Manipulating industrial robots - Safety (ISO 10218:1992, modified)

This International Standard provides guidance on the safety consideration for the design, construction, programming, operation, use, repair, and maintenance of manipulating industrial robots and robot systems as defined in clause 3. It does not apply to other types of robots although the safety principles established in this International Standard may be utilized for these other types.  Note: For the purpose of this International Standard, the term 'robot' means manipulating industrial robot.  For systems comprising multiple robots and/or associated material handling equipment or mobile robots, this International Standard may be used for the robot system portion of the equipment.

Industrieroboter - Sicherheit (ISO 10218:1992, modifiziert)

Robots manipulateurs industriels - Sécurité (ISO 10218:1992, modifiée)

Upravljanje industrijskih robotov - Varnost (ISO 10218:1992, spremenjen)

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
20-Oct-1992
Withdrawal Date
31-May-2006
Current Stage
9960 - Withdrawal effective - Withdrawal
Due Date
01-Jun-2006
Completion Date
01-Jun-2006

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 775:1998
01-junij-1998
Upravljanje industrijskih robotov - Varnost (ISO 10218:1992, spremenjen)
Manipulating industrial robots - Safety (ISO 10218:1992, modified)
Industrieroboter - Sicherheit (ISO 10218:1992, modifiziert)
Robots manipulateurs industriels - Sécurité (ISO 10218:1992, modifiée)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 775:1992
ICS:
25.040.30 Industrijski roboti. Industrial robots.
Manipulatorji Manipulators
SIST EN 775:1998 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 775:1998
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SIST EN 775:1998
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SIST EN 775:1998
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SIST EN 775:1998
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SIST EN 775:1998
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SIST EN 775:1998
IS0
INTERNATIONAL
10218
STANDARD
First edition
1992-01-l 5
Manipulating industrial robots - Safety
Robots manipulateurs hdustriels - S&writ&
---.--- -----
-------___--
-- ---
Reference number
------.-_-__-_
IS0 10218:1992(E)
-- --- -- - --_- - .___._ _
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SIST EN 775:1998
! IS9 10218:1992(E)
Contents
Foreword
Introduction
1 Scope
2 Normative references
Definitions
General terms
3.1
Specific terms
3.2
4 General considerations
4.1 General
4.2 Safety analysis
General design requirements
5.1 Failure to safety
5.2 Electrical equipment
5.3 Power supply
Isolation of power sources
5.4
6 Design and construction of the robot
6.1 General
Ergonomic aspects
6.2
Mechanical aspects
6.3
6.4 Control aspects
6.5 Provisions for robots with arm-moving programming
Provisions for emergency movement
6.6
6.7 Power sources
6.8 Stored energy
6.9 Interference(s)
6.10 Facilities for selection of operating conditions
6.11 Requirements for documentation
7 Design and safeguarding of the robot system
7.1 General
7.2 Design
7.3 Safeguards
7.4 Awareness means
7.5 Safe working ‘procedures
7.6 Reset of safeguards
7.7 Requirements for documentation
0 IS0 1992

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without

permission in writing from the publisher.
International Organization for Standardization
Case Postale 56 l CH-1211 Gen&e 20 l Switzerland
Printed in Switzerland
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SIST EN 775:1998
IS0 10.218:1992(E)
a Use and care
a.1 General
a.2 Automatic (normal) operation
Programming
a.3
Programming data
a.4
Program verification
a.5
Trouble shooting
8.6
Maintenance
a.7
9 Installation, commissioning and functional testing
9.1 General
9.2 Installation
9.3 Commissioning and functional testing
Documentation
10.1 Robot documentation to be supplied by the robot manufacturer
10.2 Robot system documentation to be supplied by the robot system
manufacturer
Training
Annex A - Schematic diagram showing major elements of a robot
system
iii
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SIST EN 775:1998
IS0 10218:1992(E)
Foreword
IS0 (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide
federation of national standards bodies (IS0 member bodies). The work
of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through IS0
technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for
which a technical committee has been established has the right to be
represented on that committee. International organizations, govern-
mental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the
work. IS0 collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical
Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.
Draft International Standards adopted by the technical committees are
circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an Interna-
tional Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies
casting a vote.
International Standard IS0 10218 was prepared by Technical Committee
ISO/TC 184, Industrial automation systems and integration, Sub-
Committee SC 2, Robots for manufacturing environment.
Annex A of this International Standard is for information only.
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SIST EN 775:1998
IS0 10218:1992(E)
Introduction
This International Standard has been created in recognition
of the particular hazards which exist in manufacturing
automation systems incorporating manipulating industrial
robots.
Hazards are well recognized but the sources of the hazards
are frequently unique to a particular robot system. The
number and types of hazards are directly related to the
nature of the automation process and the complexity of the
installation.
The risks associated with these hazards vary with the type of
robot used and its application and the way in which it is
installed, programmed, operated, and maintained.
In recognition of the variable nature of hazards with
application of industrial robots, this International Standard
provides guidance for the assurance of safety in design and
construction of robots. Since safety in the application of
industrial robots is influenced by the design and application
of the particular robot system, a supplementary, though
equally important, purpose is to provide guidelines for the
safeguarding of personnel during installation, functional
testing, programming, operation, maintenance, and repair of
robots and robot systems.
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SIST EN 775:1998
IS0 10218:1992(E)
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD
- Safety
Manipulating industrial robots
1 Scope longitudinal shape which supports, positions, and orientates
a wrist and/or end effector.

This International Standard provides guidance on the safety [lSO/TR 8373:1988, 3.21

considerations for the design, construction, programming,
operation, use, repair, and maintenance of manipulating in-
3.2.2 automatic mode: The operating mode in which
dustrial robots and robot systems as defined in clause 3. It
the robot control system can operate in accordance with the
does not apply to other types of robots although the safety
task program.
principles established in this International Standard may be
[lSO/TR 8373:1988, 5.3.8.11
utilized for these other types.
A manually operated device
3.2.3 enabling device:
NOTE: For the purpose of this International Standard, the term
intended to allow robot motion only while the device is held in
“robot” means manipulating industrial robot.
a predetermined position.
For systems comprising multiple robots and/or associated
3.2.4 guard: A machine component specifically used to
material handling equipment or mobile robots, this
provide protection by means of a physical barrier. Depending
International Standard may be used for the robot system
on its construction, a guard may be called casting, cover
portion of the equipment.
screen, fence, door, enclosing guard, barrier, etc.
3.2.5 hazard: A situation that may give rise to an injury
2 Normative references
or damage to health.
The following standards contain provisions which, through
3.2.6 hazardous condition/motion: Any condition/
reference in this text, constitute provisions of this

At the time of publication, the motion of the robot or robot system that can cause injury to

International Standard.
persons.
editions indicated were valid. All standards are subject to re-
vision, and parties to agreements based on this International

Standard are encouraged to investigate the possibility of 3.2.7 hold-to-run control: A control which allows

applying the most recent editions of the standards listed be- movements exclusively during the manual actuation of that

low. Members of IEC and IS0 maintain registers of currently control and that causes these movements to stop as soon as

valid International Standards. it is released.

IEC 204-l : 2 1, Electrical equipment of industrial machines 3.2 -8 interlock (for safeguarding): An arrangement

that interconnects guard(s) or device(s) with the robot control
- Part I: General requirements.
and/or power system of the robot and its associated equip-
IS0 6385: 1981, Ergonomic principles of the design of work ment.
sys terns.
3.2.9 local control: A state of the robot in which it is
ISOfTR 8373: 1988, Manipulating industrial robots -
operated from the control panel at the robot system
Vocabulary.
installation or teach pendant.
IS0 9946: 1991, Manipulating industrial robots -
3.2.10 lockout/tagout: The placement of a lock and/or
Presentation of characteristics.
tag on the energy isolating device (e.g. disconnecting
means) in the ‘OFF’ or ‘OPEN’ position indicating that the
energy isolating device or the equipment being controlled
3 Definitions
shall not be operated until the removal of the lock/tag.
For the purposes of this International Standard, the following
3.2.1 1 manipulating industrial robot: An automati-
definitions apply.
cally controlled, reprogrammable, multi-purpose, manipulat-
ive machine with several degrees of freedom, which may be
3.1 General terms
either fixed in place or mobile for use in industrial automation
applications.
3.1 .I person: Any individual.
NOTE: The following is an explanation of terms used in the above
3. I. 2 personnel: Persons specifically employed and
definition:

trained in the use and care of a robot system. - reprogrammable: whose programmed motions or auxiliary

functions may be changed y&hout physical alterations;
- multi-purpose: can be adapted to different applications with
3.2 Specific terms
physical alterations;
- physical alteration means alteration of the mechanical
NOTE : The terms which are referenced to ISO/TR 8373 are those
structure or control system except for changing programming
which have been duplicated from that document.
cassettes, ROMs, etc.
[ ISOfTR 8373:1988, 2.31
3.2.1 arm [primary axes]: An interconnected set of
links and powered joints comprising members of the
1) To be published. (Revision of IEC 204-l :1981.)
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SIST EN 775:1998
IS0 10218:1992(E)
3.2.12 manual mode: The operating mode in which the
robot can be operated by, for example, pushbutton or joy-
stick and that excludes automatic operation.
3.2.13 maximum space: The space which can be
swept by the moving parts of the robot as defined by the
manufacturer plus the space which can be swept by the end
effector and the workpiece (see figure 1).
3.2.14 (teach) pendant: A hand held unit linked to the
control system with which the robot can be programmed (or
moved).
[ISO/TR 8373:1988, 5.81
3.2.15 presence sensing device: A device that has
a sensing field or space which will detect any intrusion into
that field or space.
NOTE: Presence sensing devices include but are not limited to light
. . . .
. Restricted
screens, electromagnetic fields, pressure sensitive devices,
. . . . . . . .
. .
space
ultrasonic and infrared devices, and image processing systems.

3.2.16 programmer: A competent person designated Figure 1 - Example of restricted space and

to prepare the task program. safeguarded space
[ ISOfTR 8373:1988, 2.91
3.2.24 safeguarding: Methods for protection of

3.2.17 reduced speed: A single selectable velocity person(s) using guards, devices, and safe working

provided by the robot supplier which automatically restricts procedures.
the robot velocity to one intended to allow sufficient time for
persons either to withdraw from hazardous motions or to stop
3.2.25 trouble shooting [fault finding]: The act of
the robot.
methodically determining the reason that a robot system has
failed to perform the task or function as intended.
3.2.18 restricted space: The portion of the maximum
space that is restricted by limiting devices that establish
limits that will not be exceeded in the event of any
4 General considerations
foreseeable failure of the robot system (see figure 1).
4.1 General
NOTE: The maximum distance that the robot can travel after the
limiting device is actuated is considered the basis for defining the
It is recognized that the operational characteristics of robots
restricted space.
can be significantly different from those of other machines
[ lSO/TR 8373:1988, 4.5.31
and equipment. Robots are capable of high energy
movements through a large volume beyond the base of
3.2.19 risk: A combination of the probability of injury
robots. The pattern and initiation of movement of the robot
occurring and the degree of the injury.
arm are difficult to predict and can vary because of variables
in product and environmental conditions.
3.2.20 robot system: A robot system includes:
- the robot (hardware and software) consisting of the
Some maintenance and programming personnel are at times
manipulator whether mobile or not, power supply, and
required to be within the restricted space while power is
control system;
available to the machine actuators. The restricted space of
- the end effector(
the robot can overlap a portion of the restricted space of
- any equipment, devices, or sensors required for the
other robots or work zones of other industrial machines and
robot to perform its tasks;
related equipment. This can give rise to hazards of impact,
- any communication interface that is operating and
trapping, or flying objects released by the gripper.
monitoring the robot, equipment, or sensors, as far as
these peripheral devices are supervised by the robot
The type of robot, its application, and its relationship to other
control system.
industrial machines and related equipment will influence the
[ ISO/TR 8373:1988, 2.61
design and the selection of the safeguarding methods.
These need to be suitable for the work being done and permit,
3.2.21 safe working procedure: A specified
where necessary, teach programming, setting, maintenance,
procedure intended to reduce the possibility of injury while
program verification, and trouble shooting operations to be
performing an assigned task.
carried out safely. Many installations will require close
approach for such work.
3.2.22 safeguard: A guard or device designated to
protect persons from a hazardous point or area.
The chosen methods should be appropriate for the hazards
associated with the robot installation. Before designing or
3.2.23 safeguarded space: The space determined
selecting appropriate safeguarding methods, it will be
by the safeguards (see figure 1).
necessary to identify the hazards and to assess the
associated risks.
NOTE: The safeguarded space includes the restricted space.
Technical measures for the preventi Ion of accidents are
based upon two fundamental principles:
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SIST EN 775:1998
IS0 10218:1992(E)
4) application and use;
- the absence of persons in the safeguarded space
5) programming and program verification;
during automatic operation;
6) set-up including work handling/holding and tool-
- the elimination of hazards or at least their reduction
ing;
during interventions (e.g. teaching, program
7) trouble shooting and maintenance;
verification) in the safeguarded space.
8) safe working procedures; .
moving, handling, or replacing of the robot system or
The observance of these principles involves several actions: 0
associated components.
- the creation of a safeguarded space and a restricted
space;
Risk assessment
- a design of the robot system such as to allow the maxi- 4.2.2
mum number of tasks to be performed from outside the
The size, capacity, and speed of robots vary greatly. in ad-
safeguarded space;
dition, there are many different potential applications for
- provision of compensatory means of safety in case of

interventions within the safeguarded space. robots. Consequently, there will be different hazards and dif-

ferent levels of risk. The risks during the installation, pro-
gramming, operation, use, trouble shooting, and maintenance
4.2 Safety analysis
of the robot system shall be assessed.
To carry out a safety analysis, it is necessary to
Particular attention should be paid to the need for close ap-
- define the required tasks for the foreseeable appli-
proach to the robot when power is available at the machine
cations including an evaluation of the need for access
actuators. The need for close approach is recognized in
or close approach,
some exceptional circumstances and shall be provided for in
- Identify the sources of hazards including the fault and
the design and application of appropriate safeguards.
failure modes associated with each task (see 4.2.1),
Attention should be paid to the fact that the final position of
- evaluate and assess the risks (see 4.2.2),
the robot after an emergency stop cannot be adequately de-
- consider safety strategies which minimize the risks to
termined owing to the kinetic energy involved.
an acceptable level (see 4.2.3),
- select the safeguarding methods consistent with the

required task and the acceptable level of risks (see 4.2.3 Safety strategy for selection of safety

measures
7.3, 7.4, and 7.5), and
- assess the achieved levels of safety integrity for the
Safety measures are a combination of the measures incor-
safety and ensure that these levels are acceptable
porated at the design stage and those measures required to
(see 4.2.3).
be implemented by the user.
4.2.1 Sources of hazards
The design and development of the robot system shall be the
first consideration while still maintaining an acceptable level
Hazards can arise from the robot system itself, from its as-
of performance. Where this is not possible, safeguarding
sociation with other equipment, or from interaction of persons
shall be considered in such a manner that the flexibility of the
with the robot system. Examples of sources of hazards are
robot system in its application is retained. Safeguarding in-
(but are not limited to)
cludes the use of safeguards, awareness means, and safe
a) failures or faults of
working procedures (see 7.3, 7.4, and 7.5).
1) protective means (e.g. devices, circuits, com-
ponents) including removal or disassembly;
2) power sources or means of distribution;
3) control circuits, devices, or components;
5 General design requirements
b) moving mechanical components causing trapping or
crushing
5.1 Failure to safety
1) individually (by themselves);
2) in conjunction with other parts of the robot system
The robot system shall be designed, constructed, and
or other equipment in the work area;
implemented so that in case of a foreseeable failure of any
c) stored energy
single component, whether electrical, electronic, mechanical,
1) in moving parts;
pneumatic, or hydraulic, safety functions are not affected or
2) in electrical or fluidic power components;
when they are, the robot system is left in a safe condition.
d) power sources
Safety functions include but are not limited to
1) electrical;
- limiting range of motion,
2) hydraulic;
- emergency and safety stopping,
3) pneumatic;
- reduced speed, and
e) hazardous atmospheres, materials, or conditions:
- safeguard interlocking.
1) explosive or combustible;
2) corrosive or aggressive;
The requirements of IEC 204-I regarding control functions in
3) rad ioact ive;
case of failure shall apply.
4) extreme high or low temperature;
f) noise (acoustical);
5.2 Electrical equipment
g) interferences:
1) electromagnetic, electrostatic, radio frequencies;
The application of th e electrical equipm
ent of the robot and
2) vibration, shock;
robot system shall be in accordance with IEC 204-I
h) human errors in
1) design, development, and construction including
5.3 Power supply
ergonomic considerations;
2) installation and commissioning including access,
The power supply and grounding (protective earth) require-
lighting, and noise;
ments shall be in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifi-
3) functional testing;
cations.
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SIST EN 775:1998
ISQ 10218:1992(E)
Access shall not be required during operation of the robot.
5.4 Isolation of power sources
Removal of the fixed covers and enclosures shall require the
use of a tool.
Each robot system shall have means to isolate each of its
power sources. These means shall be located in such a way
6.3.4 Transportation
that no person will be exposed to hazards and they shall have
a lockoutltagout capability. (For requirements of electrical
For the purposes of transportation, hooks, eye-bolts, etc.
supply disconnecting devices, see IEC 204-l .)
shall be provided when required. They shall be located so
that if they are used properly, unintended movement during
transportation is prevented. The shipping weight should also
6 Design and construction of the robot
be marked on the robot.
6.1 General
6.3.5 Mounting provisions
The robot manufacturer shall design and construct robots in
Means shall be provided for securely mounting the robot to
accordance with the principles described in this clause and
provide stable operation during all designed operating
clause 5.
conditions.
6.2 Ergonomic aspects
Control aspects
6.4
Application of ergonomic measures and data contributes to

improvement of the safety level by making task completion 6.4.1 Panel arrangement

easier and by decreasing the number of human errors during
Actuating control devices shall be arranged, identified, and
interventions (e.g. repairing, maintenance, checking, pro-
protected against unintended or accidental operation in
gramming, operating). The following requirements apply.
accordance with IEC 204-l.
- Design of robot elements, on which human intervention
is intended, shall take into account human character-
6.4.2 Emergency stop
istics such as size, posture, strength, and movements
(see IS0 6385).

- Human-machine interfaces (including operating and Manually operated emergency stop devices shall be in

programming devices, signalling units such as
accordance with IEC 204-l. Each robot shall have provisions

portable control devices, control panels, computer to connect external emergency stop devices, safeguards, or

interlocks to the emergency stop circuit.
terminals, and software-driven features from appli-
cation programs) shall be designed and arranged to

minimize difficulty for the individual user. It shall be necessary to reset manually the emergency stop

Pertinent information shall be provided such as clearly circuit before any robot motion may be initiated. The

indicating robot working modes and displaying the
resetting of the emergency stop circuit by itself shall not

reason for unprogrammed robot stops. initiate any motion. Where an emergency stop or power fault

causes the loss of critical logic or memory states, a reset
6.3 Mechanical aspects sequence of the logic or memory shall be necessary before
operation may be initiated.
6.3.1 General
6.4.3 Safety stop
Whenever practicable, hazards arising from the moving parts

of the robot shall be eliminated in the initial design. If they When a safety stop circuit is provided, each robot shall have

cannot be eliminated, then suitable safeguards shall be in- provisions to connect safeguards and interlocks to this

corporated as part of the design, and if this is not practicable, circuit. It shall be necessary to reset the power to the

provision shall be made for safeguards to be incorporated at machine actuators before any robot motion may be initiated.

a later stage. The resetting of the power to the machine actuators by itself
shall not initiate any operation (see IEC 204-l: -, 9.2.2,
category 1).
6.3.2 Limitation of range of motion

The design of the robot shall not prevent the provisions of 6.4.4 Electrical connectors

means for limiting the range of motion of the primary axes.

When a method of limiting the range of motion is required by Electrical connectors used on robots which can cause

the designed use, it shall comply with one of the following. hazardous motion when mismatched shall be keyed or

- Mechanical stops may be provided. These should be labelled. Electrical connectors which could cause hazardous

adjustable and shall be capable of stopping the robot motion of the robot if they are separated or if they break away

at any adjusted position when it is carrying its rated shall be designed and constructed so as to guard against

load at maximum velocity. unintended separation.
- Alternative methods of limiting the range of motion may
be provided only if they are designed, constructed,
6.4.5 Pendant
and installed to achieve the same level of safety as
the mechanical stops. This may include using the
When a pendant is provided, the following design
robot controller and limit switches according to IEC
requirements shall apply.
204-l.
a) The pendant shall be designed in accordance with
known ergonomic principles (see 6.2) so that it can be
6.3.3 Covers and enclosures
reliably used while it is being carried.
b) As long as the pendant is being used in the
Electrical, hydr ‘aulic, etc. equipment which constitute a haz-
safeguarded space, it shall not be possible to switch

ard shall be provided with fixed cove rs or enclosures. the robot to automatic operation.

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SIST EN 775:1998
IS0 10218:1992(E)
sources will not result in
restoration or vari ation in the power
c) The pendant shall have an emergency stop device.
of the robot.
d) A pendant intended to initiate robot motion by hazardous motion
personnel who are within the safeguarded space shall
be provided with hold-to-run control device(s). 6.8 Stored energy
e) The robot control shall be designed so that when the

robot is placed under pendant control, all robot motion Means shall be provided for the controlled release of stored

shall only be initiated from the pendant. energy. This energy source may be in the form of (but is not

f) All motion of the robot that is initiated from the pendant limited to) fluid pressure accumulators, capacitors, springs,

shall be at no greater than the reduced speed. What counter balances, and flywheels. An appropriate label shall

constitutes an acceptable reduced speed will depend
be affixed to each stored energy source.
on the forces exerted by the robot and the use of the
robot (e.g. layout of installation). The reduced speed
6.9 Interference(s)
should not exceed 250 mm/s as measured at the
mechanical interface.
The design and construction of the robot shall incorporate
good engineering practices to minimize the effects of

Exceptions to f): When a speed greater than the reduced interference(s) which can affect safety. These can include

speed is required (e.g. for verification of a task program), it electromagnetic interference (EMI), electrostatic discharge

shall require a deliberate action by the operator (e.g. with a (ESD), radio frequency interference (RFI), heat, light,

key switch) to select this method of operation. Robot vibration, etc.
motion shall only be initiated by the use of hold-to-run
NOTE: The provisions for interference requirements and testing are
control device(s) and an enabling device while personnel is
found in IEC 204-l.
inside the safeguarded space (see 6.4.6).
6.10 Facilities for selection of operating
6.4.6 Enabling device .
conditions
When an enabling device is provided as part of the robot
Facilities shall be provided to ensure unambiguous selection
system, it shall be designed to allow robot motion or other
These facilities shall also indicate
of operating conditions.
functions in one position only. In any other position,
the selected, operating condition. The selection of different
hazardous motion or functions shall be stopped safely.
operating conditions shall not in itself cause robot motion or
Operation of the device by itself shall not initiate hazardous
start other functions.
motion or functions.

When an enabling device is required (e.g. for robot motion at When the protection of safeguards is suspended by the

selection of the operating condition (e.g. for set-up, teaching,
a speed greater than reduced speed), it shall be connected to
program verification), this should only be possible when the
the safety stop or another stop circuit with an equivalent level
of safety. facilities for selecting the operating conditions are secured
(e.g. key selection). Automatic (normal) operation shall be
prevented during suspension of the safeguards and robot
The enabling device may be deactivated by design when
motion shall be at reduced speed [see 6.4.5 f) for exception].
either
- there are no persons within the safeguarded space, or

- the robot motion is not greater than the reduced 6.11 Requirements for documentation

speed.
for documentation supplied by the
For requirements

The enabling device may be part of the pendant or may be a manufacturer, see 10. 1.

separate device.
6.5 Provisions for robots with arm-moving
7 Design and safeguarding of the robot
programming
system
For robots which are programmed by manually leading the
7.1 General
arm, provisions shall be made to switch the power off safely
during programming and counterbalanc
...

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