# SIST EN 12697-24:2018

(Main)## Bituminous mixtures - Test methods - Part 24: Resistance to fatigue

## Bituminous mixtures - Test methods - Part 24: Resistance to fatigue

This European Standard specifies the methods for characterising the fatigue of bituminous mixtures using alternative tests, including bending tests and direct and indirect tensile tests. The tests are performed on compacted bituminous material under a sinusoidal loading or other controlled loading, using different types of specimens and supports.

The procedure is used:

a) to rank bituminous mixtures on the basis of resistance to fatigue;

b) as a guide to relative performance in the pavement;

c) to obtain data for estimating the structural behaviour of the road; and

d) to judge test data according to specifications for bituminous mixtures.

Because this European Standard does not impose a particular type of testing device, the precise choice of the test conditions depends on the possibilities and the working range of the device used. For the choice of specific test conditions, the requirements of the product standards for bituminous mixtures need to be respected. The applicability of this document is described in the product standards for bituminous mixtures.

Results obtained from different test methods or using different failure criteria are not assured to be comparable.

## Asphalt - Prüfverfahren - Teil 24: Beständigkeit gegen Ermüdung

Diese Europäische Norm legt die Verfahren zur Charakterisierung der Ermüdung von Asphalt durch verschiedene Prüfungen, einschließlich Biegeprüfungen und Prüfungen der direkten sowie der indirekten Zugfestigkeit, fest. Die Prüfungen werden an verdichtetem Asphalt unter sinusförmiger oder einer anderen kontrollierten Belastung unter Verwendung verschiedener Probekörpertypen und Auflagerungen vorgenommen.

Das Verfahren dient:

a) zur Einstufung von Asphalt nach seiner Beständigkeit gegen Ermüdung;

b) als Hinweis auf das relative Leistungsvermögen von Asphalt in der Fahrbahnbefestigung;

c) dazu, Daten zur Abschätzung des Tragverhaltens in der Straße zu erhalten; und

d) zur Beurteilung der Prüfdaten nach den für Asphalt geltenden Festlegungen.

Da diese Europäische Norm keinen bestimmten Prüfgerätetyp vorschreibt, hängt die genaue Auswahl der Prüfbedingungen von den Möglichkeiten und dem Arbeitsbereich der im betreffenden Fall verwendeten Prüfeinrichtung ab. Bei der Auswahl der jeweiligen Prüfbedingungen müssen die Anforderungen der Produktnormen für Asphalt berücksichtigt werden. Die Anwendbarkeit dieses Dokumentes ist in den Produktnormen für Asphalt beschrieben.

## Mélanges bitumineux - Méthodes d'essai pour mélange hydrocarboné à chaud - Partie 24 : Résistance à la fatigue

La présente Norme européenne spécifie les méthodes qui sont utilisées pour caractériser la fatigue des mélanges bitumineux par différents types d'essais, dont des essais de flexion et des essais de traction directe et indirecte. Les essais sont réalisés sur des matériaux bitumineux compactés, au moyen d'une charge sinusoïdale ou d'une autre charge contrôlée, en utilisant différents types d'éprouvettes et de supports.

La procédure est utilisée :

a) pour classer les mélanges bitumineux selon leur résistance à la fatigue ;

b) comme guide comparatif des performances dans les structures de chaussée ;

c) pour obtenir des données permettant d'estimer le comportement structurel du matériau de la chaussée ; et

d) pouvoir juger les résultats d'essais en fonction des spécifications des mélanges bitumineux.

Comme la présente Norme européenne n'impose pas un type de dispositif d'essai particulier, le choix précis des conditions d'essai dépend des possibilités et de la plage de fonctionnement du dispositif utilisé. Pour le choix des conditions d'essai spécifiques, il est nécessaire de respecter les critères des normes produit des mélanges bitumineux. L'applicabilité du présent document est décrite dans les normes produit des mélanges bitumineux.

## Bitumenske zmesi - Preskusne metode - 24. del: Odpornost proti utrujanju

Ta evropski standard določa metode za karakterizacijo utrujenosti bitumenskih zmesi z alternativnimi preskusi, skupaj s preskusi upogiba ter preskusi direktne in indirektne nateznosti. Preskusi se izvajajo na zgoščenem bitumenskem materialu pod sinusnim obremenjevanjem ali pod nadzorovanim obremenjevanjem z različnimi vrstami preskušancev in podpor.

Postopek se uporablja:

a) za razvrščanje bitumenskih zmesi na podlagi odpornosti proti utrujanju;

b) kot smernica v zvezi z relativnimi lastnostmi v voziščni konstrukciji;

c) za pridobivanje podatkov z namenom vrednotenja strukturnega obnašanja ceste; in

d) za ocenjevanje preskusnih podatkov glede na specifikacije bitumenskih zmesi.

Ker ta evropski standard ne predpisuje posebne preskusne naprave, je natančna izbira preskusnih pogojev odvisna od možnosti in delovnega obsega uporabljene naprave. Pri izbiri specifičnih preskusnih pogojev je treba upoštevati standarde za izdelke za bitumenske zmesi. Uporabnost tega dokumenta je opisana v standardih za izdelke za bitumenske zmesi.

Rezultati, pridobljeni z različnimi preskusnimi metodami ali z uporabo različnih meril odpovedi, niso nujno primerljivi.

### General Information

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### Standards Content (Sample)

SLOVENSKI STANDARD

SIST EN 12697-24:2018

01-september-2018

1DGRPHãþD

SIST EN 12697-24:2012

Bitumenske zmesi - Preskusne metode - 24. del: Odpornost proti utrujanju

Bituminous mixtures - Test methods - Part 24: Resistance to fatigue

Asphalt - Prüfverfahren - Teil 24: Beständigkeit gegen Ermüdung

Mélanges bitumineux - Méthodes d'essai pour mélange hydrocarboné à chaud - Partie

24 : Résistance à la fatigue

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 12697-24:2018

ICS:

93.080.20 Materiali za gradnjo cest Road construction materials

SIST EN 12697-24:2018 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 12697-24:2018

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SIST EN 12697-24:2018

EN 12697-24

EUROPEAN STANDARD

NORME EUROPÉENNE

June 2018

EUROPÄISCHE NORM

ICS 93.080.20 Supersedes EN 12697-24:2012

English Version

Bituminous mixtures - Test methods - Part 24: Resistance

to fatigue

Mélanges bitumineux - Méthodes d'essai pour mélange Asphalt - Prüfverfahren - Teil 24: Beständigkeit gegen

hydrocarboné à chaud - Partie 24: Résistance à la Ermüdung

fatigue

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 26 February 2018.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION

COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION

EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG

CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2018 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 12697-24:2018 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.

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SIST EN 12697-24:2018

EN 12697-24:2018 (E)

Contents Page

European foreword . 4

1 Scope . 5

2 Normative references . 5

3 Terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviations . 5

3.1 General . 6

3.2 Two-point bending test on trapezoidal shaped specimens (2PB-TR) . 6

3.3 Two-point bending test on prismatic shaped specimens (2PB-PR) . 7

3.4 Three-point bending test on prismatic shaped specimens (3PB-PR) . 9

3.5 Four-point bending test on prismatic shaped specimens (4PB-PR) . 10

3.6 Symbols for indirect tensile test on cylindrical shaped specimens (IT-CY) . 15

3.7 Symbols for Cyclic Indirect tensile Test on cylindrical shaped specimen (CIT-CY) . 15

4 Sample preparation . 16

4.1 Storage of the specimens . 16

4.2 Drying of the specimens . 16

4.3 Dimensions and bulk density of the specimens . 17

5 Failure . 17

6 Selection test conditions . 17

7 Summary of the procedures . 17

7.1 Two-point bending test on trapezoidal shaped specimens (2PB-TR) . 17

7.2 Two-point bending test on prismatic shaped specimens (2PB-PR) . 17

7.3 Three-point bending test on prismatic shaped specimens (3PB-PR) . 17

7.4 Four-point bending test on prismatic shaped specimens (4PB-PR) . 18

7.5 Indirect tensile test on cylindrical shaped specimens (IT-CY) . 18

7.6 Cyclic Indirect tensile test on cylindrical shaped specimens (CIT-CY) . 18

8 Checking of the testing equipment . 18

9 Test report . 19

Annex A (normative) Two-point bending test on trapezoidal shaped specimens (2PB-TR) . 20

A.1 Principle . 20

A.2 Equipment . 21

A.3 Specimen preparation . 21

A.4 Procedure. 24

A.5 Calculation and expression of results . 25

A.6 Test report . 26

A.7 Precision . 26

Annex B (normative) Two-point bending test on prismatic shaped specimens (2PB-PR) . 28

B.1 Principle . 28

B.2 Equipment . 28

B.3 Specimen preparation . 29

B.4 Procedure. 29

2

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SIST EN 12697-24:2018

EN 12697-24:2018 (E)

B.5 Calculation and expression of results . 30

B.6 Test report . 32

B.7 Precision . 32

Annex C (normative) Three-point bending test on prismatic shaped specimens (3PB-PR) . 33

C.1 Principle . 33

C.2 Equipment . 33

C.3 Specimen preparation . 34

C.4 Procedure . 34

C.5 Calculation and expression of results . 35

C.6 Test report . 38

C.7 Precision . 39

Annex D (normative) Four-point bending test on prismatic shaped specimens (4PB-PR) . 40

D.1 Principle . 40

D.2 Equipment . 42

D.3 Specimen preparation . 43

D.4 Procedure . 44

D.5 Calculation and expression of results . 46

D.6 Test report . 46

D.7 Precision . 47

Annex E (normative) Indirect tensile test on cylindrical shaped specimens (IT-CY) . 48

E.1 Principle . 48

E.2 Equipment . 48

E.3 Specimen preparation . 51

E.4 Procedure . 52

E.5 Calculation and reporting of results . 53

E.6 Test report . 56

E.7 Precision . 56

Annex F (normative) Cyclic indirect tensile test on cylindrical shaped specimens (CIT-CY) . 57

F.1 Principle . 57

F.2 Equipment . 57

F.3 Specimen preparation . 59

F.4 Procedure . 60

F.5 Calculation and reporting of results . 62

F.6 Test report . 63

F.7 Precision . 63

Bibliography . 64

3

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SIST EN 12697-24:2018

EN 12697-24:2018 (E)

European foreword

This document (EN 12697-24:2018) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 227 “Road

materials”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by December 2018, and conflicting national standards

shall be withdrawn at the latest by December 2018.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document supersedes EN 12697-24:2012.

Compared with EN 12697-24:2012, the following changes have been made:

— the series title no longer makes the method exclusively for hot mix asphalt [Title];

— editing of several text sections in order to clarify the procedures [Ge];

— “load applications” amended to “load cycles" [Ge];

— Figure A.1 corrected: Key 3 pointing at the groove [A.1.2];

— completion of Figure E.3: Line 1 added to extensiometer in front view figure [E.2.5.3];

— introduction of new annex for cyclic indirect tensile test on cylindrical specimens (CIT-CY) [Annex F].

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.

4

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SIST EN 12697-24:2018

EN 12697-24:2018 (E)

1 Scope

This European Standard specifies the methods for characterizing the fatigue of bituminous mixtures

using alternative tests, including bending tests and direct and indirect tensile tests. The tests are

performed on compacted bituminous material under a sinusoidal loading or other controlled loading,

using different types of specimens and supports.

The procedure is used:

a) to rank bituminous mixtures on the basis of resistance to fatigue;

b) as a guide to relative performance in the pavement;

c) to obtain data for estimating the structural behaviour of the road; and

d) to judge test data according to specifications for bituminous mixtures.

Because this European Standard does not impose a particular type of testing device, the precise choice

of the test conditions depends on the possibilities and the working range of the device used. For the

choice of specific test conditions, the requirements of the product standards for bituminous mixtures

need to be respected. The applicability of this document is described in the product standards for

bituminous mixtures.

2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 12697-6, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 6: Determination of bulk

density of bituminous specimens

EN 12697-7, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 7: Determination of bulk

density of bituminous specimens by gamma rays

EN 12697-8, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 8: Determination of void

characteristics of bituminous specimens

EN 12697-26, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods — Part 26: Stiffness

EN 12697-27, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods — Part 27: Sampling

EN 12697-29, Bituminous mixtures — Test method for hot mix asphalt — Part 29: Determination of the

dimensions of a bituminous specimen

EN 12697-31, Bituminous mixtures — Test methods for hot mix asphalt — Part 31: Specimen preparation

by gyratory compactor

EN 12697-33, Bituminous mixtures —Test methods — Part 33: Specimen prepared by roller compactor

3 Terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviations

For the purposes of this document, the following terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviations apply.

5

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SIST EN 12697-24:2018

EN 12697-24:2018 (E)

3.1 General

3.1.1

fatigue

reduction of strength of a material under repeated loading when compared to the strength under a

single load

3.1.2

conventional criteria of failure

number of load cycles, N , when the absolute value of the complex stiffness modulus S (stiffness

f/50 mix

modulus) has decreased to half its initial value S

mix,0

Note 1 to entry: In this standard not only the conventional criteria of failure, based on the reduction of stiffness,

is presented. Also other failure criteria like the occurrence of macro cracks or the energy-based failure mechanism

are used.

Note 2 to entry: Different test methods and different failure criteria might lead to results that are not

comparable.

Note 3 to entry: In a displacement controlled fatigue test the reduction to half of the initial stiffness is a gradual

process. In a force controlled test in most cases there will be a progressive collapse of the specimen.

3.1.3

initial complex stiffness modulus

complex stiffness modulus, S , after 100 load cycles

mix,0

3.2 Two-point bending test on trapezoidal shaped specimens (2PB-TR)

3.2.1

constant relative to maximum strain

constant that enables the head displacement z of the trapezoidal specimen of dimensions [B, b, e, h], to

which a bending strain level ε is applied, to be converted into maximum strain

Note 1 to entry: The following formulae express K and its relationship with the parameters mentioned above:

ε

Kz⋅=ε (1)

ε

2

()B − b

ii

K = (2)

ε j

(bB−⋅) (3B− b ) B

2

i i ii i

8⋅⋅bh + ln

ii

2

b

2 ⋅B

i

i

3.2.2 Symbols

−6

Where a strain of 1 microstrain (μstrain) is equal to 10 by convention, the symbols are as follows:

i the index of the specimen for an element test (varies from 1 to n);

h is the height, in millimetres (mm);

i

B is the large base, in millimetres (mm);

i

b is the small base, in millimetres (mm);

i

e is the thickness, in millimetres (mm);

i

6

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SIST EN 12697-24:2018

EN 12697-24:2018 (E)

v is the void content of the specimen i by geometric method, in percent (%);

i

K −1

εi is the constant, relative to the maximum strain, in inverse millimetres (mm );

z is the amplitude of displacement imposed at the head of specimen i, in millimetres (mm);

i

ε is the maximum relative strain of specimen i corresponding with the displacement imposed at

i

the head;

N is the conventional fatigue life of specimen i;

i

a is the ordinate of the fatigue line according to the formula lg(N) = a + (1/b) lg(ε);

r is the linear correlation coefficient (lg(N ), lg(ε ));

2 i i

1/b is the slope of the fatigue line;

lg(ε) is the average value of lg(ε );

i

S is the standard deviation of lg(ε );

lg(ε) i

S is the standard deviation of lg(N );

lg(N) i

ε 6

6 is the strain corresponding to 10 cycles;

s is the estimation of the residual standard deviation of the decimal logarithms of fatigue lives;

N

Δε is the quality index of the test;

6

n is the number of specimens.

3.3 Two-point bending test on prismatic shaped specimens (2PB-PR)

3.3.1

constants for consideration of the geometry of specimen

constants that enable the strength of the head P of the specimen i of dimensions b , e and h to which a

ij i i i,

bending strength is applied, to calculate the maximum tension

Note 1 to entry: The following formulae express K and its relationship with the parameters mentioned above:

σ i

KP⋅=σ (3)

σ i ij jmax

where

-2

K is the constant for consideration of the geometry of specimen at constant strength (mm );

σi

P is the amplitude of the strength, with which the head is applied, in Newtons (N);

ij

σ is the greatest relative tension of the specimen, corresponding to the strength, with which

jmax

the head is applied.

6 h

i

K = (4)

σ i

2

be⋅

ii

where

K is the constant for consideration of the geometry of specimen at constant strength (factor in

σi

accordance with EN 12697–26);

7

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SIST EN 12697-24:2018

EN 12697-24:2018 (E)

b is the base, in millimetres (mm);

i

h is the height, in millimetres (mm);

i

e is the width, in millimetres (mm).

i

3.3.2 Symbols

−6

Where a strain of 1 microstrain (μstrain) is equal to 10 by convention, the symbols are as follows:

3.3.2.1 Sample i

h is the height, in millimetres (mm);

i

b is (A) small base or (B) base, in millimetres (mm);

i

e is the thickness, in millimetres (mm);

i

m is the mass, in grams (g);

i

v % is the vacuum, achieved by the geometric method as a proportion of atmospheric

i

pressure, in percent (%);

Kσ is the constant for consideration of the geometry of specimen at constant strength, in

i

−1

inverse millimetres (mm ).

3.3.2.2 Strength at head and greatest tension at specimen i at level of tension σ

j max

P is the amplitude of the strength with which the head is applied, in Newtons (N);

ij

σ is the greatest relative tension of the specimen, corresponding to the strength, with

j max

which the head is applied, in megapascal (MPa).

3.3.2.3 Fatigue life of a specimen i at the level of tension σ

j max

Nσ is the fatigue life in a force controlled test.

ji

3.3.2.4 Fatigue life relative to sample i at the strain level ε

j

Nԑ is the conventional fatigue life in a displacement controlled test.

ji

3.3.2.5 Fatigue line

p is the slope of fatigue line ln(σ ) = f (ln(N ));

σ j max ij

ˆ 6

σ

is the tension corresponding to 10 cycles, in megapascals (MPa);

6

s is the estimation of the residual standard deviation of the natural logarithms of

σ x/y

fatigue lives;

ˆ ˆ

∆σ is the confidence of σ for a probability of 95 %, in megapascal (MPa);

6 6

N is the number of element tests (number of specimens at the level of tension σ

j max

times the number of levels) where N = n*l;

s is the estimation of the standard deviation of ln(N ).

N ij

8

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SIST EN 12697-24:2018

EN 12697-24:2018 (E)

3.3.2.6 Fatigue life of a series of n specimens (A) at a strain level ε or (B) at the level of

jmax

tension σ

j max

N is the average number of cycles obtained at the level of tension stress σ

σjmax j max;

N is the average number of cycles obtained at the level of tension strain ε

εjmax i max

3.4 Three-point bending test on prismatic shaped specimens (3PB-PR)

3.4.1 Symbols

The symbols are as follows:

2A is the amplitude of the approximate stress function, in megapascals (MPa);

t

2A is the amplitude of the approximate strain function, in meter per meter (m/m);

ε

B is the measuring base of the extensometer, in millimetres (mm);

B is the phase angle of the approximate stress function, in radians (rad);

t

B is the phase angle of the approximate strain function, in radians (rad);

ε

D is the displacement at instant t, in micrometres (μm);

c

2D is the total amplitude of displacement function, in micrometres (μm);

0

DDE is the density of dissipated energy, in megapascals (MPa) or megajoules per cubic

3

metre (MJ/m );

DDE (x) is the density of dissipated energy at cycle x, in megajoules per cubic metre

3

(MJ/m );

EXT is the instant extensometer signal, in millimetres (mm);

L is the distance between supports, in millimetres (mm);

MD is the dynamic modulus, in megapascals (MPa);

N is the number of cycles at the end of the test;

P is the instant load, in megapascals (MPa);

W is the total density of dissipated energy throughout the whole test, in megajoules

3

per cubic metre (MJ/m );

b is the width of the specimen, in millimetres (mm);

e is the thickness of specimen, in millimetres (mm);

f is the wave frequency, in Hertz (Hz);

m is (N − 200)/500;

t is the time, in seconds (s);

-6

ε is the instant strain or half-cyclic amplitude of strain function at cycle 200, in 10

(µm/m);

-6

ε is the approximate strain function value, in 10 (µm/m);

a

-6

ε is the cyclic amplitude of strain function, in 10 (µm/m);

c

9

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SIST EN 12697-24:2018

EN 12697-24:2018 (E)

ε 6

-6

6 is the strain at 10 cycles, in 10 (µm/m);

σ is the instant stress, in megapascals (MPa);

σ is the approximate stress function value, in megapascals (MPa);

a

σ is the cyclic amplitude of stress function, in megapascals (MPa);

c

Φ is the phase difference angle, in degrees (°).

3.5 Four-point bending test on prismatic shaped specimens (4PB-PR)

3.5.1

(complex) stiffness modulus

iϕ

ratio S = S × e of the calculated stress and strain during cycle n in the specimen

mix,n

Note 1 to entry: The stiffness modulus defines the relationship between stress and strain for a linear

viscoelastic material subjected to sinusoidal loading.

3.5.2

initial (complex) stiffness modulus

Initial value S in megapascals (MPa) of the (complex) stiffness modulus and for the the initial

mix,0

th

phase angle ϕ in degrees (°) of the complex modulus taken at the 100 load cycle

0

3.5.3

fatigue life N of a specimen

i,j,k

number of cycles for specimen i, corresponding with the chosen failure criteria j (e.g. conventional

failure j = f/50) at the set of test conditions k (temperature, frequency and loading mode)

Note 1 to entry: A loading mode could be constant deflection level, or constant force level, and or any other

constant loading condition.

3.5.4

test condition k

set of conditions under which a specimen is tested

Note 1 to entry: This set contains the applied frequency f, the test temperature Θ and the loading mode

(constant deflection, or constant force, and or constant dissipated energy per cycle.

3.5.5

total length L

tot

total length of the prismatic specimen, in millimetres (mm)

3.5.6

effective length L

distance between the two outer clamps, in millimetres (mm)

3.5.7

width B

width of the prismatic specimen, in millimetres (mm)

3.5.8

height H

height of the prismatic specimen, in millimetres (mm)

10

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SIST EN 12697-24:2018

EN 12697-24:2018 (E)

3.5.9

mid-span length a

distance between the two inner clamps, in millimetres (mm)

3.5.10

co-ordinate A

distance between the left outer (x = 0) and left inner clamp (x = A), in millimetres (mm)

3.5.11

co-ordinate x

distance between x and the left outer clamp (0 ≤ x ≤ L/2), in millimetres (mm)

3.5.12

co-ordinate x

s

co-ordinate x where the deflection is measured (A ≤ x ≤ L/2), in millimetres (mm)

s

3.5.13

density ρ

3

geometrical density of the specimen, in kilograms per cubic metre (kg/m ):

9

M ⋅10

beam

ρ = (5)

()H⋅⋅LB

3.5.14

mass M

beam

total mass of the prismatic beam, in kilograms (kg)

3.5.15

damping coefficient T

coefficient needed for calculation of the system losses, in kilograms per second (kg/s)

Note 1 to entry: This coefficient can only be established by tuning the equipment with a reference beam of

which the stiffness modulus and (material) phase angle are known. In good working equipment, the coefficient T

can be neglected (adopting a zero value).

3.5.16

weighing function R(x)

dimensionless function depending on the distance x to the left outer clamp, the co-ordinate A of the left

inner clamp and the effective length L between the t

**...**

SLOVENSKI STANDARD

oSIST prEN 12697-24:2016

01-januar-2016

Bitumenske zmesi - Preskusne metode - 24. del: Odpornost proti utrujanju

Bituminous mixtures - Test methods - Part 24: Resistance to fatigue

Asphalt - Prüfverfahren - Teil 24: Beständigkeit gegen Ermüdung

Mélanges bitumineux - Méthodes d'essai pour mélange hydrocarboné à chaud - Partie

24 : Résistance à la fatigue

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN 12697-24

ICS:

93.080.20 Materiali za gradnjo cest Road construction materials

oSIST prEN 12697-24:2016 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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oSIST prEN 12697-24:2016

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oSIST prEN 12697-24:2016

DRAFT

EUROPEAN STANDARD

prEN 12697-24

NORME EUROPÉENNE

EUROPÄISCHE NORM

November 2015

ICS 93.080.20 Will supersede EN 12697-24:2012

English Version

Bituminous mixtures - Test methods - Part 24: Resistance

to fatigue

Mélanges bitumineux - Méthodes d'essai pour mélange Asphalt - Prüfverfahren - Teil 24: Beständigkeit gegen

hydrocarboné à chaud - Partie 24 : Résistance à la Ermüdung

fatigue

This draft European Standard is submitted to CEN members for enquiry. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/TC 227.

If this draft becomes a European Standard, CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations

which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

This draft European Standard was established by CEN in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other

language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and

United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are

aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a European Standard. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without

notice and shall not be referred to as a European Standard.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION

COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION

EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG

CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2015 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. prEN 12697-24:2015 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.

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oSIST prEN 12697-24:2016

prEN 12697-24:2015 (E)

Contents Page

European foreword . 7

1 Scope . 11

2 Normative references . 11

3 Terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviations . 12

3.1 General . 12

3.2 Two-point bending test on trapezoidal specimens . 12

3.3 Two-point bending test on prismatic shaped specimens . 13

3.4 Three-point bending test on prismatic shaped specimens . 15

3.4.1 Symbols . 15

3.5 Four-point bending test on prismatic shaped specimens . 16

3.6 Symbols for indirect tensile test on cylindrical shaped specimens . 22

3.7 Symbols for Cyclic Indirect tensile Test on cylindrical specimen . 22

4 Sample preparation . 23

4.1 Storage of the specimens . 23

4.2 Drying of the specimen . 23

4.3 Dimensions and bulk density of the specimens . 23

5 Failure . 24

6 Calculations . 24

7 Summary of the procedures . 24

7.1 Two-point bending test on trapezoidal specimens . 24

7.2 Two-point bending test on prismatic shaped specimens . 24

7.3 Three-point bending test on prismatic shaped specimens . 24

7.4 Four-point bending test on prismatic shaped specimens . 24

7.5 Indirect tensile test on cylindrical shaped specimens . 25

7.6 Cyclic Indirect tensile test on cylindrical shaped specimens . 25

8 Checking of the testing equipment . 25

9 Test report . 26

Annex A (normative) Two-point bending test on trapezoidal shaped specimens . 27

A.1 Principle . 27

A.1.1 General . 27

A.1.2 Element test. 27

A.1.3 Fatigue line . 28

A.2 Equipment . 28

A.2.1 Test machine . 28

A.2.2 Thermostatic chamber . 28

A.2.3 Measuring equipment . 29

A.2.3.1 Force . 29

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prEN 12697-24:2015 (E)

A.2.3.2 Displacement . 29

A.3 Specimen preparation . 29

A.3.1 Sawing and storing . 29

A.3.2 Characteristics of the specimens . 30

A.3.3 Embedding check . 30

A.3.4 Gluing the ends . 31

A.4 Procedure . 32

A.4.1 Preparing the test equipment . 32

A.4.2 Carrying out the fatigue test . 32

A.4.3 Choice of the strain . 32

A.4.4 Number of element tests . 32

A.5 Calculation and expression of results . 33

A.6 Test report . 34

A.7 Precision . 34

A.7.1 General . 34

A.7.2 Results relating to ε : . 34

6

A.7.3 Results relating to l/b: . 35

Annex B (normative) Two-point bending test on prismatic shaped specimens . 36

B.1 Principle . 36

B.2 Equipment . 36

B.2.1 Test machine . 36

B.2.2 Thermostatic chamber . 36

B.2.3 Measuring equipment . 36

B.2.3.1 Force . 36

B.2.3.2 Displacement . 36

B.2.3.3 Temperature . 36

B.3 Specimen preparation . 37

B.3.1 Sawing . 37

B.3.2 Characteristics of the specimens . 37

B.3.3 Gluing the ends . 37

B.4 Procedure . 37

B.4.1 Preparing the test equipment . 37

B.4.2 Carrying out the fatigue test . 37

B.4.3 Choice of the tension . 38

B.5 Calculation and expression of results . 38

B.6 Test report . 40

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B.7 Precision . 40

Annex C (normative) Three-point bending test on prismatic shaped specimens . 41

C.1 Principle . 41

C.1.1 General . 41

C.1.2 Element test. 41

C.1.3 Fatigue line . 41

C.2 Equipment . 41

C.2.1 Test machine . 41

C.2.2 Load cell . 41

C.2.3 Extensometer and displacement sensor . 41

C.2.4 Clamping device . 42

C.2.5 Data acquisition equipment . 42

C.2.6 Thermostatic chamber . 42

C.3 Specimen preparation . 42

C.3.1 Manufacturing and sawing . 42

C.3.2 Clamping devices preparation . 42

C.4 Procedure. 42

C.4.1 Preparing the test equipment . 42

C.4.2 Carrying out the fatigue test . 43

C.4.3 Load function, extensometer signal function, and displacement function recording. 43

C.4.4 End of test. 43

C.5 Calculation and expression of results . 43

C.5.1 Calculation of the stress function and the strain function at a cycle . 43

C.5.2 Calculation of the dynamic modulus, phase difference angle, and density of

dissipated energy at one cycle . 44

C.5.3 Determination of the fatigue law and energy law . 46

C.6 Test report . 46

C.7 Precision . 47

Annex D (normative) Four-point bending test on prismatic shaped specimens . 48

D.1 Principle . 48

D.1.1 General . 48

D.1.2 Element test. 49

D.1.3 Fatigue line . 49

D.2 Equipment . 50

D.2.1 Test machine . 50

D.2.2 Clamping device . 50

D.2.3 Thermostatic chamber . 51

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D.2.4 Electronic data registration equipment . 51

D.2.5 Checking of the test equipment . 51

D.3 Specimen preparation . 51

D.3.1 Dimensions . 51

D.3.2 Sawing . 52

D.3.3 Condition . 52

D.3.4 Mounting . 52

D.4 Procedure . 53

D.4.1 Preparing the test equipment . 53

D.4.2 Carrying out the fatigue test . 53

D.4.3 Choice of test conditions . 54

D.4.4 Data processing . 54

D.5 Calculation and expression of results . 54

D.6 Test report . 55

D.7 Precision . 55

Annex E (normative) Indirect tensile test on cylindrical shaped specimens . 56

E.1 Principle . 56

E.2 Equipment . 56

E.2.1 Test machine . 56

E.2.2 Displacement . 56

E.2.3 Thermostatic chamber . 56

E.2.4 Recording and measuring system . 56

E.2.5 Loading frame . 57

E.2.5.1 Frame . 57

E.2.5.2 Loading strips . 58

E.2.5.3 Deformation measurement system . 58

E.2.6 Positioning rig . 59

E.3 Specimen preparation . 60

E.3.1 Test specimen . 60

E.3.2 Specimen dimensions . 60

E.3.3 Position of the deformation and loading strips . 61

E.3.4 Conditioning . 61

E.4 Procedure . 61

E.5 Calculation and reporting of results . 62

E.6 Test report . 66

E.7 Precision . 66

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prEN 12697-24:2015 (E)

Annex F (normative) The value of reproducibility standard deviation is 0.389. Both data

according to a paper of Said et al., E&E congress 2012. Cyclic indirect tensile test on

cylindrical shaped specimens (CITT) . 67

F.1 Principle . 67

F.2 Equipment . 67

F.2.1 Test machine . 67

F.2.2 Loading. 67

F.2.3 Displacement . 67

F.2.4 Thermostatic chamber . 68

F.2.5 Recording and measuring system . 68

F.2.6 Loading strips . 68

F.3 Specimen preparation . 70

F.3.1 Test specimen . 70

F.3.2 Specimen dimensions . 70

F.4 Procedure. 70

F.4.1 Test temperature . 70

F.4.2 Temperature conditioning . 70

F.4.3 Mounting the specimen . 71

F.4.4 Loading conditions . 71

F.4.4.1 General . 71

F.4.4.2 Load frequency . 71

F.4.4.3 Definition of the lower load level .

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