Space engineering - Fracture control

This ECSS Engineering Standard specifies the fracture control requirements to be imposed on space segments of space systems and their related GSE. The fracture control programme is applicable for space systems and related GSE when required by ECSS-Q-ST-40 or by the NASA document NST 1700.7, incl. ISS addendum. The requirements contained in this Standard, when implemented, also satisfy the fracture control requirements applicable to the NASA STS and ISS as specified in the NASA document NSTS 1700.7 (incl. the ISS Addendum). The NASA nomenclature differs in some cases from that used by ECSS. When STS/ISS-specific requirements and nomenclature are included, they are identified as such.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constrains of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

Raumfahrttechnik - Überwachung des Rissfortschritts

Ingénierie spatiale - Maîtrise de la rupture

La présente norme technique ECSS définit les exigences de maîtrise de la rupture
applicables aux segments des systèmes spatiaux et de leur ESS.
Ce programme de maîtrise de la rupture s'applique aux systèmes spatiaux et aux ESS
associés pour lesquels une défaillance structurelle peut être à l'origine d'un risque
catastrophique conformément à la définition d'un document applicable au lieu de l'ECSSQ-
ST-40, spécifié par le client comme ceux qui s'appliquent à l'ISS, aux systèmes
d'exploration ou aux charges utiles.
Le cas échéant, les exigences contenues dans la présente norme satisfont également aux
obligations de maîtrise de la rupture applicables aux matériels de la NASA et de l'ISS.
Dans certains cas, la nomenclature de la NASA est différente de celle utilisée par l'ECSS.
Lorsque des exigences et une nomenclature propres à l'ISS ou à l'exploration sont
mentionnées, elles sont identifiées en tant que telles.
La présente norme peut être adaptée aux caractéristiques et contraintes spécifiques d'un
projet spatial, conformément à l'ECSS-S-ST-00.

Vesoljska tehnika - Kontrola razpok

General Information

Status
Published
Technical Committee
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
22-Dec-2021
Completion Date
22-Dec-2021

RELATIONS

Buy Standard

Draft
prEN 16603-32-01:2020
English language
81 pages
sale 10% off
Preview
sale 10% off
Preview
e-Library read for
1 day

Standards Content (sample)

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
oSIST prEN 16603-32-01:2020
01-marec-2020
Vesoljska tehnika - Kontrola razpok
Space engineering - Fracture control
Raumfahrttechnik - Überwachung des Rissfortschritts
Ingénierie spatiale - Maîtrise de la rupture
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: prEN 16603-32-01
ICS:
49.140 Vesoljski sistemi in operacije Space systems and
operations
oSIST prEN 16603-32-01:2020 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 16603-32-01:2020
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 16603-32-01:2020
EUROPEAN STANDARD
DRAFT
prEN 16603-32-01
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
January 2020
ICS 49.140
Will supersede EN 16603-32-01:2014
English version
Space engineering - Fracture control

Ingénierie spatiale - Maîtrise de la rupture Raumfahrttechnik - Überwachung des Rissfortschritts

This draft European Standard is submitted to CEN members for enquiry. It has been drawn up by the Technical Committee

CEN/CLC/JTC 5.

If this draft becomes a European Standard, CEN and CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal

Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any

alteration.

This draft European Standard was established by CEN and CENELEC in three official versions (English, French, German). A

version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN and CENELEC member into its own

language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN and CENELEC members are the national standards bodies and national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium,

Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy,

Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia,

Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.

Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification of any relevant patent rights of which they are

aware and to provide supporting documentation.Recipients of this draft are invited to submit, with their comments, notification

of any relevant patent rights of which they are aware and to provide supporting documentation.

Warning : This document is not a European Standard. It is distributed for review and comments. It is subject to change without

notice and shall not be referred to as a European Standard.
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre:
Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CEN/CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means Ref. No. prEN 16603-32-01:2020 E

reserved worldwide for CEN national Members and for
CENELEC Members.
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 16603-32-01:2020
prEN 16603-32-01:2020 (E)
Table of contents

European Foreword ................................................................................................... 6

1 Scope ....................................................................................................................... 7

2 Normative references ............................................................................................. 8

3 Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms .......................................................... 10

3.1 Terms from other standards .................................................................................... 10

3.2 Terms specific to the present standard ................................................................... 11

3.3 Abbreviated terms................................................................................................... 16

3.4 Nomenclature ......................................................................................................... 18

4 Principles .............................................................................................................. 19

5 Fracture control programme ............................................................................... 21

5.1 General ................................................................................................................... 21

5.2 Fracture control plan ............................................................................................... 22

5.3 Reviews .................................................................................................................. 22

5.3.1 General ..................................................................................................... 22

5.3.2 Safety and project reviews ........................................................................ 22

6 Identification and evaluation of PFCI .................................................................. 24

6.1 Identification of PFCIs ............................................................................................. 24

6.2 Evaluation of PFCIs ................................................................................................ 26

6.2.1 Damage tolerance ..................................................................................... 26

6.2.2 Fracture critical item classification ............................................................. 29

6.3 Compliance procedures .......................................................................................... 29

6.3.1 General ..................................................................................................... 29

6.3.2 Safe life items ........................................................................................... 29

6.3.3 Fail-safe items ........................................................................................... 30

6.3.4 Contained and restrained items................................................................. 31

6.3.5 Low-risk fracture items .............................................................................. 32

6.4 Documentation requirements .................................................................................. 37

6.4.1 Fracture control plan ................................................................................. 37

6.4.2 Lists .......................................................................................................... 37

---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 16603-32-01:2020
prEN 16603-32-01:2020 (E)

6.4.3 Analysis and test documents ..................................................................... 37

6.4.4 Fracture control summary report ............................................................... 37

7 Fracture mechanics analysis ............................................................................... 39

7.1 General ................................................................................................................... 39

7.2 Analytical life prediction .......................................................................................... 40

7.2.1 Identification of all load events .................................................................. 40

7.2.2 Identification of the most critical location and orientation of the crack ........ 40

7.2.3 Derivation of stresses for the critical location............................................. 41

7.2.4 Derivation of the stress spectrum .............................................................. 41

7.2.5 Derivation of material data ........................................................................ 42

7.2.6 Identification of the initial crack size and shape ......................................... 42

7.2.7 Identification of an applicable stress intensity factor solution ..................... 43

7.2.8 Performance of crack growth calculations ................................................. 44

7.3 Critical crack-size calculation .................................................................................. 44

8 Special requirements ........................................................................................... 46

8.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 46

8.2 Pressurized hardware ............................................................................................. 46

8.2.1 General ..................................................................................................... 46

8.2.2 Pressure vessels ....................................................................................... 47

8.2.3 Pressurized structures .............................................................................. 49

8.2.4 Pressure components, including lines and fittings ..................................... 49

8.2.5 Low risk sealed containers ........................................................................ 50

8.2.6 Hazardous fluid containers ........................................................................ 50

8.2.7 Pressurized components with non-hazardous LBB failure mode ............... 51

8.3 Welds ..................................................................................................................... 51

8.3.1 Nomenclature ............................................................................................ 51

8.3.2 Safe life analysis of welds ......................................................................... 52

8.4 Composite, bonded and sandwich structures .......................................................... 53

8.4.1 General ..................................................................................................... 53

8.4.2 Defect assessment.................................................................................... 53

8.4.3 Damage threat assessment ...................................................................... 55

8.4.4 Compliance procedures ............................................................................ 56

8.5 Non-metallic items other than composite, bonded, sandwich and glass items ........ 58

8.6 Rotating machinery ................................................................................................. 59

8.7 Glass components .................................................................................................. 60

8.8 Fasteners ............................................................................................................... 61

8.9 Alloys treated with electric discharge manufacturing (EDM) .................................... 62

---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 16603-32-01:2020
prEN 16603-32-01:2020 (E)

9 Material selection ................................................................................................. 63

10 Quality assurance and Inspection .................................................................... 64

10.1 Overview ................................................................................................................ 64

10.2 Nonconformances................................................................................................... 64

10.3 Inspection of PFCI .................................................................................................. 64

10.3.1 General ..................................................................................................... 64

10.3.2 Inspection of raw material ......................................................................... 65

10.3.3 Inspection of safe life finished items .......................................................... 66

10.4 Non-destructive inspection of metallic materials ..................................................... 66

10.4.1 <> .............................................................................................. 66

10.4.2 NDI categories versus initial crack size ..................................................... 66

10.4.3 <> .............................................................................................. 68

10.5 <> ........................................................................................................... 69

10.5.1 < ................................................................................................ 69

10.5.2 <> .............................................................................................. 70

10.6 Traceability ............................................................................................................. 70

10.6.1 General ..................................................................................................... 70

10.6.2 Requirements ............................................................................................ 71

10.7 Detected defects ..................................................................................................... 71

10.7.1 General ..................................................................................................... 71

10.7.2 Acceptability verification ............................................................................ 72

10.7.3 Improved probability of detection ............................................................... 73

11 Reduced fracture control programme .............................................................. 74

11.1 Applicability............................................................................................................. 74

11.2 Requirements ......................................................................................................... 74

11.2.1 General ..................................................................................................... 74

11.2.2 Modifications ............................................................................................. 74

Annex A (informative) The ESACRACK software package .................................. 79

Annex B (informative) References ......................................................................... 80

Bibliography ............................................................................................................. 81

Figures

Figure 5-1: <> ..................................... 22

Figure 6-1: Identification of PFCI .......................................................................................... 26

Figure 6-2: Fracture control evaluation procedures .............................................................. 28

---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 16603-32-01:2020
prEN 16603-32-01:2020 (E)

Figure 6-3: Safe life item evaluation procedure for metallic materials ................................... 34

Figure 6-4: Safe life item evaluation procedure for composite, bonded and sandwich

items .................................................................................................................. 35

Figure 6-5: Evaluation procedure for fail-safe items .............................................................. 36

Figure 8-1: Procedure for metallic pressure vessel and metallic liner evaluation .................. 48

Figure 10-1: <> ..................................................... 69

Figure 10-2: <

Figure 10-3: <> ..................................................... 69

Tables

Table 8-1: Factor on stress for sustained crack growth analysis of glass items .................... 61

Table 10-1:<> ....................................................... 68

---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 16603-32-01:2020
prEN 16603-32-01:2020 (E)
European Foreword
This document (prEN 16603-32-01:2020) has been prepared by Technical
Committee CEN/CLC/TC 5 “Space”, the secretariat of which is held by DIN
(Germany).
This document (prEN 16603-32-01:2020) originates from ECSS-E-ST-32-01C
Rev.2 DIR1.
This document is currently submitted to the CEN Enquiry.
This document will supersede EN 16603-32-01:2014.
This document has been developed to cover specifically space systems and will
therefore have precedence over any EN covering the same scope but with a
wider do-main of applicability (e.g. : aerospace).
---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 16603-32-01:2020
prEN 16603-32-01:2020 (E)
Scope
This ECSS Engineering Standard specifies the fracture control requirements to
be imposed on space segments of space systems and their related GSE.
The fracture control programme is applicable for space systems and related
GSE where structural failure can result in a catastrophic hazard in accordance
with the definition of ECSS-Q-ST-40 or alternative applicable document

specified by the customer like those applicable to the ISS or Exploration systems

or payloads.
The requirements contained in this Standard, when implemented, also satisfy
the fracture control requirements applicable to the NASA and ISS.
The NASA nomenclature differs in some cases from that used by ECSS. When
ISS or Exploration-specific requirements and nomenclature are included, they
are identified as such.

This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constrains of a

space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 16603-32-01:2020
prEN 16603-32-01:2020 (E)
Normative references
The following normative documents contain provisions which, through
reference in this text, constitute provisions of this ECSS Standard. For dated
references, subsequent amendments to, or revision of any of these publications
do not apply, However, parties to agreements based on this ECSS Standard are

encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the more recent editions of

the normative documents indicated below. For undated references, the latest
edition of the publication referred to applies.
EN reference Reference in text Title
EN 16601-00-01 ECSS-S-ST-00-01 ECSS system – Glossary of terms
EN 16603-32 ECSS-E-ST-32 Space engineering – Structural

EN 16603-32-02 ECSS-E-ST-32-02 Space engineering – Structural design and verification

of pressurized hardware
EN 16602-20 ECSS-Q-ST-20 Space product assurance – Quality assurance
EN 16602-40 ECSS-Q-ST-40 Space product assurance – Safety
EN 16602-70 ECSS-Q-ST-70 Space product assurance – Materials, mechanical parts
and processes

EN 16602-70-15 ECSS-Q-ST-70-15 Space product assurance - Non-destructive inspection

EN 16602-70-36 ECSS-Q-ST-70-36 Space product assurance – Material selection for
controlling stress-corrosion cracking
EN 16602-70-45 ECSS-Q-ST-70-45 Space product assurance – Mechanical testing of
metallic materials
DOT/FAA/AR- Metallic Materials Properties Development and
MMPDS Standardization (MMPDS) (former MIL-HDBK-5)
EN ISO 6520-1 Welding and allied processes – Classification of
geometric imperfections in metallic materials – Part 1:
Fusion welding
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 16603-32-01:2020
prEN 16603-32-01:2020 (E)
ISO 17659 Welding – Multilingual terms for welded joints with
illustrations
---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 16603-32-01:2020
prEN 16603-32-01:2020 (E)
Terms, definitions and abbreviated terms
3.1 Terms from other standards
a. For the purpose of this Standard, the terms and definitions from ECSS-
ST-00-01 apply, in particular for the following terms:
1. customer
NOTE In this standard, the customer is considered to
represent the responsible fracture control or
safety authority.
b. For the purpose of this Standard, the following terms and definitions
from ECSS-E-ST-32 apply:
1. flaw
NOTE The term defect is used as a synonymous.
2. maximum design pressure (MDP)
3. service life
4. proof test
5. limit load
6. structure
7. safe life
c. For the purpose of this Standard, the following terms and definitions
from ECSS-E-ST-32-02 apply:
1. burst pressure
2. hazardous fluid container
3. leak before burst, LBB
4. pressure component
5. pressure vessel
6. pressurized structure
7. sealed container
8. special pressurized equipment
9. visual damage threshold, VDT
---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 16603-32-01:2020
prEN 16603-32-01:2020 (E)
NOTE 1 For typical implementation of thin-walled
composite structure, the VDT is sometimes more
specifically defined as the impact energy of an
impactor with a hemi-spherical tip of 16 mm
diameter resulting in 0,3 mm or more remaining
surface deflection, after sufficiently long time to
cover potential evolution of the indentation over
time (due to e.g. wet ageing, fatigue loading,
viscoelasticity of the resin) between impact and
inspection.
NOTE 2 It can be time consuming to determine the VDT
based on remaining surface deflection of 0,3 mm
(see NOTE 1) after a sufficiently long time.
Therefore, tests which cause mechanical damage
corresponding to a deflection of at least 1 mm,
immediately after impact, are sometimes used to
determine the VDT.
10. non-hazardous LBB failure mode
d. For the purpose of this Standard, the following term and definition from
ECSS-Q-ST-40 apply:
1. catastrophic hazard
NOTE alternative applicable documents specified by
the customer, like those applicable to the ISS or
Exploration systems or payloads, can make
applicable a slightly different definition.
e. For the purpose of this Standard, the following terms and definitions
from ECSS-Q-ST-70-15 apply:
1. special fracture control NDI
2. standard fracture control NDI
3.2 Terms specific to the present standard
3.2.1 aggressive environment
combination of liquid or gaseous media and temperature that alters static or
fatigue crack-growth characteristics from normal behaviour associated with an
ambient temperature and laboratory air environment
3.2.2 analytical life
life evaluated analytically by crack-growth analysis or fatigue analysis
3.2.3 catastrophic hazard
see ECSS-Q-ST-40B
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 16603-32-01:2020
prEN 16603-32-01:2020 (E)
3.2.4 close visual inspection

close proximity, intense visual examination of the internal and external surfaces

of a structure, including structural details or locations, for indications of impact

damage, flaws, and other surface defects
NOTE The inspection capability is evaluated by the
surface deflection measurement (impact depth).
The close visual inspection is considered to
detect reliably a deflection larger than the
visual damage threshold (VDT).
3.2.5 containment

damage tolerance design principle that, if a part fails, prevents the propagation

of failure effects beyond the container boundaries
NOTE 1 A contained part is not considered PFCI, unless its
release can cause a hazard inside the container.
The container is a PFCI, and its structural integrity
after impact is verified as part of fracture control
activities.
NOTE 2 In this standard, the term containment in most
cases also covers items which are e.g. restrained by
a tether to prevent the occurrence of hazardous
events due to failure of the item.
3.2.6 crack-like defect
defect that has the same mechanical behaviour as a crack
NOTE 1 “Crack” and “crack-like defect” are considered
synonymous in this standard.
NOTE 2 Crack-like defects can, for example, be initiated
during material production, fabrication or testing
or developed during the service life of a
component.
NOTE 3 The term “crack-like defect” can include:
 For metallic materials flaws, inclusions,
pores and other similar defects.
 For non-metallic materials, debonding,
broken fibres, delamination, impact damage
and other specific defects depending on the
material.
3.2.7 crack aspect ratio, a/c
ratio of crack depth to half crack length
3.2.8 crack aspect ratio, a/c
ratio of crack depth to crack length
3.2.9 crack growth rate
rate of change of crack dimension with respect to the number of load cycles or
time
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 16603-32-01:2020
prEN 16603-32-01:2020 (E)
NOTE For example da/dN, dc/dN, da/dt and dc/dt.
3.2.10 crack growth retardation
reduction of crack-growth rate due to overloading of the cracked structural
member
3.2.11 critical crack size
the crack size at which the structure fails under the maximum specified load
NOTE The maximum specified load is in many cases
the limit load, but sometimes higher than the
limit load (e.g. for detected defects, composites
and glass items)
3.2.12 critical initial defect, CID

critical (i.e., maximum) initial crack size for which the structure can survive the

specified number of lifetimes.
3.2.13 critical stress-intensity factor
value of the stress-intensity factor at the tip of a crack at which unstable
propagation of the crack occurs
NOTE 1 This value is also called the fracture toughness.
The parameter KIC is the fracture toughness for
plane strain and is an inherent property of the
material. For stress conditions other than plane
strain, the fracture toughness is denoted KC. In
fracture mechanics analyses, failure is assumed to
be imminent when the applied stress-intensity
factor is equal to or exceeds its critical value, i.e.
the fracture toughness. See 3.2.24.
NOTE 2 The term fracture toughness is used as a
synonymous.
3.2.14 cyclic loading
fluctuating load (or pressure) characterized by relative degrees of loading and
unloading of a structure
NOTE For example, loads due to transient responses,
vibro-acoustic excitation, flutter, pressure
cycling and oscillating or reciprocating
mechanical equipment.
3.2.15 damage tolerance threshold strain
maximum strain level below which damage
compatible with the sizes established by non-destructive inspection (NDI), close
visual inspection, the damage threat assessment, or the minimum sizes imposed
6 8
does not grow in 10 cycles (10 cycles for rotating hardware) at a load ratio
appropriate to the application
NOTE 1 Strain level is the maximum absolute value of
strain in a load cycle.
---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 16603-32-01:2020
prEN 16603-32-01:2020 (E)
NOTE 2 The damage tolerance threshold strain is a
function of the material type and lay-up and is
determined from test data in the design
environment to the applicable or worst type and
orientation of strain and flaw for a particular
design and flaw size (e.g. the size determined by
the VDT).
3.2.16 damage tolerant
characteristic of a structure for which the amount of general degradation or the

size and distribution of local defects expected during operation, or both, do not

lead to structural degradation below specified performance
3.2.17 defect
see ‘flaw’ (3.1)
3.2.18 detected defect
defect known to exist in the hardware
3.2.19 fail-safe
damage-tolerance design principle, where a structure has
redundancy to ensure that failure of one structural element does not cause
general failure of the entire structure during the remaining lifetime
3.2.20 fastener
item that joins other structural items and transfers loads from one to the other
across a joint
3.2.21 fatigue
cumulative irreversible damage incurred by cyclic application of loads to
materials and structures
NOTE 1 Fatigue can initiate and extend cracks, which
degrade the strength of materials and structures.
NOTE 2 Examples of factors influencing fatigue behaviour
of the material are the environment, surface
condition and part dimensions
3.2.22 fracture critical item
item classified as such
3.2.23 fracture limited life item
hardware item that requires periodic re-inspection or replacement to be in
conformance with fracture control requirements
3.2.24 fracture toughness
materials’ resistance to the unstable propagation of a crack
NOTE See critical stress intensity factor, 3.2.13.
---------------------- Page: 16 ----------------------
oSIST prEN 16603-32-01:2020
prEN 16603-32-01:2020 (E)
3.2.25 initial crack size
maximum crack size, as defined by non-destructive inspection, for performing a
fracture control evaluation
3.2.26 joint
element that connects other structural elements and transfers loads from one to
the other across a connection
3.2.27 load enhancement factor, LEF

factor to be applied on the load level of the spectrum of fatigue test(s) in order

to demonstrate with the test(s) a specified level of reliability and confidence
NOTE 1 The LEF is dependent upon the material or
construction, the number of test articles, and the
duration of the tests.
NOTE 2 MIL-HDBK-17F, Volume 3, Section 7.6.3 gives an
approach for calculating the LEF for composite
structures.
3.2.28 loading event
condition, phenomenon, environment or mission phase to which the structural
system is exposed and which induces loads in the structure
3.2.29 load spectrum
representation of the cumulative static and dynamic loadings anticipated for a
structural element during its service life
NOTE Load spectrum is also called load history.
3.2.30 mechanical dam
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.