Manipulating industrial robots - Vocabulary (ISO/DIS 8373:2010)

2010-09-08 EMA: // ENQ draft provided to ISO/CS according to notification received in dataservice on 2010-09-07.

Roboter und Robotikgeräte - Wörterbuch (ISO/DIS 8373:2010)

Diese Internationale Norm legt Begriffe fest, die für in industriellen und nicht industriellen Umgebungen
eingesetzte Roboter und Robotikgeräte maßgeblich sind.

Robots manipulateurs industriels - Vocabulaire (ISO/DIS 8373:2010)

Manipulirni industrijski roboti - Slovar (ISO/DIS 8373:2010)

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Publication Date
17-Sep-2012
Current Stage
4098 - Decision to abandon - Enquiry
Start Date
06-Mar-2012
Completion Date
06-Mar-2012

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN ISO 8373:2011
01-februar-2011
Manipulirni industrijski roboti - Slovar (ISO/DIS 8373:2010)
Manipulating industrial robots - Vocabulary (ISO/DIS 8373:2010)
Robots manipulateurs industriels - Vocabulaire (ISO/DIS 8373:2010)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN ISO 8373
ICS:
01.040.25 Izdelavna tehnika (Slovarji) Manufacturing engineering
(Vocabularies)
25.040.30 Industrijski roboti. Industrial robots.
Manipulatorji Manipulators
oSIST prEN ISO 8373:2011 en
2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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oSIST prEN ISO 8373:2011

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oSIST prEN ISO 8373:2011


EUROPEAN STANDARD
DRAFT
prEN ISO 8373
NORME EUROPÉENNE

EUROPÄISCHE NORM

December 2010
ICS 01.040.25; 25.040.30 Will supersede EN ISO 8373:1996
English Version
Manipulating industrial robots - Vocabulary (ISO/DIS 8373:2010)
Robots manipulateurs industriels - Vocabulaire (ISO/DIS
8373:2010)
This draft European Standard is submitted to CEN members for parallel enquiry. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee
CEN/TC 310.

If this draft becomes a European Standard, CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which
stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

This draft European Standard was established by CEN in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language
made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management
Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,
Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland,
Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are aware and to
provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a European Standard. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without notice and
shall not be referred to as a European Standard.


EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION

EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG

Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels
© 2010 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. prEN ISO 8373:2010: E
worldwide for CEN national Members.

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oSIST prEN ISO 8373:2011
prEN ISO 8373:2010 (E)
Contents Page
Foreword .3

2

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oSIST prEN ISO 8373:2011
prEN ISO 8373:2010 (E)
Foreword
This document (prEN ISO 8373:2010) has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 93 "Starch
(including derivatives and by-products)" in collaboration with Technical Committee CEN/TC 310 “Advanced
automation technologies and their applications” the secretariat of which is held by BSI.
This document is currently submitted to the parallel Enquiry.
This document will supersede EN ISO 8373:1996.
Endorsement notice
The text of ISO/DIS 8373:2010 has been approved by CEN as a prEN ISO 8373:2010 without any
modification.

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DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/DIS 8373
ISO/TC 184/SC 2 Secretariat: SIS
Voting begins on Voting terminates on

2010-12-09 2011-05-09
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION  •  МЕЖДУНАРОДНАЯ ОРГАНИЗАЦИЯ ПО СТАНДАРТИЗАЦИИ  •  ORGANISATION INTERNATIONALE DE NORMALISATION


Manipulating industrial robots — Vocabulary
Robots manipulateurs industriels — Vocabulaire
(Revision of first edition ISO 8373:1994, of ISO 8373:1994/Cor.1:1996 and of ISO 8373:1994/Amd.1:1996)
ICS 01.040.25; 25.040.30














To expedite distribution, this document is circulated as received from the committee
secretariat. ISO Central Secretariat work of editing and text composition will be undertaken at
publication stage.
Pour accélérer la distribution, le présent document est distribué tel qu'il est parvenu du
secrétariat du comité. Le travail de rédaction et de composition de texte sera effectué au
Secrétariat central de l'ISO au stade de publication.



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RECIPIENTS OF THIS DRAFT ARE INVITED TO SUBMIT, WITH THEIR COMMENTS, NOTIFICATION OF ANY RELEVANT PATENT RIGHTS OF WHICH
THEY ARE AWARE AND TO PROVIDE SUPPORTING DOCUMENTATION.
©  International Organization for Standardization, 2010

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ISO/DIS 8373
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ii © ISO 2010 – All rights reserved

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Contents Page
Foreword .iv
Introduction.v
1 Scope.1
2 General terms .1
3 Mechanical structure.4
4 Geometry and kinematics.7
5 Programming and control.10
6 Performance.13
7 Sensing and autonomy.16
Annex A (informative) Examples of types of mechanical structure .18
Bibliography.21
Alphabetic Index.22

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Foreword
ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies
(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISO
technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has been
established has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental and
non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the
International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.
International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.
The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standards
adopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as an
International Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.
Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent
rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.
ISO 8373 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 184, Automation systems and integration,
Subcommittee SC 2, Robots and robotic devices.
This second edition replaces ISO 8373:1994, and it has been revised and expanded to include both industrial
robot and service robot.
Annex A of this International Standard is for information only.
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Introduction
This document deals with vocabulary for robots (as defined in 2.6) operating in both industrial and non-
industrial environments. It is not a dictionary but rather a list of terms most commonly used. These terms are
briefly defined or explained. They are grouped into clauses by main topics of robotics.
ISO 8373 is one of a series of International Standards dealing with robots and robotic devices.
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DRAFT INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO/DIS 8373

Robots and robotic devices — Vocabulary
1 Scope
This International Standard defines terms relevant to robots and robotic devices operated in industrial and
non-industrial environments.
2 General terms
2.1
manipulator
machine, the mechanism of which usually consists of a series of segments jointed or sliding relative to one
another, for the purpose of grasping and/or moving objects (pieces or tools) usually in several degrees of
freedom (4.4)
NOTE 1 It may be controlled by an operator (2.16), a programmable electronic controller, or any logic system (for
example cam device, wired).
NOTE 2 It does not include an end effector (3.11).
2.2
autonomy
ability to control movement and communication to perform intended tasks without human intervention
2.3
physical alteration
alteration of the mechanical system
NOTE Does not include storage media, ROMs, etc.
2.4
reprogrammable
designed so that the programmed motions or auxiliary functions may be changed without physical alteration
(2.3)
2.5
multipurpose
capable of being adapted to a different application with physical alteration (2.3)
2.6
robot
actuated mechanism programmable in more than one axis (4.3) with a degree of autonomy (2.2), moving
within its environment, to perform intended tasks
NOTE It includes the control system (2.7) and communication interface.
EXAMPLE Examples of robot include industrial robot (2.9) and service robot (2.10).
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2.7
control system
set of logic control and power functions which allows to monitor and control the mechanical structure of the
robot (2.6) and to communicate with the environment (equipment and users)
2.8
robotic device
actuated mechanism fulfilling the characteristics of industrial robot (2.9) or service robot (2.10), but lacking
either number of programmable axes (4.3) or the degree of autonomy (2.2)
EXAMPLE Examples include power assist device, tele-operated device, and two-axis industrial manipulator (2.1).
2.9
industrial robot
manipulating industrial robot
automatically controlled, reprogrammable (2.4), multipurpose (2.5) manipulator (2.1), programmable in
three or more axes (4.3), which may be either fixed in place or mobile for use in industrial automation
applications
NOTE 1 It includes:
⎯ the manipulator (2.1) including actuators (3.1)
⎯ the controller including teach pendant (5.8), and any communication interface (hardware and software).
NOTE 2 This includes any additional axes which are controlled by the robot controller.
2.10
service robot
robot (2.6) that performs useful tasks for humans, society or equipment excluding industrial automation
applications
NOTE 1 The distinguishing factor between industrial robot (2.9) and service robot (2.10) is the task and intention of
the action.
NOTE 2 Industrial automation applications include, but are not limited to, manufacturing, inspection, packaging, and
assembly.
EXAMPLE While painting robots used to paint automobiles on production lines are industrial robots (2.9), painting
robots used to paint structural walls are service robots (2.10).
2.11
personal service robot
service robot for personal use
service robot (2.10) used for a non-commercial task, usually by a member of the general public
EXAMPLE Examples include domestic servant robot, automated wheelchair, personal mobility assist robot, robotic
device (2.8) that can lift and carry a person in the bathroom, and pet exercising robot
2.12
professional service robot
service robot for professional use
service robot (2.10) used for a commercial task, usually by properly trained operator (2.16)
EXAMPLE Examples include cleaning robot for public places, delivery robot in offices or hospitals, fire-fighting robot,
rehabilitation robot and surgery robot in hospitals.
2.13
mobile robot
robot (2.6) able to travel under its own control
NOTE It can be a mobile platform (3.18) with or without manipulators (2.1).
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2.14
industrial robot system
system comprising:
⎯ industrial robot(s) (2.9);
⎯ end-effector(s) (3.11);
⎯ any machinery, equipment, devices, or sensors supporting the robot performing its task
2.15
robotics
practice of designing, building, and applying robots (2.6)
2.16
operator
person designated to start, monitor, and stop the intended operation of a robot (2.6) or robot system
2.17
programmer
person designated to prepare the task program (5.1.1)
NOTE Different ways of programming are defined in 5.2.
2.18
installation
operation consisting of setting the robot (2.6) on its site, connecting it to its power supply and adding
infrastructure components where necessary
2.19
commissioning
process of setting up, checking of the industrial robot system (2.14) and the verification of the robot
functions following installation (2.18).
2.20
recipient
beneficiary
person who interacts with service robot (2.10) to receive the usefulness of its service
NOTE This is defined in order to distinguish recipient from operator (2.16).
EXAMPLE Example includes a patient receiving care from a medical robot.
2.21
collaboration
work done by robot(s) (2.6) and human(s) together to fulfil a task
2.22
collaborative robot
robot (2.6) designed for direct interaction with a human
2.23
intelligent robot
robot (2.6) capable of performing tasks by sensing its environment and adapting its behaviour
EXAMPLE Examples include industrial robot (2.9) with vision sensor to pick and place an object, mobile robot
(2.13) with collision avoidance, and legged robot (3.16.2) walking over uneven terrain.
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2.24
robot cooperation
interaction between multiple robots (2.6) to ensure that their motions are effective together for the task
2.25
human robot interaction
HRI
information and action exchanges between human and robot (2.6) to perform a task
EXAMPLE It includes exchanges through vocal, visual, and tactile means
3 Mechanical structure
3.1
actuator
robot actuator
machine actuator
power mechanism used to effect motion of the robot (2.6)
EXAMPLE A motor which converts electrical, hydraulic, or pneumatic energy to effect motion of the robot.
3.2
robotic arm
arm
primary axes
interconnected set of links (3.6) and powered joints of manipulator (2.1) comprising links of longitudinal
shape which positions the wrist (3.3)
3.3
robotic wrist
wrist
secondary axes
interconnected set of links (3.6) and powered joints of manipulator (2.1) between the arm (3.2) and end
effector (3.11) which supports, positions and orients the end effector (3.11)
3.4
robotic leg
leg
link (3.6) mechanism which is actuated to support and propel the mobile robot (2.13) by making
reciprocating motion and intermittent contact with the travel surface (7.13)
3.5
configuration
displacement values of all joints that completely determine the shape of the robot (2.6) at any time
3.6
link
rigid body which maintains a fixed relationship between joints
3.7 Joints

3.7.1
prismatic joint
sliding joint
assembly between two links (3.6) enabling one to have a linear motion relative to the other
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3.7.2
rotary joint
revolute joint
assembly connecting two links (3.6) which enables one to rotate relative to the other about a fixed axis
3.7.3
cylindrical joint
assembly between two links (3.6) which enables one to translate and rotate relative to the other about an axis
linked to the translation
3.7.4
spherical joint
assembly between two links (3.6) which enables one to pivot relative to the other about a fixed point in three
degrees of freedom (4.4)
3.8
base
structure to which the origin of the first link (3.6) of the manipulator (2.1) is attached
3.9
base mounting surface
connection surface between the arm (3.2) and its supporting structure
3.10
mechanical interface
mounting surface at the end of the manipulator (2.1) to which the end effector (3.11) is attached
NOTE Refer to ISO 9409-1 and 9409-2.
3.11
end effector
device specifically designed for attachment to the mechanical interface (3.10) to enable the robot (2.6) to
perform its task
EXAMPLES - Gripper, nutrunner, welding gun, spray gun.
3.12
end effector coupling device
plate or shaft at the end of the wrist (3.3) and locking devices or additional parts securing the end effector
(3.11) to the end of the wrist (3.3)
3.13
automatic end effector exchange system
coupling device between the mechanical interface (3.10) and the end effector (3.11) enabling automatic
exchange of end effectors (3.11)
NOTE Refer to ISO 11593.
3.14
gripper
end effector (3.1 I) designed for seizing and holding
3.15 Types of mechanical structure of robot

3.15.1
rectangular robot
cartesian robot
robotic arm (3.2) which has three prismatic joints (3.7.1), whose axes (4.3) are coincident with a Cartesian
coordinate system
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EXAMPLE Gantry robot (see figure A.1)
3.15.2
cylindrical robot
robotic arm (3.2) which has at least one rotary (3.7.2) and at least one prismatic joint (3.7.1) and whose
axes form a cylindrical coordinate system
NOTE See figure A.2.
3.15.3
polar robot
spherical robot
robotic arm (3.2) which has two rotary joints (3.7.2) and one prismatic joint (3.7.1) and whose axes form a
polar coordinate system
NOTE See figure A.3.
3.15.4
pendular robot
polar robot (3.15.3) whose mechanical structure includes a universal joint pivoting subassembly
NOTE See figure A.4.
3.15.5
articulated robot
robotic arm (3.2) which has three rotary joints (3.7.2)
NOTE See figure A.5.
3.15.6
SCARA robot
robotic arm (3.2) which has two parallel rotary joints (3.7.2) to provide compliance (5.3.9) in a selected
plane
NOTE SCARA derives from Selectively Compliant Arm for Robotic Assembly.
3.15.7
spine robot
robotic arm (3.2) which is made up of two or more spherical joints (3.7.4)
3.15.8
parallel robot
parallel link robot
robotic arm (3.2) with links (3.2) which form closed loop structures
EXAMPLE Examples include Stewart platform
3.16 Types of mechanical structure of mobile robot

3.16.1
wheeled robot
mobile robot (2.13) that travels using wheels
NOTE See figure A.6.

3.16.2
legged robot
mobile robot (2.13) that travels using one or more legs (3.4)
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NOTE See figure A.7.
3.16.3
biped robot
legged robot (3.16.2) that travels with two legs (3.4)
NOTE See figure A.8.
3.16.4
crawler robot
tracked robot
mobile robot (2.13) that travels on crawlers/tracks
NOTE See figure A.9.
3.17
humanoid robot
robot (2.6) with body, head, and limbs looking and moving like a human

3.18
mobile platform
assembly of all components of the mobile robot (2.13) which enables locomotion
NOTE 1 It may include chassis which can be used to support load (6.2.1).
NOTE 2 One of the components of the platform can be used to define the mobile platform coordinate system (4.7.6).
NOTE 3 The alternative term of “mobile base” is not used in this clause, to avoid confusion with the term of “base”(3.8).
3.19
omni-directional mobile mechanism
mechanism which enables instantaneous travel of mobile robot (2.13) in any direction
3.20
automated guided vehicle
AGV
mobile platform (3.18) following predetermined path (4.5.4) indicated by markers or external guidance
commands, typically in the factory
4 Geometry and kinematics
4.1
forward kinematics
mathematical determination of the relationship between the coordinate system of two parts of a mechanical
linkage, based on the joint values of this linkage
NOTE For a manipulator, it is usually the relationship between the tool coordinate system (4.7.5) and the base
coordinate system (4.7.2) that is determined.
4.2
inverse kinematics
mathematical determination of the joint values of a mechanical linkage, based on the relationship of the
coordinate systems of two parts of this linkage
NOTE For a manipulator, it is usually the relationship between the tool coordinate system (4.7.5) and the base
coordinate system (4.7.2) that is used to determine the joint values.
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4.3
axis
direction used to specify the robot (2.6) motion in a linear or rotary mode
NOTE Axis is also used with the meaning of robot mechanical joint.
4.4
degree of freedom
DOF
one of the variables (maximum number of six) required to define the motion of a body in space
NOTE Because of possible confusion with axes (4.3) it is advised not to use the term “degree of freedom” for
describing the motion of the robot.
4.5
pose
combination of position and orientation in space
NOTE 1 Pose for manipulator (2.1) normally refers to the position and orientation of end effector (3.11) or
mechanical interface (3.10).
NOTE 2 Pose for mobile robot (2.13) could include set of poses of mobile platform (3.18) and any manipulator (2.1)
attached to the mobile platform (3.18), with respect to the world coordinate system (4.7.1).
4.5.1
command pose
programmed pose
pose (4.5) specified by the task program (5.1.1)
4.5.2
attained pose
pose (4.5) achieved the command pose by the robot (2.6) in response to the command pose (4.5.1)
4.5.3
alignment pose
specified pose (4.5) used to establish a geometrical reference for the robot (2.6)
4.5.4
path
ordered set of poses (4.5)
4.6
trajectory
path (4.5.4) in time
4.7 Coordinate systems
See ISO 9787:1990, Manipulating industrial robots - Coordinate systems and motions.
4.7.1
world coordinate system
stationary coordinate system referenced to earth which is independent of the robot (2.6) motion
4.7.2
base coordinate system
coordinate system referenced to the base mounting surface (3.9)
4.7.3
mechanical interface coordinate system
coordinate system referenced to the mechanical interface (3.10)
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4.7.4
joint coordinate system
coordinate system referenced to the joint axes, the joint coordinates of which are defined relative to the
preceding joint coordinates or to some other coordinate system
4.7.5
tool coordinate system
TCS
coordinate system referenced to the tool or to the end effector (3.11) attached to the mechanical interface
(3.10)
4.7.6
mobile platform coordinate system
coordinate system referenced to one of the components of a mobile platform (3.18)
NOTE Typical mobile platform coordinate system for mobile robot (2.13) takes positive X as the forward direction,
and positive Z as upward direction and positive Y is decided by right hand rule.
4.8 Spaces

4.8.1
maximum space
space which can be swept by the moving parts of the robotic arm (3.2) as defined by the manufacturer plus
the space which can be swept by the end effector (3.11) and the workpiece
4.8.2
restricted space
portion of the maximum space (4.8.1) restricted by limiting devices that establish limits which will not be
exceeded
4.8.3
operational space
operating space
portion of the restricted space (4.8.2) that is actually used while performing all motions commanded by the
task program (5.1.1)
4.8.4
working space
space which can be swept by the wrist reference point (4.10) added by the range of rotation or translation of
each joint in the wrist (3.3)
NOTE The working space is smaller than the space which can be swept by all the moving parts of the manipulator
(2.1).
4.9
tool centre point
TCP
point defined for a given application with regard to the mechanical interface coordinate system (4.7.3)
4.10
wrist reference point
wrist center point
wrist origin
intersection point of the two innermost secondary axes (3.3) (i.e. those closest to the primary axes), or, if this
does not exist, a specified point on the innermost secondary axis
4.11
mobile platform origin
mobile platform reference point
origin point of the mobile platform coordinate system (4.7.6)
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4.12
coordinate transformation
process of changing the coordinates of a pose (4.5) from one coordinate system (4.7) to another
4.13
singularity
configuration (3.5) where infinitesimal Cartesian velocity with a certain direction either at the mechanical
interface (3.10) or at the tool center point (4.9) requires infinite velocity at a set of robot joint axes (4.3)
NOTE Motions defined in Cartesian space that pass near singularities can produce high axis speeds. These high
speeds can be unexpected to an operator (2.16).
5 Programming and control
5.1 Programs

5.1.1
task program
set of instructions for motion and auxiliary functions that define the specific intended task of the robot (2.21)
or robot system
NOTE 1 This type of program is usually generated after the installation of the robot and may be modified by a trained
person under defined conditions.
NOTE 2 An application is a general area of work; a task is specific within the application.
5.1.2
control program
inherent set of control instructions which d
...

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