Public passenger transport - Basic requirements and recommendations for systems that measure delivered service quality

This document provides basic requirements and recommendations for systems that measure delivered service quality of public passenger transport to be applied in the framework of EN 13816.
The requirements and recommendations specified in this document apply both to third party measurements and measurements conducted by the service provider.

Öffentlicher Personennahverkehr - Grundlegende Anforderungen und Empfehlungen für Systeme zur Messung der erbrachten Dienstleistungsqualität

Dieses Dokument enthält grundlegende Anforderungen und Empfehlungen für Systeme zur Messung der im öffentlichen Personenverkehr erbrachten Dienstleistungsqualität, wie sie im Rahmen der EN 13816 anzu-wenden sind.
Die in diesem Dokument festgelegten Anforderungen und Empfehlungen gelten sowohl für Messungen durch Dritte als auch für Messungen, die vom Leistungserbringer selbst durchgeführt werden.

Transport public de voyageurs - Exigences fondamentales et recommandations pour les systèmes de mesure de la qualité réalisée

Le présent document fournit des exigences et des recommandations fondamentales pour les systèmes de
mesure de la qualité réalisée des services de transport public de voyageurs à appliquer dans le cadre de
l'EN 13816.
Les exigences et recommandations spécifiées dans le présent document s'appliquent tant aux mesures
effectuées par des tierces parties qu’à celles conduites par le prestataire du service.

Javni prevoz potnikov – Osnovne zahteve in priporočila za sisteme vrednotenja kakovosti izvedenih storitev

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Status
Published
Publication Date
25-Apr-2006
Current Stage
9093 - Decision to confirm - Review Enquiry
Completion Date
07-May-2019

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2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Public passenger transport - Basic requirements and recommendations for systems that measure delivered service qualityTransport public de voyageurs - Exigences fondamentales et recommandations pour les systemes de mesure de la qualité réaliséeÖffentlicher Personennahverkehr - Grundlegende Anforderungen und Empfehlungen für Systeme zur Messung der erbrachten DienstleistungsqualitätTa slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 15140:2006SIST EN 15140:2006en03.220.01Transport na splošnoTransport in generalICS:SLOVENSKI

STANDARDSIST EN 15140:200601-oktober-2006

EUROPEAN STANDARDNORME EUROPÉENNEEUROPÄISCHE NORMEN 15140April 2006ICS 03.220.01 English VersionPublic passenger transport - Basic requirements andrecommendations for systems that measure delivered servicequalityTransport public de voyageurs - Exigences fondamentaleset recommandations pour les systèmes de mesure de laqualité réaliséeÖffentlicher Personennahverkehr - GrundlegendeAnforderungen und Empfehlungen für Systeme zurMessung der erbrachten DienstleistungsqualitätThis European Standard was approved by CEN on 16 March 2006.CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this EuropeanStandard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such nationalstandards may be obtained on application to the Central Secretariat or to any CEN member.This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translationunder the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the officialversions.CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania,Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATIONCOMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATIONEUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNGManagement Centre: rue de Stassart, 36

B-1050 Brussels© 2006 CENAll rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reservedworldwide for CEN national Members.Ref. No. EN 15140:2006: E

EN 15140:2006 (E) 2 Contents Page Foreword..........................................................................................................................................................3 Introduction......................................................................................................................................................4 1 Scope...................................................................................................................................................5 2 Normative references.........................................................................................................................5 3 Terms and definitions.........................................................................................................................5 4 Requirements......................................................................................................................................6 5 Recommendations..............................................................................................................................7 Annex A (informative)

Examples.................................................................................................................10

EN 15140:2006 (E) 3 Foreword This European Standard (EN 15140:2006) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 320 “Transport – Logistics and services”, the secretariat of which is held by DS. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by October 2006, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by October 2006. According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

EN 15140:2006 (E) 4 Introduction In accordance with EN 13816, measurement of delivered service quality is part of the service quality loop, where the selection of quality criteria and appropriate measures may both reflect and determine targeted quality. Measurement is a valuable management and motivational tool provided it leads to improvement actions. The validity of the measurement is affected both by design and conduct. This document is intended to help construct the measurement system and to help understand and reduce the causes of bias that any system of measurement may introduce.

EN 15140:2006 (E) 5 1 Scope This document provides basic requirements and recommendations for systems that measure delivered service quality of public passenger transport to be applied in the framework of EN 13816. The requirements and recommendations specified in this document apply both to third party measurements and measurements conducted by the service provider. 2 Normative references The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. EN 13816:2002, Transportation – Logistics and services – Public passenger transport – Service quality definition, targeting and measurement. 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this European Standard, the terms and definitions given in EN 13816:2002 and the following apply. 3.1 continuous measurement collection of data that takes place all year round 3.2 grid table used for collecting data and evaluating the various items composing a quality criterion 3.3 indicator quantitative expression of a quality criterion resulting from a measurement process 3.4 item measured component of complex quality criterion 3.5 measurement process set of operations to determine the value of a measured quality criterion 3.6 quality criterion representation of the customer view of the service provided, as stated in EN 13816:2002 subclause 3.2 3.7 surveyor person collecting data

EN 15140:2006 (E) 6

Figure 1 — Diagram illustrating the relationship between the defined terms 4 Requirements 4.1 Requirements applying to all measurement systems 4.1.1 Design of the measurement system Each quality criterion to be measured shall refer to the list of eight categories given in EN 13816. The design of the measurement system shall balance the customers viewpoint and the use of the measurement as a management tool for reaching targeted quality (management viewpoint). Some quality criteria may need to be described more precisely in a grid that lists a number of items. In this case, the items in the grid and their weights shall be designed in accordance with the previous requirement. When it is not possible to control/measure what customers perceive, evidence shall be given that, as far as the customer is concerned, specified procedures have been followed. NOTE e.g. declaration by a driver that he made an announcement to the passengers in a sudden abnormal situation can qualify as evidence. For each measured quality criterion, there shall be a precise definition of what is "in conformity"/"not in conformity". The delivered quality measured shall be recorded either as “in conformity”, or “not in conformity”. As stated in EN 13816:2002 subclause 4.2, the level of achievement shall be expressed, where appropriate, as a ratio of passengers affected. 4.1.2 Conduct of measurement The measurement of the service quality delivered shall be done during operating hours. Updated measurement of the chosen quality criteria shall be consolidated and reported at least once a year.

EN 15140:2006 (E) 7 The organisational arrangements for measurement shall be documented and provisions shall be made for inspection and audit. Changes in the methods and reasons for the changes shall be documented. The data collection and data processing shall be transparent, traceable and verifiable. The item measured shall be recorded as first observed even if immediate corrective action takes place. 4.2 Specific requirements according to the type of measurement 4.2.1 General Measurements can be made by surveyors or by technical means. They can be continuous or by sample (see Table A.1). 4.2.2 Surveyors The profile, selection and training of the surveyors shall be specified. Their briefing process and on-site management shall be specified. 4.2.3 Technical measurements Data collected automatically shall be compared for consistency purposes, at least when the system of data collection is created or modified, with data from other sources of measurement relevant to the same quality criterion. 4.2.4 Continuous measures It shall be verified that the measure takes place without interruptions that would affect the reliability of the results. 4.2.5 Sampling measures The size, choice and frequency of the sampling shall consider statistical rules and shall be documented. It shall be verified that the survey scheme is representative of the type of service in question. 5 Recommendations 5.1 Design of the measurement system When designing a measurement system, it is recommended to look at best practices implemented in comparable situations. A measurement system, even simple, can be considered satisfactory if it leads on-field operations to maintain and to increase customer satisfaction. For benchmarking purposes, the similarities and differences between measurement systems should be taken into account. The selection of quality criteria to be measured should be made in accordance with results of customer’s expectations surveys.

EN 15140:2006 (E) 8 The number of quality criteria to be measured should be big enough to cover the essential ones but limited by the capacity to manage them. During the initial application phase of this standard, it is recommended to start with a few quality criteria only. Once the measuring method has been mastered, the implementation of the standard can be extended to other quality criteria, thus uniformly increasing the measurement parameters for the purposes of continuous improvement. When measuring quality, it is recommended to respect the principles of statistical reliability so as to know if the results and their evolution over time are significant or not. For some quality criteria, targeted quality may vary in different situations. In this case, it is suggested to define different measurement processes and indicators corresponding to these situations and to measure accordingly. The measurement processes and the indicators can refer to any part of the service (e.g. route, route clusters, service points) or be global on the network. If a quality criterion is measured by using a grid, it is recommended to validate the items and their relative weight by means of an enquiry among the customers, and the number of items should be limited to the most important items for the customers. The design of measurement processes depends on the means and equipment used for the measurements. The statement of service standard can be based on customer expectation and/or on the comparison between satisfaction surveys and delivered quality of the existing service. It is recommended to use the ratio of customers as much as possible to express the results, thus allowing the management to give priorities to its actions leading to quality improvement. If the number of customers is not measured, it is recommended to use a justified and appropriate estimation. When quality indicators are used in a contractual relationship between a transport authority and an operator, the measurement processes should be understood and agreed on by the contractual partners. The allocation of responsibility should be clearly defined in the contract. Causes considered as external could be excluded in the expression of the contractual level of achievement. In the case of measurements conducted by surveyors, it is recommended, at least from time to time, to take measurements in the presence of the contractual partners. It should be verified that the evolution of indicators matches customer satisfaction enquiry trends. 5.2 Conduct of measurement The methodology underlying the measurement system should be as stable as possible, so as to allow comparisons (for instance between different periods). When changing the methods of measurement, the results should be predicted and evaluated. In the case of measurement conducted by surveyors, to help them measure as consistently as possible, it is recommended to provide them with guidelines giving examples, if necessary with pictures. It is recommended to audit the measurement system regularly and to audit the data collection and data processing system at least once a year. A balance should be found between the precision required and the costs, since the measurements can be expensive (for instance, size of the samples or measurement of the number of passengers). Costs can be optimised by performing several kinds of measurements at the same time (e.g. a surveyor can measure information and cleanliness at the same time).

EN 15140:2006 (E) 9 Costs can be optimised by using the same measurements to meet several needs (e.g. for management purposes and reporting to authorities). It is recommended to use measurement as a first step to initiate immediate corrective action, especially if an unacceptable performance has been detected.

EN 15140:2006 (E) 10 Annex A (informative)

Examples A.1 General As mentioned in 4.2, there are different types of measurement according to the applied means and the frequency of sampling. In this annex, some examples are documented to illustrate measurement systems in compliance with basic requirements and recommendations of this document. For some selected criteria of EN 13816, features of realized measurement systems are described hereafter. These examples and the numerical values are only given to assist the reader in building his own measurement processes and indicators, which depend on the local situation and the policy followed. A.2 Structure Each example is described using the same structure, which can be used as a guideline in the conception of measurement processes and indicators:  name of the measured quality criterion;  category of the criterion (referring to EN 13816:2002, 3.2);  design:  determination of customer viewpoint: describe how the customer viewpoint is assessed;  management viewpoint: explain how consistency with operational process is ensured;  definition of "in conformity"/"not in conformity": insert grid if existing;  ratio of customers benefiting from the service: explain how the indicator is calculated or estimated;  service standard and level of achievement: give a brief statement;  conduct:  organisational arrangements;  performance data collection: describe how data collection is performed and, if existing, mention detection of unacceptable performance;  evaluation of the number of customers: describe how the number of customers is calculated or estimated;  data processing: describe how data processing is performed and, if existing, mention detection of unacceptable performance;  inspections and audits.

EN 15140:2006 (E) 11 A.3 Examples A.3.1

The following table gives 6 examples, classified according to the types of measurement. Table A.1 — Examples

Continuous Sample Surveyors Availability of buses on the route (A.3.2) Cleanliness in trains (A.3.3) Bus cleanliness (A.3.5) Technical means Phone waiting time at the Customer Contact Center (CCC) (A.3.3) Punctuality of train services (A.3.4) Punctuality of bus services (A.3.7) A.3.2 Example of continuous measurement by surveyors  Name of the measured quality criterion: availability of buses on the route;  category of the criterion (referring to EN 13816:2002, 3.2): 1. Availability. A.3.2.1 Design A.3.2.1.1 Determination of customer viewpoint Even if in most cities the failure of a bus during the journey on a bus route is quite rare, when it does happen it is a very trying experience. The passengers have to leave the bus, and wait either for the next bus or for a new bus sent from the depot. Passengers who where comfortably seated may thus find themselves squeezed among other passengers. A.3.2.1.2 Management viewpoint Preventive maintenance is very important to prevent failures on the bus route. However it is visible only when there are failures and enquiries. This quality criterion is a good means to show the work done by the maintenance services and improve the general bus quality. It also can prevent the maintenance team from using the fact that the bus route passes in front of the depot to change a bus on the route rather than at the terminal stop. A.3.2.1.3 Definition of "in conformity"/"not in conformity" In conformity: no customer has to leave the bus on the route due to a technical failure. Not in conformity: at least one customer has to leave the bus on the route due to a technical failure. A.3.2.1.4 Ratio of customers benefiting from the service The number of passengers concerned when a bus has a failure on the route is calculated according to the commercial capacity of the bus combined with the hour of the failure (at peak hour the bus is considered to be 100 % full, at off peak hours it is supposed to be 40 % full. These values are based on the last data collection).

EN 15140:2006 (E) 12 The number of passengers concerned by bus failures is divided by the total number of passengers for a considered period. This can be calculated either by route or for the network. A.3.2.1.5 Service standard and level of achievement At least 99,5 % of the

passengers do not have to leave the bus on the route following a technical failure of the bus. A.3.2.2 Conduct A.3.2.2.1 Organisational arrangements In general the maintenance department records every bus failure. It is necessary to identify specifically the technical failure that occurred on a bus route. This is checked in accordance with the daily bus operation register. A.3.2.2.2 Performance data collection Every failure is reported. The data are collected every day; it is important to know the type of bus concerned so as to evaluate the commercial capacity. A.3.2.2.3 Evaluation of the number of customers The total number of passengers is estimated using the commercial statistics published every month. The number of passengers concerned by bus technical failures is calculated as in A.3.2.1. A.3.2.2.4 Data processing The data are given by the maintenance department to the quality department. The calculation can be made every month, term or year according to the needs of the management. A.3.2.2.5 Inspections and audits The checking between maintenance and operation recording is the best way to be sure of the reliability of the maintenance department statistics. This can be done systematically or by sampling. The corrective actions and their results are documented and reported. A.3.3 Example of continuous measurement by technical means  Name of the measured quality criterion: phone waiting time at the Customer Contact Centre (CCC);  category of the criterion (referring to EN 13816:2002, 3.2): 5. Customer Care. A.3.3.1 Design A.3.3.1.1 Determination of customer viewpoint The enquiries about customer’s expectations on "getting information" or "making suggestions, claims and complaints" reveal that the rapidity of access to the information service is one of the most important aspects. A compromise in term of delay for the CCC was chosen and a measurement process and an indicator were defined.

EN 15140:2006 (E) 13 What do the customers want? To attend every call immediately is impossible; therefore, a standard level was set with a high acceptation among the customers. The results of former customer satisfaction enquiries were studied in relation to the former replying delay produced and other external Call Centre cases, and a standard time of 10 s was chosen. This choice is consolidated by the two following facts: the delivered quality was measured, leading to results of execution of 95 %, and 94,1 % of the enquired customers said that the time before being attended to is suitable or very short. A.3.3.1.2 Management viewpoint A special area with a high technological system and specially trained employees attends to customer’s calls in the CCC; the measurement proces

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