Industrial wastewater classification

This document specifies the principles, categories, and codes for the classification of industrial wastewater and is applicable to all types and sources of industrial wastewater. It provides a broad framework classifying industrial wastewater into different categories based on industry type and the associated water quality constituents, namely physical, chemical and biological characteristics with a specific code assigned based on both industry type and waste-stream classification.

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Published
Publication Date
26-Nov-2019
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
04-Nov-2019
Completion Date
27-Nov-2019
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ISO 22447:2019 - Industrial wastewater classification
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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 22447
First edition
2019-11
Industrial wastewater classification
Reference number
ISO 22447:2019(E)
ISO 2019
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ISO 22447:2019(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2019

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, or required in the context of its implementation, no part of this publication may

be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting

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below or ISO’s member body in the country of the requester.
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Email: copyright@iso.org
Website: www.iso.org
Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 22447:2019(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms ................................................................................................................................ 1

3.1 Terms and definitions ....................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3.2 Abbreviated terms ............................................................................................................................................................................... 3

4 Classification of industrial wastewater ........................................................................................................................................ 3

4.1 Classification principle and code structure for industrial wastewater classification................ 3

4.1.1 Classification principle ............................................................................................................................................... 3

4.1.2 Code structure .................................................................................................................................................................... 4

4.2 Classification of industrial wastewater based on industrial types (Level 1) .................................... 5

4.3 Classification of industrial wastewater based on water quality parameters (Level 2) .........10

Annex A (informative) Classification and reuse by case study ...............................................................................................14

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................18

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 22447:2019(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular, the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www .iso .org/ directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www .iso .org/ patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation of the voluntary nature of standards, the meaning of ISO specific terms and

expressions related to conformity assessment, as well as information about ISO's adherence to the

World Trade Organization (WTO) principles in the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) see www .iso .org/

iso/ foreword .html.

This document was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 282, Water reuse, Subcommittee SC 4,

Industrial water reuse.

Any feedback or questions on this document should be directed to the user’s national standards body. A

complete listing of these bodies can be found at www .iso .org/ members .html.
iv © ISO 2019 – All rights reserved
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ISO 22447:2019(E)
Introduction

Industrial wastewater is produced by many kinds of industries. In some parts of the world, climate

change is putting water resources under stress. Treatment of industrial wastewater provides an

opportunity for resource recovery, which can help to drought-proof ongoing operations. Reclaiming

and reusing industrial wastewater reduces demands on limited freshwater resources, as well as the

amount of wastewater and the associated contaminants that are released to the environment. How to

process and reuse industrial wastewater efficiently is a great challenge as wastewater characteristics

are as complex and varied as the industries that produce these waste-streams. Industrial wastewater

contains a wide range of inorganic and complex organic contaminants, with various concentrations

and almost as wide a range of potential physical, chemical and biological treatment processes and

has specific treated water quality required for reuse. A clear ISO industrial wastewater classification

and coding system is needed to assist both industry and government to record the information of

wastewater (including industrial type and water quality parameter) and provide some information

on identifying best available control technologies and treatment performance capabilities in order to

establish reasonable expectations and facilitate the development of universal wastewater treatment

technologies in industrial reuse, and promote the information communication during commercial

trade, for example, bidding, consultation, and so on.

The industrial wastewater classification system described in this document covers the basic and most

important information required to properly characterize industrial process waste-streams to quickly

determine the requirement of the appropriate treatment or reuse technology options for specific

industries, reduce operating costs for enterprises, and ultimately promote the systematic development

of process water treatment and reuse technologies for industrial application. For the government and

large corporations, a more important usage of the classification and coding system is to help them with

establishment and improvement of standards concerning discharge and reuse of industrial wastewater.

This document provides a wastewater classification framework and coding system, along with a water

quality parameter list. The usages of the classification and coding system facing different users, namely

the entrepreneur or the government, are provided in Annex A. It is intended that this classification

system will help to promote understanding between different business parties, governments, to

collaboratively develop wastewater treatment and reuse technologies among different countries,

improve the efficiency of industrial wastewater reuse, and save and protect environment. Due to the

similar nature, it may also apply for the wastewater treatment concerning discharge.

© ISO 2019 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 22447:2019(E)
Industrial wastewater classification
1 Scope

This document specifies the principles, categories, and codes for the classification of industrial

wastewater and is applicable to all types and sources of industrial wastewater. It provides a broad

framework classifying industrial wastewater into different categories based on industry type and the

associated water quality constituents, namely physical, chemical and biological characteristics with a

specific code assigned based on both industry type and waste-stream classification.

2 Normative references
There are no normative references in this document.
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

— ISO Online browsing platform: available at http:// www .iso .org/ obp
— IEC Electropedia: available at http:// www .electropedia .org/
3.1 Terms and definitions
3.1.1
biochemical oxygen demand
BOD

mass concentration of dissolved oxygen consumed under specified conditions by the aerobic biological

oxidation of a chemical compound or organic matter in water
Note 1 to entry: BOD : Degradation time = 5 days; Temperature = 20 °C.
[SOURCE: ISO 9408:1999]
3.1.2
chemical oxygen demand
COD

mass concentration of oxygen equivalent to the amount of dichromate consumed by dissolved and

suspended matter when a water sample is treated with that oxidant under defined conditions

[SOURCE: ISO 6107-2:2006]
3.1.3

concentration estimated to cause an effect on a test end-point in 50 % of an exposed population over a

defined exposed period
[SOURCE: ISO 16387:2014]
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ISO 22447:2019(E)
3.1.4
free chlorine

chlorine present in the form of hypochlorous acid, hypochlorite ions or dissolved elemental chlorine

[SOURCE: ISO 7027:1999]
3.1.5
total coliforms

group of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, lactose-fermenting

bacteria which typically inhabit the large intestine of man and animals
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-7:2006]
3.1.6
total dissolved solids (TDS)
weight of inorganic and organic matter in true solution per unit volume of water
[SOURCE: ISO 16345:2014]
3.1.7
total hardness
total concentration of calcium and magnesium
[SOURCE: ISO 6059:1984]
3.1.8
total kjeldahl nitrogen
TKN

concentration of organic nitrogen and ammoniacal nitrogen in a sample, determined under specified

conditions based on digestion with sulfuric acid
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-8:1993]
3.1.9
total nitrogen

sum of total kjeldahl nitrogen (3.1.8) (ammonia, organic and reduced nitrogen) and nitrate-nitrite

3.1.10
total organic carbon
TOC

all the carbon present in organic matter which is dissolved and suspended in the water

[SOURCE: ISO 11733:2004]
3.1.11
total phosphorus
sum of all phosphorus compounds that occur in various forms
3.1.12
total residual chlorine

chlorine present in the form of free chlorine (3.1.4) or combined chlorine, or both

[SOURCE: ISO 7027:1999]
3.1.13
total solids
sum of dissolved and suspended solids
[SOURCE: ISO 6107-2:2006]
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ISO 22447:2019(E)
3.1.14
total suspended solids
TSS

weight of particulates, both organic and inorganic, suspended, but not dissolved, per unit of water

[SOURCE: ISO 16345:2014]
3.1.15
turbidity

reduction of transparency of a liquid caused by the presence of undissolved matter

[SOURCE: ISO 7027:1999]
3.1.16
96 h LC

bioassay determining the dilution of an effluent which causes the death of 50 % (one half) of a group of

test animals (typically rainbow trout) after exposure for 96 hours
3.2 Abbreviated terms
BOD biochemical oxygen demand after 5 days
COD chemical oxygen demand
DO dissolved oxygen
EC electrical conductivity
FOG fat, oil and grease
n.e.c. not elsewhere classified
SDI silting density index
TDS total dissolved solids
TKN total Kjeldahl nitrogen
TN total nitrogen
TOC total organic carbon
TOD total oxygen demand
TP total phosphorus
TS total solids
TSS total suspended solids
4 Classification of industrial wastewater

4.1 Classification principle and code structure for industrial wastewater classification

4.1.1 Classification principle

Industrial processes, even in the same industry (e.g. pulp and paper), characteristically generate

different distinctive waste-streams as a result of differences between production processes.

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ISO 22447:2019(E)

Consequently, the effectiveness of a particular technology or a group of technologies can be expected to

be varied, and require different wastewater treatment processes and reuse technologies.

In this document, hierarchical classification is used to classify different levels of industrial wastewater

based on: type of the industry (Level 1) and water quality parameters (e.g. pH, TSS, TDS, COD, TN and

TP) (Level 2). The relationship between different levels is shown in Figure 1. Level 1 and Level 2 have a

progressive relationship.

This classification system defines the basic and most important characteristics of industrial wastewater

from different dimensions. It is intended to guide technology selection and design for industrial

wastewater treatment and reuse. Although some reference codes are provided in this document, the

relevant and suitable parameters can be selected according to local industrial wastewater quality and

technological conditions in different countries or regions.

Figure 1 — Relationship between different levels of industrial wastewater classification

4.1.2 Code structure

The code of industrial wastewater classification adopts hierarchical code. The hierarchy corresponding

to the classification of industrial wastewater is divided into two levels. The hierarchical code of each

level is in an ascending order.

The hierarchy code structure of industrial wastewater classification contains two levels (Figure 2).

Level 1 (the first two digits) indicates the classification according to industry types, which uses two

letters following the alphabetic order for each letter (from A to Z, then from a to z, which is 52 codes

for each digit). Level 2 (the number of digits is determined by the number of water quality parameters

included; each parameter has a four-digit-code) indicates the classification according to the water

quality of the industrial wastewater. A hyphen is used for distinguishing between each water quality

parameter.

For Level 2, if some water quality indexes are irrelevant to the certain industrial type, the corresponding

codes should not be included. However, if it is still necessary for considering the requirements or the

effects of those water quality indexes with no available value, the value of the parameter should be set

as 0a as a default value.
Figure 2 — Code structure of industrial wastewater classification
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ISO 22447:2019(E)
4.2 Classification of industrial wastewater based on industrial types (Level 1)

Wastewater generated from different industries may have distinct water qualities. On this level,

wastewater is classified according to industrial types in the areas of mining and quarrying,

manufacturing, electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply, water supply, construction and the

like. A recommended list of code vs. category of industrial wastewater according to industrial types

is shown in Table 1, which mainly follows the International Standard Industrial Classification of All

[10]

Economic Activities , added up with special wastewater including laboratory wastewater, nuclear

and radioactivity wastewater, and mixed wastewater that come from more than one industry category

[11][12]

included in this level . Each type of industrial wastewater is given a two-letter code following

alphabetic order (for each letter, from A to Z, then a to z if necessary). A total of 207 types of industrial

wastewater were included, among which 34 big categories are coded as “*A” (* means a character), and

shown as bold font in the table.

For the plants manufacturing products which belong to different industrial types, or in other situations

that the wastewaters are mixed before reuse or discharge, if two types belong to the same big category,

e.g. a mine produces both iron ore and rare earth, the mixed wastewater should be classified following

the big category name, so does the code; if two types belong to different big categories, several possible

mixed sub-categories are listed under the category of “mixed wastewater” (g*).

Governments, regional administrations, industrial sectors, and other users can edit and modify the

information according to the specific situations. For the types of industry that are not included or newly

appeared, the table can also be extended accordingly, or the wastewater can be classified as “other

industrial wastewater” (hA). If there are modifications of the corresponding list, an illustration of the

coding system should be provided in the document when applying.
Table 1 — Category and code for industrial wastewater based on industrial types
Code Category name
AA coal and lignite mining wastewater
AB hard coal mining wastewater
AC lignite mining wastewater
BA crude petroleum and natural gas extraction wastewater
BB crude petroleum extraction wastewater
BC natural gas extraction wastewater
CA metal ores mining wastewater
CB iron ores mining wastewater
CC non-ferrous metal ores mining wastewater
DA other mining and quarrying wastewater
DB stone, sand and clay quarrying wastewater
DC chemical and fertilizer minerals mining wastewater
DD peat extraction wastewater
DE salt extraction wastewater
DF other mining and quarrying wastewater n.e.c.
EA food products manufacturing wastewater
EB meat processing and preserving wastewater
EC fish, crustaceans and molluscs processing and preserving wastewater
ED fruit and vegetables processing and preserving wastewater
EE vegetable and animal oils and fats manufacturing wastewater
EF dairy products manufacturing wastewater
EG grain mill products, starches and starch products manufacturing wastewater
EH grain mill products manufacturing wastewater
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ISO 22447:2019(E)
Table 1 (continued)
Code Category name
EI starches and starch products manufacturing wastewater
EJ bakery products manufacturing wastewater
EK sugar manufacturing wastewater
EL cocoa, chocolate and sugar confectionery manufacturing wastewater

EM macaroni, noodles, couscous and similar farinaceous products manufacturing wastewater

EN prepared meals and dishes manufacturing wastewater
EO other food products manufacturing wastewater
EP prepared animal feeds manufacturing wastewater
FA beverages manufacturing wastewater
FB spirits distilling, rectifying and blending wastewater
FC wines manufacturing wastewater
FD malt liquors and malt manufacturing wastewater
FE soft drinks, mineral waters and other bottled waters manufacturing wastewater
GA tobacco products manufacturing wastewater
HA textiles manufacturing wastewater
HB textiles spinning, weaving and finishing wastewater
HC textiles fibre preparation and spinning wastewater
HD textiles weaving wastewater
HE textiles finishing wastewater
HF knitted and crocheted fabrics manufacturing wastewater
HG made-up textile articles (except apparel) manufacturing wastewater
HH carpets and rugs manufacturing wastewater
HI cordage, rope, twine and netting manufacturing wastewater
HJ other textiles manufacturing wastewater
IA wearing apparel manufacturing wastewater
IB wearing apparel (except fur apparel) manufacturing wastewater
IC articles of fur manufacturing wastewater
ID knitted and crocheted apparel manufacturing wastewater
IE other wearing apparel manufacturing wastewater
JA leather and related products manufacturing wastewater
JB leather tanning and dressing wastewater
JC fur dressing and dyeing wastewater
JD luggage, handbags and the like, saddlery and harness manufacturing wastewater
JE footwear manufacturing wastewater
JF other leather and related products manufacturing wastewater

wood, wood products and cork (except furniture) manufacturing wastewater; articles of

straw and plaiting materials manufacturing wastewater
KB wood sawmilling and planning wastewater
KC products of wood, cork, straw and plaiting materials manufacturing wastewater
KD veneer sheets and wood-based panels manufacturing wastewater
KE builders’ carpentry and joinery manufacturing wastewater
KF wooden containers manufacturing wastewater

other products of wood; manufacture of articles of cork, straw and plaiting materials manufacturing

wastewater
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ISO 22447:2019(E)
Table 1 (continued)
Code Category name
LA paper and paper products manufacturing wastewater
LB pulp, paper and paperboard manufacturing wastewater

corrugated paper and paperboard and containers of paper and paperboard manufacturing

wastewater
LD other articles of paper and paperboard manufacturing wastewater
MA coke and refined petroleum products manufacturing wastewater
MB coke oven products manufacturing wastewater
MC refined petroleum products manufacturing wastewater
NA chemicals and chemical products manufacturing wastewater
NB basic chemicals manufacturing wastewater
NC fertilizers and nitrogen compounds manufacturing wastewater
ND plastics and synthetic rubber in primary forms manufacturing wastewater
NE pesticides and other agrochemical products manufacturing wastewater

NF paints, varnishes and similar coatings, printing ink and mastics manufacturing wastewater

soap and detergents, cleaning and polishing preparations, perfumes and toilet preparations

manufacturing wastewater
NH man-made fibres manufacturing wastewater
NI other chemicals and chemical products manufacturing wastewater

OA pharmaceuticals, medicinal chemical and botanical products manufacturing wastewater

PA rubber and plastics products manufacturing wastewater

PB rubber tyres and tubes, retreading and rebuilding of rubber tyres manufacturing wastewater

PC other rubber products manufacturing wastewater
PD plastics products manufacturing wastewater
QA non-metallic mineral products manufacturing wastewater
QB glass and glass products manufacturing wastewater
QC refractory products manufacturing wastewater
QD clay building materials manufacturing wastewater
QE other porcelain and ceramic products manufacturing wastewater
QF cement, lime and plaster manufacturing wastewater
QG articles of concrete, cement and plaster manufacturing wastewater
QH Cutting, shaping and finishing of stone wastewater
QI other non-metallic mineral products manufacturing wastewater
RA basic metals manufacturing wastewater
RB basic iron and steel manufacturing wastewater
RC basic precious and other non-ferrous metals manufacturing wastewater
RD iron and steel casting wastewater
RE non-ferrous metals casting wastewater

SA fabricated metal products (except machinery and equipment) manufacturing wastewater

SB structural metal products, tanks, reservoirs and steam generators manufacturing wastewater

SC structural metal products manufacturing wastewater
SD tanks, reservoirs and containers of metal manufacturing wastewater

SE steam generators (except central heating hot water boilers) manufacturing wastewater

SF weapons and ammunition manufacturing wastewater

SG metal forging, pressing, stamping and roll-forming wastewater; powder metallurgy wastewater

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ISO 22447:2019(E)
Table 1 (continued)
Code Category name
SH metal treatment and coating wastewater; machining wastewater
SI cutlery, hand tools and general hardware manufacturing wastewater
SJ other fabricated metal products manufacturing wastewater
TA computer, electronic and optical products manufacturing wastewater
TB electronic components and boards manufacturing wastewater
TC computers and peripheral equipment manufacturing wastewater
TD communication equipment manufacturing wastewater
TE consumer electronics manufacturing wastewater

measuring, testing, navigating and control equipment, watches and clocks manufacturing

wastewater
TG measuring, testing, navigating and control equipment manufacturing wastewater
TH watches and clocks manufacturing wastewater

TI irradiation, electromedical and electrotherapeutic equipment manufacturing wastewater

TJ optical instruments and photographic equipment manufacturing wastewater
TK magnetic and optical media manufacturing wastewater
UA electrical equipment manufacturing wastewater

electric motors, generators, transformers and electricity distribution and control apparatus

manufacturing wastewater
UC batteries and accumulators manufacturing wastewater
UD wiring and wiring devices manufacturing wastewater
UE fibre optic cables manufacturing wastewater
UF other electronic and electric wires and cables manufacturing wastewater
UG wiring devices manufacturing wastewater
UH electric lighting equipment manufacturing wastewater
UI domestic appliances manufacturing wastewater
UJ other electrical equipment manufacturing wastewater
VA machinery and equipment n.e.c. manufacturing wastewater
VB general-purpose machinery manufacturing wastewater
VC engines and turbines manufacturing wastewater
VD fluid power equipment manufacturing wastewater
VE other pumps, compressors, taps and valves manufacturing wastewater
VF bearings, gears, gearing and driving elements manufacturing wastewater
VG ovens, furnaces and furnace burners manufacturing wastewater
VH lifting and handling equipment manufacturing wastewater

office machinery and equipment (except computers and peripheral equipment) manufacturing

wastewater
VJ power-driven hand tools manufacturing wastewater
VK other general-purpose machinery manufacturing wastewater
VL special-purpose machinery manufacturing wastewater
VM agricultural and forestry machinery manufacturing wastewater
VN metal-forming machinery and machine tools manufacturing wastewater
VO machinery for metallurgy manufacturing wastewater
VP machinery for mining, quarrying and construction manufacturing wastewater
VQ machinery for food, beverage and tobacco processing manufacturing wastewater

VR machinery for textile, apparel and leather production manufacturing wastewater

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ISO 22447:2019(E)
Table 1 (continued)
Code Category name
VS other special-purpose machinery manufacturing wastewater
WA motor vehicles, trailers and semi-trailers manufacturing wastewater
WB motor vehicles manufacturing wastewater
WC bodies (coachwork) for motor vehicles manufacturing wastewater
WD trailers and semi-trailers manufacturing wastewater
WE parts and accessories for motor vehicles manufacturing wastewater
XA other transport equipment manufacturing wastewater
XB ships and boats building wastewater
XC ships and floating structures building wastewater
XD pleasure and sporting boats building wastewater
XE railway locomotives and rolling stock manufacturing wastewater
XF air and spacecraft and related machinery manufacturing wastewater
XG military fighting vehicles manufacturing wastewater
XH transport equipment manufacturing wastewater
XI motorcycles manufacturing wastewater
XJ bicycles and invalid carriages manufacturing wastewater
XK other transport equipment manufacturing wastewater
YA furniture manufacturing wastewater
ZA other manufacturing wastewater
ZB jewellery, bijouterie and related articles manufacturing wastewater
ZC jewellery and related articles manufacturing wastewater
ZD imitation jewellery and related articles manufacturing wastewater
ZE musical instruments manufacturing wastewater
ZF sports goods manufacturing wastewater
ZG games and toys manufacturing wastewater
ZH medical and dental instruments and supplies manufacturing wastewater
ZI other manufacturing wastewater
aA discarded resource and waste material recovery and processing wastewater
aB metal scrap and dross processing wastewater
aC non-metal scrap and dross processing wastewater

aD other discarded resource and waste material recovery and processing wastewater

bA wastewater related to electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply
cA wastewater related to water production and supply
cB wastewater related to tap
...

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