stated in the case of any unusual formulae or calculation methods. Otherwise only formulae or calculation methods which can be easily verified shall be used. The general stress analysis shall be carried out to ensure safe levels of stress in relation to the yield stress of the material used. Safe levels of stress related to the loading conditions shall be demonstrated for all supporting structures. The principal dimensions, cross sections, materials and fastening means shall be stated. Significant effects of elastic deflection including results of tests (see 5.4.3) shall be considered in the stress analysis. The analysis of the load case combinations intended by the manufacturer shall be carried out to ensure that the severest individual load ratings can be identified. Design strength shall be proven for components under compression which may be susceptible to buckling or bulging using a verifiable method. Consideration shall be given to high dynamic forces which can be caused by the operation of a safety device for the prevention of unintentional movements if there is an escape of fluid in a piping system or a rope, chain, nut or gear fails. The design of mechanical restraint devices shall take into account all loads and forces occurring during blocking. Where a system has two or more lifting elements in parallel, design shall ensure the loads resulting from the failure of one element shall not have effects jeopardising safety. NOTE For calculation purposes, this situation corresponds to an exceptional loading. 5.2.2 Loads and load combinations 5.2.2.1 The following loads or worse combinations thereof shall be taken into account:  component mass;  rated load;  local loads;  snow load;  dynamic forces;  secondary dynamic forces;  wind load. NOTE Load combinations are given in 5.4.5. 5.2.2.2 Loads shall be used in the calculation of the strength of the elements concerned at the most unfavourable positions, values and directions. 5.2.2.3 The rated load shall be stated by the manufacturer, and shall be not less than 3000 N/m². where the intended use of the GSE is to carry persons, the rated load shall be calculated on the basis of four SIST EN 1915-2:2002+A1:2009

EN 1915-2:2001+A1:2009 (E) 11 persons per m², each person at 80 kg. For the calculation of floors, local loads of a single person placed on a surface of 200 mm

200 mm shall be taken into account. 5.2.2.4 Dynamic forces effective at the same time shall be measured under intended use conditions or be calculated. For GSE not designed to be driven during operation, as a general rule (see also EN 12312 series), vertical dynamic forces may be considered to be at least 10 % of the component mass and rated load, subject

to assessment by the manufacturer. 5.2.2.5 For simplification of the calculation, secondary dynamic forces are introduced into the calculation as static forces by the formula: Fs = 200 N x Σ (1/i) i.e. Fs = 200 N (1/1+1/2+1/3+...+1/i) where: i is the number of persons on the entire GSE. 5.2.2.6 The snow load shall be stated by the manufacturer. NOTE The snow load is depending on the geographical area of use of the GSE and may be agreed between manufacturer and user (see clause 0 – negotiation). 5.2.2.7 The wind force is generally calculated by the formula: W = c q A where: c is the shape factor; A is the surface area in square metres; q is the dynamic wind pressure in Pascals. The dynamic wind pressure is calculated by the formula: 22pvq= where: v is the wind velocity, in metres per second; ρ is the density of air at +15 °C = 1,225 kilograms per cubic metre. The maximum wind velocity shall be stated by the manufacturer. A minimum constant wind velocity of 20,58 m/s (40 knots) shall be considered. NOTE The operating conditions to resist higher wind gust velocities may be agreed between manufacturer and user (see clause 0 – negotiation). For simplification, the wind velocity shall be assumed to be constant over the height of the GSE. The shape factors c are given in annex B. SIST EN 1915-2:2002+A1:2009

EN 1915-2:2001+A1:2009 (E) 12 5.2.3 Materials Type, grade, chemical composition, weldability and mechanical characteristics (e.g. yield strength, modulus of elasticity, shear modulus) of materials used shall be stated in the technical file. 5.2.4 Factors for stress calculations The stress factors S as specified in Table 1 are applicable for constructional steel up to a yield of 355 N/mm². Table 1 — Stress factors S

Structural elements Butt welds *) Fillet welds *) Equivalent stress σV 1,3 1,7 (1,4) 2,1 (1,7) Tensile stress σZ Compressive stress σD 1,4 1,7 (1,4) 1,8 (1,5) Shear stress τ 1,7 2,1 (1,7) 2,1 (1,7) *) The stress factors between brackets may be used for welding quality B according to !EN ISO 5817" and welds in accordance with !EN ISO 3834-1 to EN ISO 3834-4."

The factors to be used shall take into account materials used, methods of calculation and/or measurement. The established stress resulting from the multiplication of the calculated stress by the stress factor S shall not exceed the yield stress of the respective material. 5.2.5 Combined stresses Where situations of combined stresses exist, the equivalent stress shall be verified, paying attention to the plus or minus signs, as follows: 2223τσσσσσ+−+=yxyxv 5.2.6 Fatigue A fatigue calculation shall be carried out. The conditions for calculation shall be given by the manufacturer, taking into account the intended load spectrum (see clause 0 – negotiation). For constructional steel up to a yield of 355 N/mm², a fatigue calculation need not be made for an intended number of cycles less than 2 x 104. For other materials, the relevant limits shall be taken into account. In case of cycles of 2 x 104 or higher for constructional steel up to a yield of 355 N/mm2, the stress factor S as per Table 1 has to be multiplied by the fatigue strength factor D as given in Table 2. SIST EN 1915-2:2002+A1:2009

EN 1915-2:2001+A1:2009 (E) 13 Table 2 — Fatigue strength factors D

Cycles Fatigue strength factor D 2 x 104 5 x 104 105 2 x 105 5 x 105 106 > 2 x 106 1,00 1,10 1,20 1,30 1,45 1,55 1,60

The notch effect also needs to be considered. 5.3 Requirements for the calculation of safety related machinery parts 5.3.1 Chain lifting elements 5.3.1.1 The safety factor for load carrying chains shall be at least four. Where persons are to be lifted by load carrying chains, the safety factor of the chain shall be at least eight. The safety factor is the ratio between the minimum breaking force of the chain and the force which can occur in the chain under maximum static load conditions. 5.3.1.2 Chain terminations shall have a breaking force of at least 100 % of the minimum breaking force of the chain. 5.3.2 Cylinders, pipes and hoses used in lifting systems Calculations of the strength of cylinders, pipes and hoses shall be based on the maximum working pressure (see EN 982). NOTE Pressure will normally be limited to that permitted by a pressure relief valve or to the capacity and output of an accumulator/storage vessel and/or a pump. However, account should also be taken of pressure surges which could occur during the operation of any service within the system. Cylinders, pipes and their connections shall be shown by calculation to be capable of withstanding at least twice the maximum working pressure without permanent deformation. Calculations for cylinders and piston rods operating in compression shall include an analysis of piston rod buckling strength in the fully extended condition. Fatigue behaviour of piston rods under tension shall be considered. Brittle materials, e.g. certain cast iron stock shall not be used for cylinders or connecting links. The bursting pressure of hoses with their fittings shall be not less than three times the related setting pressure of the pressure relief valve. 5.3.3 Wire rope lifting elements 5.3.3.1 Load carrying wire ropes shall be made from galvanized or stainless steel wires and shall have a minimum nominal diameter of 6 mm independent from calculation. SIST EN 1915-2:2002+A1:2009

EN 1915-2:2001+A1:2009 (E) 14 In other aspects they shall conform to !ISO 2408". 5.3.3.2 The safety factor for wire ropes used for lifting functions shall be at least five, and where persons are lifted ten. The safety factor is the ratio between the minimum breaking force of the wire rope and the maximum static force which can occur in the wire rope with the rated load in the most unfavourable position (see also 5.3.5.2). 5.3.3.3 Wire rope terminations shall have a breaking force of at least 80 % of the minimum breaking force of the wire rope. 5.3.4 Winches 5.3.4.1 Winches shall be designed for 1,6 times the intended nominal load of the wire rope. 5.3.4.2 The ratio between the diameters of the drum and the wire rope shall no

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