REN/ESI-0019412-4v121

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REN/ESI-0019411-2v241

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This document provides guidance on the design and structure of service contracts. It is aimed at buyers and service providers entering a contractual relationship who do not necessarily have legal training.
This document is applicable to any organization regardless of its type or size.
This document is not applicable to business-to-consumer (B2C) service contracts or for works contracts.
NOTE 1   ‘Works contracts’ are contracts that have as their object the execution, or both the design and execution, of a work are not covered. Contracts having as their object only the design of a work are covered.
NOTE 2   ‘Work’ means the outcome of building or civil engineering works taken as a whole which is sufficient in itself to fulfil an economic or technical function.

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This document provides guidelines for supporting strategic intelligence within innovation management. It aims at addressing the following areas concerning strategic intelligence at strategic and operational levels: —   creating a strategic intelligence management strategy to support innovation in an organization; —   establishing strategic intelligence management in support of the innovation activities and initiatives within the innovation management system and the related innovation processes; —   applying strategic intelligence tools and methods in support of the innovation activities and initiatives within the innovation management system and the related innovation processes. Strategic intelligence is transversal and cross-sectorial by nature. It is not limited to innovation activities and can apply to all areas where knowledge is required for strategic decision-making and consequent actions. This document is not applicable to: —   certification; —   data protection.

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This document specifies requirements and provides guidelines for an organizational program for working carers providing care to: —   adult care recipients (e.g. adults with cognitive, sensory, physical, and invisible disabilities, adults with chronic or episodic conditions and older dependents); —   long-term childcare recipients (e.g. due to chronic illness or permanent cognitive, sensory or physical disability or injury). This document is applicable to any organization, regardless of size, sector or community setting (i.e. urban, rural or remote). This document can be used in conjunction with an organization’s management systems, human resource programs, and/or equity, diversity and inclusion programs, or on its own in the absence of a formal workplace program to support working carers.

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This document gives guidelines for an organization to implement and maintain a formal and documented business impact analysis (BIA) process appropriate to its needs. It does not prescribe a uniform process for performing a BIA. This document is applicable to all organizations regardless of type, size and nature, whether in the private, public or not-for-profit sectors. The guidance can be adapted to the needs, objectives, resources and constraints of the organization.

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This document provides information and requirements for identifying cost-effective technologies and related standards required to deploy, manage and operate sustainable “green” ITS technologies in surface transportations with eco-mobility. These ITS technologies can increase operational efficiencies and unlock enhanced transportation safety and eco-mobility applications. The ISO 20529 series builds on the existing standards and best practices of transport operation and management systems, as well as ITS applications, and aims to accommodate the specific needs of eco-mobility. G-ITS standards are expected to focus on the use of data exchange interface standards to enable the deployment of cloud-based multi-modal mobility solutions using wireless networks and nomadic devices. These forward-looking solutions are “infrastructure light” and can thus impact developing regions with little or no legacy transportation infrastructure. This document is intended to provide mobility information according to user preference on demand, utilizing a variety of existing apps on nomadic devices related to various means of transport. An integrated mobility information platform is defined in this document as a service methodology to be integrated with a variety of mobile apps with respect to different modes of transport. The framework described in this document includes: —   Identification of implementation aspects of related standards by means of use case. —   Identification of the multi-modal transport information necessary to support G-ITS. —   Eco-friendly route guidance according to user preference. —   Smart modal choice service based on carbon footprint, fuel efficiency and carbon-free zones for G-ITS.

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This document specifies the elements of an unambiguous scheme to identify over-the-counter (OTC) derivative products that are reportable to trade repositories, in particular: —   the structure and format of the unique product identifier (UPI) code; —   the minimum data elements of the UPI reference data library, together with their allowable values. At a minimum, the UPI code is applicable to OTC derivative instruments falling under the following categories of the classification of financial instruments (see ISO 10962): —   swaps (S); —   forwards (J); —   non-listed and complex listed options (H); —   others (miscellaneous) (M).

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This document defines the syntax and semantics in the field of electronic fee collection (EFC). The data types and assignment of vales are provided in accordance with the abstract syntax notation one (ASN.1) technique, as specified in ISO/IEC 8824 1. In particular, this document defines:
— ASN.1 (data) types within the fields of EFC and road user charging;
— ASN.1 (data) types of a more general use that are used more specifically in standards related to EFC.
This document does not seek to define ASN.1 (data) types that are primarily related to other fields that operate in conjunction with EFC, such as cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS), the financial sector, etc.

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This document gives guidance to organizations on how to manage the risk(s), to the organization and
its travellers, as a result of undertaking travel.
This document provides a structured approach to the development, implementation, evaluation and
review of:
— policy;
— programme development;
— threat and hazard identification;
— opportunities and strengths;
— risk assessment;
— prevention and mitigation strategies.
This document is applicable to any type of organization, irrespective of sector or size, including but not
limited to:
— commercial organizations;
— charitable and not-for-profit organizations;
— governmental organizations;
— non-governmental organizations;
— educational organizations.
This document does not apply to tourism and leisure-related travel, except in relation to travellers
travelling on behalf of the organization.

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This document gives guidelines for establishing, implementing and maintaining an effective whistleblowing management system based on the principles of trust, impartiality and protection in the following four steps:
a) receiving reports of wrongdoing;
b) assessing reports of wrongdoing;
c) addressing reports of wrongdoing;
d) concluding whistleblowing cases.
The guidelines of this document are generic and intended to be applicable to all organizations, regardless of type, size, nature of activity, and whether in the public, private or not-for profit sectors.
The extent of application of these guidelines depends on the factors specified in 4.1, 4.2 and 4.3. The whistleblowing management system can be stand-alone or can be used as part of an overall management system.

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This document gives guidance on the use of social media in emergency management. It gives guidance on how organizations and the public can use, and interact through, social media before, during and after an incident as well as how social media can support the work of emergency services. This document is applicable to governmental and non-governmental organizations involved in emergency management and crisis communication.

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This document belongs to the documents going along with EN 9200 relating to Project Management Specification.
The aims of this document are as follows:
-   to specify/remind the concept of (Need) Technical Specification (N)TS;
-   to define the principles and conditions for drawing up, approving, using and updating a (N)TS;
-   to propose a template of (N)TS.
The template identifies topics and types of related requirements to be covered in a (N)TS without being completely exhaustive or mandatory. It is due to be analysed like a check-list and tailored according to the type of the product of interest, the context of the bodies involved and the contractual details.
The principle of drawing up a (N)TS applies to both tangible and intangible products (e.g. services).
The customer/supplier relationship addressed by these principles may also apply within a single organization. The concepts of customer and supplier are discussed in this document without distinction between internal or external relationship.
This document implements and adapts EN 16271 to the context, in order to meet the specific needs of the aeronautical field and more generally the needs of other fields.
This document is more explicit about certain aspects of ISO/IEC/IEEE 29148 dedicated to requirements engineering, such as the responsibility for drawing up a (N)TS on a contractual basis and also the process of drawing it up within a programme (stages and milestones). It also supplements the technical specification framework proposed by ISO/IEC/IEEE 29148, in particular with requirements relating to safety of operation and result assurance.
The relationships existing between Functional Performance Specification (FPS) and (N)TS for expression of needs are given in Annex A.

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This European Standard defines the activities related to work on or near the railway track and the associated competence profiles of persons who carry out these activities and defines procedures for assessing the competence.

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This handbook defines methods for process assessment and improvement that may be used to meet the requirements on
process assessment and improvement of the EN16602-80 (equivalent to ECSS-Q-ST-80C) subclause 5.7. These methods constitute a clear and proven w ay of implementing those requirements. Alternative methods can be used provided that they meet the detailed instructions provided in this handbook for recognition of software process assessment schemes and results and process improvement.
This handbook provides a detailed method for the implementation of the requirements of the EN16602-80 for software process assessment and improvement. It also establishes detailed instructions for alternative methods intended to meet the same EN16602-80 requirements.
The process assessment and improvement scheme presented in this handbook is based on and conformant to the ISO/IEC 15504 International Standard. In designing this process assessment and improvement scheme the ISO/IEC 15504 exemplar process assessment model w as adopted and extended to address specific requirements.
The methods provided in this handbook can support organizations in meeting their business goals and in this context they can be tailored to suit their specific needs and requirements. How ever w hen used to claim compliance with relevant requirements in EN16602-80 only the steps and activities explicitly marked as recommended in this handbook may be omitted or modified.

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The scope of this Handbook is the software metrication as part of a space project, i.e. a space system, a subsystem including hardware and software, or ultimately a software product. It is intended to complement the EN 16602-80 (equivalent to ECSS-Q-ST-80) with specific guidelines related to use of different software metrics including their collection, analysis and reporting. Tailoring guidelines for the software metrication process are also provided to help to meet specific project requirements.
This Handbook provides recommendations, methods and procedures that can be used for the selection and application of appropriate metrics, but it does not include new requirements w ith respect to those provided by EN 16602-80 (equivalent to ECSS-ST-Q-80).
The scope of this Handbook covers the following topics:
• Specification of the goals and objectives for a metrication programme.
• Identification of criteria for selection of metrics in a specific project / environment (goal driven).
• Planning of metrication in the development life cycle.
• Interface of metrication with engineering processes.
• Data collection aspects (including use of tools).
• Approach to the analysis of the collected data.
• Feedback into the process and product based on the analysis results.
• Continuous improvement of measurement process.
• Use of metrics for process and product improvement.
This Handbook is applicable to all types of software of all major parts of a space system, including the space segment, the launch service segment and the ground segment software.

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Efficient management of IP is key to support the process of innovation, is essential for organizations' growth and protection, and is their engine for competitiveness.
This document proposes guidelines for supporting the role of IP within innovation management. It aims to address the following issues concerning IP management at strategic and operational levels:
— Creating an IP strategy to support innovation in an organization;
— Establishing systematic IP management within the innovation processes;
— Applying consistent IP tools and methods in support of efficient IP management.
This document can be used for any type of innovation activities and initiatives.

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This Handbook provides guidance on the application of the dependability and safety requirements relevant to software defined in EN 16602-80 (equivalent of ECSS-Q-ST-80).
This Handbook provides support for the selection and application of software dependability and safety methods and techniques that can be used in the development of software-intensive space systems.
This Handbook covers all of the different kinds of software for which EN 16602-80 (equivalent of ECSS-Q-ST-80) is applicable. Although the overall software dependability and safety workflow description is mainly targeted to the development of spacecraft, the described approach can be adapted to projects of different nature (e.g. launchers, ground systems).
The methods and techniques described in the scope of this Handbook are limited to assessment aspects, not including development and implementation techniques for dependability and safety (e.g. fault tolerance techniques, or development methods like coding standards, etc.).
Although dependability is a composite term, including reliability, availability and maintainability, this Handbook addresses in particular the reliability aspects. Software maintainability and availability are not covered in depth by this handbook, because the relevant methods and techniques are still undergoing improvement. Nevertheless, whenever a link can be made to either of these two characteristics, it is explicitly mentioned in the corresponding section.

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This handbook provides recommendations, methods and procedures that can be used for the selection and reuse of existing software in space software systems.
This handbook is applicable to all types of software of a space system, including the space segment, the launch service segment and the ground segment software (including EGSEs) whenever existing software is intended to be reused within them.
This handbook covers the following topics:
• Software reuse approach including guidelines to build the Software Reuse File
• Techniques to support completion of existing software qualification to allow its reuse in a particular project
• Tool qualification
• Risk management aspects of reusing existing software Existing software can be of any type: Purchased (or COTS), Legacy-Software, open-source software, customer-furnished items (CFI's), etc.
NOTE Special emphasis is put on guidance for the reuse of COTS software often available as-is and for which no code and documentation are often available.
Legal and contractual aspects of reuse are in principle out of scope; how ever guidelines to help in determine the
reusability of existing software from a contractual point of view is provided in [ESA/REG/002].
Any organization with the business objective of systematic reuse may need to implement the organizational reuse processes presented in [ISO12207]. These processes w ill support the identification of reusable software products and components within selected reuse domains, their classification, storage and systematic reuse within the projects of that organization, etc. But these processes are out of scope of this handbook as the handbook is centred on the specific project activities to reuse an existing software product, not part of those organizational reuse processes more oriented to ‘design for reuse’ processes.
In addition, this handbook provides guidelines to be used for the selection and analysis of tools for the development, verification and validation of the operational software.

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This Handbook provides guidelines to manage obsolescence of Materials, Mechanical Parts and Processes (in-house and sub-contracted).
It is useful for any actor of the European Space sector.
It covers Materials, Mechanical Parts and Processes (MMPP) used in flight hardware as well as ground support equipment (including test systems) and materials or tools used during process (not in the final product) and skills (knowhow).
It is not within the scope of this Handbook to address EEE components and software.
This document describes the general causes of obsolescences and introduces the concepts of proactive and reactive obsolescence management, depending of the programme phase.

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This document specifies a machine-readable, unambiguous natural person identifier (NPI) and the relevant reference data to uniquely identify the natural person relevant to any financial transaction rather than the personal identifying information.

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This document complements the existing requirements of ISO/IEC 17021-1 for bodies providing audit and certification of quality management systems against ISO 19443.
NOTE   This document is recommended for use as a criteria document for accreditation, peer assessment or other audit processes.

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This handbook provides assessors with a number of instruments needed to perform software process capability assessments using the assessment method described in EN 17603-80-11 (equivalent to ECSS-Q-HB-80-02 Part 1). It also provides instruments that help assessors to carry out their activities when performing assessments and supporting the implementation of software process improvement initiatives using the method for process improvement described in Part 1.
The instruments provided are:
• The Process Assessment Model (PAM) required to perform assessments including process descriptions and process attribute indicators
• Conformance statement to the requirements in ISO/IEC 15504 Part 2
• A definition of the Process Reference Model (PRM) on which TR 17603-80-11 and TR 17603-80-12 (equivalent to ECSS-Q-HB-80-02 Part 1 and 2) PAM are based (defined in TR 17603-80-11)
• Detailed traces from base practices in the PAM to standard clauses and from work products to expected outputs.

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This document specifies requirements for a valuation of energy related investments (VALERI). It provides a description on how to gather, calculate, evaluate and document information in order to create solid business cases based on Net Present Value calculations for ERIs. The standard is applicable for the valuation of any kind of energy related investment.
The document focusses mainly on the valuation and documentation of the economical impacts of ERIs. However, non-economical effects (e.g. noise reduction) that may occur through undertaking an investment are considered as well. Thus, qualitative effects (e.g. impact on the environment)– even if they are non-monetisable – are taken into consideration.

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This document provides guidelines to develop long-term strategies (roadmaps) for innovating responsibly, thereby helping organizations to achieve socially desirable outcomes from their innovation processes.
These roadmaps encourage a “responsibility-by-design” approach that integrates considerations of technical, ethical, social, environmental, and economic aspects all along the research, development, and design process leading to an innovation.
The document aims at all organizations and agents involved in planning and performing research and innovation and technological development.
The focus is on innovation enabled by transformative technologies.
This document has been designed to be consistent with, and to support, as much as possible, existing management system standards and management/governance standards (e.g. EN ISO 9001). Particular attention has been given to social responsibility (i.e. EN ISO 26000).
This document has been designed to be consistent with, and to support, as much as possible, existing management system standards and management/governance standards (e.g. EN ISO 9001). Particular attention has been given to social responsibility (i.e. EN ISO 26000).

  • Standardization document
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This document specifies a general outline of the ISO 3834 series and criteria to be taken into account for
the selection of the appropriate level of quality requirements for fusion welding of metallic materials,
among the three levels specified in ISO 3834-2, ISO 3834-3 and ISO 3834-4.
It is applicable to manufacturing, both in workshops and at field installation sites.
This document does not specify requirements for a total quality management system (QMS). However,
Clause 6 identifies QMS elements where their inclusion complements the ISO 3834 series.

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The development of a European standard(s) on reporting by online gambling service operators and suppliers to the gambling regulatory authorities in the Member States for the purpose of supervision of online gambling services will specify the core data for reporting purposes, while ensuring integrity and security of the data as well as personal data protection.
The requested European standard(s) will provide a voluntary tool to the gambling regulatory authorities in the Member States without prejudice to the scope of competence of Member States in the regulation of online gambling and without imposing any obligation on them to introduce reporting requirements or to authorize or deny authorization to any operators or suppliers.

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This document gives guidance for large organizations seeking to engage micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs) within their collaborative relationship programmes. It uses the 12 collaborative relationship management principles given in ISOÂ 44001.

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This document gives guidance on the governance of organizations. It provides principles and key aspects
of practices to guide governing bodies and governing groups on how to meet their responsibilities so
that the organizations they govern can fulfil their purpose. It is also intended for stakeholders involved
in, or impacted by, the organization and its governance.
It is applicable to all organizations regardless of type, size, location, structure or purpose.

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This document sets requirements and provides guidelines for establishing, implementing, maintaining, reviewing and improving an effective management system for knowledge management in organizations. All the requirements of this document are applicable to any organization, regardless of its type or size, or the products and services it provides.

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This document introduces five statistical methods for evaluating the precision of binary measurement methods and their results. The five methods can be divided into two types. Both types are based on measured values provided by each laboratory participating in a collaborative study. In the first type, each laboratory repeatedly measures a single sample. The samples measured by the laboratories are nominally identical. The second type is an extension of the first type, where there are several levels of samples. For each statistical method, this document briefly summarizes its theory and explains how to estimate the proposed precision measures. Some real cases are illustrated to help the readers understand the evaluation procedures involved. For the first and second types of methods, five and three cases are presented, respectively. Finally, this document compares the five statistical methods.

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This document defines the data elements included in the registry record and used to establish the 1:1 relationship between a digital token and the identifier assigned according to the method in ISOÂ 24165-1.

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This document defines the assignment and generation of a random, unique, fixed-length identifier for digital tokens in response to a request for registration that conforms to specified application guidelines (see also ISO 24165-2).

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This document describes statistical procedures for setting up cumulative sum (CUSUM) schemes for process and quality control using variables (measured) and attribute data. It describes general‑purpose methods of decision-making using cumulative sum (CUSUM) techniques for monitoring, control and retrospective analysis.

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This document defines terms used in the tourism industry in relation to the various types of tourism
accommodation and their related services.

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This document specifies the requirements for qualification and assessment of personnel who perform machinery condition monitoring and diagnostics using acoustic emission. A certificate or declaration of conformity to this document will provide recognition of the qualifications and competence of individuals to perform acoustic emission measurements and analysis for machinery condition monitoring using acoustic emission equipment. This procedure may not apply to specialized equipment or other specific situations. This document specifies a three-category classification programme that is based on the technical areas delineated herein.

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This document gives guidance on the governance of organizations. It provides principles and key aspects of practices to guide governing bodies and governing groups on how to meet their responsibilities so that the organizations they govern can fulfil their purpose. It is also intended for stakeholders involved in, or impacted by, the organization and its governance. It is applicable to all organizations regardless of type, size, location, structure or purpose.

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This document specifies requirements for verification bodies performing verification of claims of conformity to ISOÂ 14030-1 or ISOÂ 14030-2 and to ISOÂ 14030-3 or a suitable substitute taxonomy. Conformity to the requirements of this document is mandatory for the verification of statements made by green debt issuers, borrowers and lenders that claim that their products conform to the ISOÂ 14030 series. This document specifies requirements for the validation of claims of eligibility made in conformity to ISOÂ 14030-1:2021, 5.4, ISOÂ 14030-2:2021, 6.3, and ISOÂ 14030-2:2021, 7.3. This document also establishes requirements for the optional use of third-party marks of conformity.

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This document establishes principles, specifies requirements and gives guidelines: for designating as “green” loans which finance eligible projects, assets and supporting expenditures; for managing and reporting on the use of proceeds; for defining, monitoring and reporting on the environmental impacts; for reporting to interested parties; for validation and verification. This document is applicable to any borrower seeking financing by way of a green loan for eligible green projects, assets and supporting expenditures. It is also applicable to lenders.

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This document gives guidance for organizations on establishing a phased approach to implement an energy management system (EnMS). This phased approach is intended to support and simplify the implementation of an EnMS for all types of organizations, in particular for small and medium-sized organizations (SMOs). This document gives guidance on the use of twelve core elements with four levels of maturity for each element to establish, implement, maintain and improve an EnMS that results in energy performance improvement. It enables the user of this document to implement a phased approach to achieve a level of energy management appropriate to its objectives and to build a strong foundation which can subsequently be extended towards meeting the requirements of ISO 50001:2018. This document is consistent with ISOÂ 50001:2018 but does not cover all of its requirements.

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This document gives guidance to organizations on how to manage the risk(s), to the organization and its travellers, as a result of undertaking travel. This document provides a structured approach to the development, implementation, evaluation and review of: policy; programme development; threat and hazard identification; opportunities and strengths; risk assessment; prevention and mitigation strategies. This document is applicable to any type of organization, irrespective of sector or size, including but not limited to: commercial organizations; charitable and not-for-profit organizations; governmental organizations; non-governmental organizations; educational organizations. This document does not apply to tourism and leisure-related travel, except in relation to travellers travelling on behalf of the organization.

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This document establishes principles, specifies requirements and gives guidelines: for designating bonds which finance eligible projects, assets and supporting expenditures as “green”; for managing and reporting on the use of proceeds; for defining, monitoring and reporting on their environmental impacts; for reporting to interested parties; for validation and verification. This document is applicable to any issuer of bonds.

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This document provides general requirements for third-party marks of conformity, including their issue and use. This document is applicable to third-party marks of conformity issued and used in different forms and various media, including digital representation employing electronically stored and displayed marks, machine readable code, blockchain (distributed ledger) or other electronic means. NOTEÂ 1Â Â This document can also be used as guidance in using marks of conformity in activities other than third-party conformity assessment. NOTEÂ 2Â Â Third-party marks of conformity in accordance with this document also include symbols of recognition, such as accreditation symbols. For consistency of terminology, they are referred to as accreditation marks. NOTEÂ 3Â Â Third-party marks of conformity in accordance with this document can include logos (e.g. the sign of a conformity assessment body or trademarks), symbols (e.g. the representation of recognition in an accreditation agreement or the depiction of the applicable programme) or a combination thereof. NOTEÂ 4Â Â Third-party marks of conformity as a graphic representation of demonstrated conformity in accordance with this document can be a combination of multiple marks (e.g. indications of compliance with several sets of specifications, codes for individually fulfilled specifications). NOTEÂ 5Â Â This document does not apply to markings that provide indication of a designation, a code, or a classification only. Furthermore, it does not apply to graphic representations (e.g. of conformity assessment systems or schemes/programmes) or logos (e.g. of an association of accreditation bodies or an association of conformity assessment bodies). NOTEÂ 6Â Â Third-party marks of conformity are based on a conformity assessment scheme that includes the function of surveillance.

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This document describes the steps for conducting short-term performance studies that are typically performed on machines (including devices, appliances, apparatuses) where parts produced consecutively under repeatability conditions are considered. The number of observations to be analysed vary according to the patterns the data produce, or if the runs (the rate at which items are produced) on the machine are low in quantity. The methods are not considered suitable where the sample size produced is less than 30 observations. Methods for handling the data and carrying out the calculations are described. In addition, machine performance indices and the actions required at the conclusion of a machine performance study are described.
This document is not applicable when tool wear patterns are expected to be present during the duration of the study, nor if autocorrelation between observations is present. The situation where a machine has captured the data, sometimes thousands of data points collected in a minute, is not considered suitable for the application of this document.

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This document establishes single sampling plans for conformance testing, i.e., for assessing whether the quality level of a relevant audit population (lot, process, inventory, file etc) conforms to a declared value. Sampling plans are provided corresponding to four levels of discriminatory ability. The limiting quality ratio (LQR) (see Clause 4) of each sampling plan is given for reference. For levels I-III, the sampling plans have been devised so as to obtain a risk no more than 5 % of contradicting a correct declared quality level. The risk of failing to contradict an incorrectly declared quality level which is related to the LQR is no more than 10 %. The sample sizes for level 0 are designed in a way that the LQR factors of the sampling plans are compatible with the LQR factors for level I.
In contrast to the procedures in the other parts of the ISO 2859 series, the procedures in this document are not applicable to acceptance assessment of lots. Generally, this document mainly focuses on controlling type I error, which differs from the balancing of the risks in the procedures for acceptance sampling.
This document can be used for various forms of quality inspection in situations where objective evidence of conformity to some declared quality level is to be provided by means of inspection of a sample. The procedures are applicable to entities such as lots, process output, etc. that allow random samples of individual items to be taken from the entity.
The sampling plans provided in this document are applicable, but not limited, to the inspection of a variety of targets such as:
— end items;
— components and raw materials;
— operations;
— materials in process;
— supplies in storage;
— maintenance operations;
— data or records;
— administrative procedures;
— accounting procedures or accounting entries;
— internal control procedures.
This document considers two types of quality models for discrete items and populations, as follows.
i) The conforming-nonconforming model, where each item is classified as conforming or nonconforming, and where the quality indicator of a population of items is the proportion p of nonconforming items, or, equivalently, the percentage 100 p of nonconforming items.
ii) The nonconformities model, where the number of nonconformities is counted on each item, and where the quality indicator of a population of items is the average number λ of nonconformities found on items in the population, or, equivalently, the percentage 100 λ of nonconformities on items in the population.

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This document describes a basic role model of smart city intelligent transport systems (ITS) service applications as a common platform for smart city instantiation, directly communicating via secure ITS interfaces. It provides a paradigm describing: a) a framework for the provision of a cooperative ITS service application; b) a description of the concept of operations, regulatory aspects and options, and the role models; c) a conceptual architecture between actors involved in the provision/receipt of ITS service applications; d) references for the key documents on which the architecture is based; e) a taxonomy of the organization of generic procedures.

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This document establishes the requirements and recommendations of competencies and the related expected results of competencies for adventure tourism activity leaders common to any adventure tourism activity, which can affect the quality and safety of the services provided. It can be used by all types and sizes of providers operating in different geographic, cultural and social environments.
This document does not apply to diving leaders, for whom References [1], [2] and [4] to [9] apply.

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This document describes [motor] vehicle driving automation systems that perform part or all of the dynamic driving task (DDT) on a sustained basis. It provides a taxonomy with detailed definitions for six levels of driving automation, ranging from no driving automation (Level 0) to full driving automation (Level 5), in the context of [motor] vehicles (hereafter also referred to as “vehicle” or “vehicles”) and their operation on roadways: Level 0: No Driving Automation Level 1: Driver Assistance Level 2: Partial Driving Automation Level 3: Conditional Driving Automation Level 4: High Driving Automation Level 5: Full Driving Automation These level definitions, along with additional supporting terms and definitions provided herein, can be used to describe the full range of driving automation features equipped on [motor] vehicles in a functionally consistent and coherent manner. “On‑road” refers to publicly accessible roadways (including parking areas and private campuses that permit public access) that collectively serve all road users, including cyclists, pedestrians, and users of vehicles with and without driving automation features. The levels apply to the driving automation feature(s) that are engaged in any given instance of on-road operation of an equipped vehicle. As such, although a given vehicle may be equipped with a driving automation system that is capable of delivering multiple driving automation features that perform at different levels, the level of driving automation exhibited in any given instance is determined by the feature(s) that are engaged. This document also refers to three primary actors in driving: the (human) user, the driving automation system, and other vehicle systems and components. These other vehicle systems and components (or the vehicle in general terms) do not include the driving automation system in this model, even though as a practical matter a driving automation system may actually share hardware and software components with other vehicle systems, such as a processing module(s) or operating code. The levels of driving automation are defined by reference to the specific role played by each of the three primary actors in performance of the DDT and/or DDT fallback. “Role” in this context refers to the expected role of a given primary actor, based on the design of the driving automation system in question and not necessarily to the actual performance of a given primary actor. For example, a driver who fails to monitor the roadway during engagement of a Level 1 adaptive cruise control (ACC) system still has the role of driver, even while s/he is neglecting it. Active safety systems, such as electronic stability control (ESC) and automatic emergency braking (AEB), and certain types of driver assistance systems, such as lane keeping assistance (LKA), are excluded from the scope of this driving automation taxonomy because they do not perform part or all of the DDT on a sustained basis, but rather provide momentary intervention during potentially hazardous situations. Due to the momentary nature of the actions of active safety systems, their intervention does not change or eliminate the role of the driver in performing part or all of the DDT, and thus are not considered to be driving automation, even though they perform automated functions. In addition, systems that inform, alert, or warn the driver about hazards in the driving environment are also outside the scope of this driving automation taxonomy, as they neither automate part or all of the DDT, nor change the driver’s role in performance of the DDT (see 8.13). It should be noted, however, that crash avoidance features, including intervention-type active safety systems, may be included in vehicles equipped with driving automation systems at any level. For automated driving system (ADS) features (i.e., Levels 3 to 5) that perform the complete DDT, crash mitigation and avoidance capability is part of ADS functional

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