IEC TR 63401-2:2022, which is a technical report, covers the "control interactions" in converter interfaced generators e.g, wind and PV with the frequency of the resulting oscillation below twice the system frequency. SSCI can be categorized into:
1) SSCI in DFIG is caused by the interaction between DFIG wind turbine converter controls and the series compensated network.
2) SSCI involving FSC (both type-4 wind turbine or PV generators) is caused by the interaction between wind turbine or solar PV's FSC controls and weak AC grid.
This technical report is organized into nine clauses. Clause 1 gives a brief introduction and highlights the scope of this document. Clause 4 presents the historical background of various types of subsynchronous oscillation (SSO) and revisits the terminologies, definitions, and classification in the context of classical SSR and emerging SSCI issues to better understand and classify the emerging interaction phenomena. Clause 5 provides the description, mechanism, and characteristics of the SSCI phenomenon in the framework of real-world incidents, including the SSCI events in the ERCOT, Guyuan, and Hami wind power systems. Clause 6 proposes two benchmark models to study the SSCI DFIG and FSC-based wind turbines or PV generators. Clause 7 gives an overview of existing and emerging modeling and stability analysis approaches to investigate the SSCI phenomenon. Clause 8 outlines various techniques to mitigate the SSCI. It discusses various SSCI mitigation schemes, such as bypassing the series capacitor, selective tripping of WTGs, generator, and plant-level damping control schemes. Clause 9 highlights the need for future works towards standardization of terms, definitions, classification, analysis methods, benchmark models, and mitigation methods.
- Technical report64 pagesEnglish languagesale 15% off
IEC TR 63401-4:2022 (E), which is a technical report, focuses on the fault behaviour of IBRs and performances of the existing relay protection in grids with large-scale integration of IBRs.
This document includes:
The IBR fault current requirements in present grid codes, including the requirements of active and reactive currents in positive- and negative-sequence systems during symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults.
Fault current behaviour of IBRs, including the current components in transient and fundamental frequency in different IBR topology and control schemes.
Adaptability of existing relay protection with the large-scale integration of IBRs, including the performances of distance protection, phase selector, directional relay and over-current protection.
- Technical report49 pagesEnglish languagesale 15% off
IEC TS 63102:2021(E) highlights recommended technical methods of grid code compliance assessment for grid connection of wind and PV power plants as the basic components of grid connection evaluation. The electrical behaviour of wind and PV power plants in this technical specification includes frequency and voltage range, reactive power capability, control performance including active power based control and reactive power based control, fault ride through capability and power quality.
Compliance assessment is the process of determining whether the electrical behaviour of wind and PV power plants meets specific technical requirements in grid codes or technical regulations. The assessment methods include compliance testing, compliance simulation and compliance monitoring. The input for compliance assessment includes relevant supporting documents, testing results and validated simulation models, and continuous monitoring data. The scope of this technical specification only covers assessment methods from a technical aspect; processes related to certification are not included.
This technical specification is applicable to wind and PV power plants connected to the electrical power grid.
- Technical specification38 pagesEnglish languagesale 15% off
IEC 62934:2021 provides terms and definitions in the subject area of grid integration of renewable energy generation. The technical issues of grid integration mainly focus on the issues caused by renewable energy generation with variable sources and/or converter based technology, such as wind power and photovoltaic power generation. Some renewable energy generations such as hydro power and biomass power with a relatively continuously available primary energy source and a rotating generator are conventional sources of generation, and are therefore not covered in this document.
The intention of this document is to answer the question "what do the words mean" and not "under what conditions do the terms apply".
- Standard76 pagesEnglish and French languagesale 15% off
IEC TR 63043:2020(E), which is a technical report, describes common practices and state of the art for renewable energy power forecasting technology, including general data demands, renewable energy power forecasting methods and forecasting error evaluation. For the purposes of this document, renewable energy refers to variable renewable energy, which mainly comprises wind power and photovoltaic (PV) power – these are the focus of the document. Other variable renewable energies, like concentrating solar power, wave power and tidal power, etc., are not presented in this document, since their capacity is small, while hydro power forecasting is a significantly different field, and so not covered here.
The objects of renewable energy power forecasting can be wind turbines, or a wind farm, or a region with lots of wind farms (respectively PV systems, PV power stations and regions with high PV penetration). This document focuses on providing technical guidance concerning forecasting technologies of multiple spatial and temporal scales, probabilistic forecasting, and ramp event forecasting for wind power and PV power.
This document outlines the basic aspects of renewable energy power forecasting technology. This is the first IEC document related to renewable energy power forecasting. The contents of this document will find an application in the following potential areas:
• support the development and future research for renewable energy power forecasting technology, by showing current state of the art;
• evaluation of the forecasting performance during the design and operation of renewable energy power forecasting system;
• provide information for benchmarking renewable forecasting technologies, including methods used, data required and evaluation techniques
- Technical report138 pagesEnglish languagesale 15% off