This standard specifies requirements for the durability testing of coatings most commonly used for space applications, i.e.:
-   Thin film optical coatings
-   Thermo-optical and thermal control coatings (the majority are paints, metallic deposits and coatings for stray light reduction)
-   Metallic coatings for other applications (RF, electrical, corrosion protection)
This standard covers testing for both ground and in-orbit phases of a space mission, mainly for satellite applications.
This standard applies to coatings within off the shelf items
This standard specifies the types of test to be performed for each class of coating, covering the different phases of a space project (evaluation, qualification and acceptance)
This standard does not cover:
-   The particular qualification requirements for a specific mission
-   Specific applications of coatings for launchers (e.g. high temperature coatings)
-   Specific functional testing requirements for the different coating classes
-   Test requirements for long term storage
-   Solar cell cover glass coatings
-   Surface treatments and conformal coatings applied on EEE parts

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This Standard specifies the physical interconnection media and data communication protocols to enable the reliable sending of data at high­speed (between 2 Mb/s and 400 Mb/s) from one unit to another. SpaceWire links are full­duplex, point­to­point, serial data communication links.
The scope of this Standard is the physical connectors and cables, electrical properties, and logical protocols that comprise the SpaceWire data link. SpaceWire provides a means of sending packets of information from a source node to a specified destination node. SpaceWire does not specify the contents of the packets of information.
This Standard covers the following protocol levels:
•   Physical level: Defines connectors, cables, cable assemblies and printed circuit board tracks.
•   Signal level: Defines signal encoding, voltage levels, noise margins, and data signalling rates.
•   Character level: Defines the data and control characters used to manage the flow of data across a link.
•   Exchange level: Defines the protocol for link initialization, flow control, link error detection and link error recovery.
•   Packet level: Defines how data for transmission over a SpaceWire link is split up into packets.
•   Network level: Defines the structure of a SpaceWire network and the way in which packets are transferred from a source node to a destination node across a network. It also defines how link errors and network level errors are handled.
This Standard may be tailored for the specific characteristics and constraints of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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This Standard defines the requirements for the control of nonconformances.
This Standard applies to all deliverable products and supplies, at all levels, which fail to conform to project requirements.
This Standard is applicable throughout the whole project lifecycle as defined in ECSS-M-ST-10.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristics and constrains of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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This Standard defines the quality assurance (QA) requirements for the establishment and implementation of a Quality Assurance
programme for products of space projects. Discipline related qualification activities are complemented in standards specific to those
disciplines (e.g. ECSS-E-ST-32-01 for fracture control).
For software quality assurance, the software product assurance standard, ECSS-Q-ST-80 is applicable.
This Standard is applicable to all space projects.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constrains of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.
For the tailoring of this standard the following information is provided:
- A table providing the pre-tailoring per "Product types" in clause 6
- A table providing the pre-tailoring per "Project phase" in Annex J

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This document constitutes the main deliverable from WP1.1 of the GP-START project. It is devoted to a thorough review of the metrics defined in EN 16803-1 and proposes a performance classification for GNSS-based positioning terminals within designed for road applications. It will serve as one of the inputs to the elaboration of prEN 16803-2:2019 and prEN 16803-3:2019.
This document should serve as a starting point for discussion within CEN/CENELEC/JTC 5/WG1 on a consolidated set of performance metrics and associated classification logic. The proposals and conclusions appearing in this document are therefore only preliminary.

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This document is written in the frame of WP1.3 of GP-START project. It discusses several models to provide synthetic data for PVT tracks and the ways to analyse and compare the tracks to ensure these are similar to the reality.

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This standard contains planetary protection requirements, including:
-   Planetary protection management requirements;
-   Technical planetary protection requirements for robotic and human missions (forward and backward contamination);
-   Planetary protection requirements related to procedures;
-   Document Requirements Descriptions (DRD) and their relation to the respective reviews.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constraints of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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This European Standard defines Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs). It is applicable primarily to space system hardware, although the definitions could be used in a wider domain in many cases.
The definition of the TRLs provides the conditions to be met at each level, enabling accurate TRL assessment.

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This standard addresses the qualification and procurement of printed circuit boards, which are necessary for all type of space projects.

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This document defines the primary space debris mitigation requirements applicable to all elements of systems launched into, or passing through, near-Earth space, including launch vehicle orbital stages, operating spacecraft and any objects released as part of normal operations or disposal actions.
The requirements contained in this document are intended to reduce the growth of space debris by ensuring that spacecraft and launch vehicle orbital stages are designed, operated and disposed of in a manner that prevents them from generating debris throughout their orbital lifetime.
This document is the top-level standard in a family of standards addressing debris mitigation. It will be the main interface for the user, bridging between the primary debris mitigation requirements and the lower-level implementation standards that will ensure compliance.
This document does not cover launch phase safety for which specific rules are defined elsewhere.
This document identifies the clauses and requirements modified with respect to ISO 24113, Space systems - Space debris mitigation requirements, Second edition 2011-05-15 for application in ECSS.

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This Standard specifies the requirements applicable to the concept definition, design, analysis, development, production, test verification and in­orbit operation of space mechanisms on spacecraft and payloads in order to meet the mission performance requirements.
This version of the standard has not been produced with the objective to cover also the requirements for mechanisms on launchers. Applicability of the requirements contained in this current version of the standard to launcher mechanisms is a decision left to the individual launcher project.
Requirements in this Standard are defined in terms of what shall be accomplished, rather than in terms of how to organise and perform the necessary work. This allows existing organizational structures and methods to be applied where they are effective, and for the structures and methods to evolve as necessary without rewriting the standards. Complementary non-ECSS handbooks and guidelines exist to support mechanism design.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constrains of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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This Standard defines the requirements for the use of explosives on all spacecraft and other space products including launch vehicles. It addresses the aspects of design, analysis, verification, manufacturing, operations and safety.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristics and constraints of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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This Standard defines the technical requirements and quality assurance provisions for the manufacture and verification of high-reliability electronic circuits based on surface mounted device (SMD) and mixed technology.
The Standard defines acceptance and rejection criteria for high-reliability manufacture of surface-mount and mixed-technology circuit assemblies intended to withstand normal terrestrial conditions and the vibrational g loads and environment imposed by space flight.
The proper tools, correct materials, design and workmanship are covered by this document. Workmanship standards are included to permit discrimination between proper and improper work.
The assembly of leaded devices to through-hole terminations and general soldering principles are covered in ECSS-Q-ST-70-08.
Requirements related to printed circuit boards are contained in ECSS-Q-ST-70 10, ECSS-Q-ST-70-11 and ECSS-Q-ST-70-12 . The mounting and supporting of devices, terminals and conductors prescribed herein applies to assemblies at PCB level designed to continuously operate over the mission within the temperature limits of -55 C to +85 C.
For temperatures outside this normal range, special design, verification and qualification testing is performed to ensure the necessary environmental survival capability.
Special thermal heat sinks are applied to devices having high thermal dissipation (e.g. junction temperatures of 110 C, power transistors) in order to ensure that solder joints do not exceed 85 C.
Verification of SMD assembly processes is made on test vehicles (surface mount verification samples). Temperature cycling ensures the operational lifetime for spacecraft. However, mechanical testing only indicates SMD reliability as it is unlikely that the test vehicle represents every flight configuration.
This Standard does not cover the qualification and acceptance of the EQM and FM equipment with surface-mount and mixed-technology.
The qualification and acceptance tests of equipment manufactured in accordance with this Standard are covered by ECSS-E-ST-10-03.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristics and constraints of a space project, in accordance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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The purpose of this NWIP is to produce an ECSS standard for the Exchange of Thermal Model Data for Space Applications. The standard will be based on a draft standard resulting from an activity performed by ESA only in 2013/2014 called "Standard for Exchange of Thermal Model Data for Space Applications".
The content of the standard is already defined in draft form under the name "STEP-TAS" ("STEP-based draft application protocol for Thermal Analysis for Space"). This protocol has been implemented in a number of thermal analysis tools and is successfully used in both ESA and non-ESA space projects. The maturity of the protocol is therefore well-established.
The global objective of this document is to define and describe the standard protocol for Exchange of Thermal Model Data for Space Applications, previously known as STEP-TAS protocol.

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This Standard specifies:
•   Requirements for the following crimping wire terminations intended for high reliability electrical connections for use on customer
spacecraft and associated equipment operating under high vacuum, thermal cycling and launch vibration:
•   removable contacts, single wires
•   removable contacts, multiple wires
•   coaxial connectors, ferrules
•   lugs and splices.
NOTE    These are the most common used crimping wire termination and are represented in Figure 1 1.
•   The general conditions to be met for the approval of terminations other than the above mentioned ones.
NOTE    Additional forms of crimps, not covered in this standard, are listed (not exhaustively) in the informative Annex A.
•   Product assurance provisions for both the specific and the generic terminations mentioned above.
•   Training and certification requirements for operators and inspectors (clause 5.5.2), additional to those specified in ECSS Q ST-20.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristics and constraints of a space project, in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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This ECSS Standard describes the procedures to be used to clean to a level of cleanliness beyond the scope of the ECSS-Q-ST-70-01, and to control the cleanliness level of flight hardware prior to and following a posteriori to the application of the ultracleaning process. The intended objective of the ultracleaning process is to remove all surface contamination (particulates, biologic material cell debris and chemical molecular contamination) on flight hardware, with no specific limit in geometric dimension or contamination levels. This includes removal of biological material for avoidance of false positive results during investigation of extra-terrestrial samples or environments.

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This document is the top–level document of the EN 16000 Series of European Space Standards. It gives a general introduction into European Space Standards and their use in space programmes and projects.
Its purpose is to provide users with an overview of the European Space Standards System (that is based on the ECSS System), together with an introduction to the various branches of applicability and to the disciplines covered by these set of Standards and the processes involved in generating and using these standards.
As an introduction into space programmes, space projects actors and their customer-supplier relationships are described.
The branches are:
-   EN 16001 Series: Space system and Space project management
-   EN 16002 Series: Space product assurance
-   EN 16003 Series: Space engineering
-   EN 16004 Series: Space sustainability
Application of the ECSS System for space projects in the customer-supplier chain is explained and a practical tailoring method is described together with methods for collecting and processing user feedback.
Finally top-level requirements are defined for implementation of the ECSS system in space projects/programmes.
This standard is applicable to all the procurements of space products.
With effect from the date of approval, this Standard announces the adoption of the external document on a restricted basis for use in the European Cooperation for Space Standardization (ECSS) system.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constraints of a space project in conformance with clause 7 of this standard.

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The purpose of the proposed Standard is to summarise the (general) corrosion protection requirements applicable to the materials, surface treatments, finishing and manufacturing processes used for space flight hardware.
It contains the minimum requirements necessary to guarantee and verify the suitability of materials, coatings systems and processes for corrosion control of space rated products.
The Standard classifies the corrosion environments and requires the issuing of a Corrosion Prevention and Control Plan based on the identified environmental classes. Testing and acceptance criteria are specified for each environmental class.
The scope of the document would include all flight parts and components used for space missions including Ground Support Equipment (GSE), where the materials and processes used in interfacing ground support equipment, test equipment, hardware processing equipment, hardware packaging and hardware shipment are to be controlled in order to prevent damage to or contamination of flight hardware.

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This Standard specifies the processing and quality assurance requirements for the different types of metallic welding (manual, automatic, semi-automatic and machine) for space flight applications. This standard can also be used for weld activities on space related ground equipment and development models for flight hardware. The Standard covers all welding processes used for joining metallic materials for space applications. This includes, but is not limited to:
-   Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) / Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG), (process 14)
-   Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) / Metal Inert Gas (MIG) (process 13)
-   Plasma Arc Welding (PAW) / Plasma of Transferred Arc (PTA), (process 15)
-   Electron beam welding (EBW), (process 51)
-   Laser beam welding (LBW), (process 52)
-   Friction Stir welding (process 43)
-   Magnetic Pulse welding (process 442)
-   Linear friction welding (process 42)
-   Rotary friction welding (process 42)
The specific process numbers mentioned above are listed according to the standard ISO 4063:2009.
This Standard does not detail the weld definition phase and welding pre-verification phase, including the derivation of design allowables.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constraints of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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This Standard defines a set of software product assurance requirements to be used for the development and maintenance of software for space systems. Space systems include manned and unmanned spacecraft, launchers, payloads, experiments and their associated ground equipment and facilities. Software includes the software component of firmware.
This Standard also applies to the development or reuse of non­deliverable software which affects the quality of the deliverable product or service provided by a space system, if the service is implemented by software.
ECSS-Q-ST-80 interfaces with space engineering and management, which are addressed in the Engineering (-E) and Management (-M) branches of the ECSS System, and explains how they relate to the software product assurance processes.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constraints of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.
Tailoring of this Standard to a specific business agreement or project, when software product assurance requirements are prepared, is also addressed in clause 4.3.

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This Standard establishes the requirements for the verification of a space system product.
It defines the fundamental concepts of the verification process, the criteria for defining the verification strategy and specifies the requirements for the implementation of the verification programme. It includes also the list of the expected documentation (i.e. Document requirements definitions, DRDs).
This Standard is intended to apply to different products at different levels from a single equipment to the overall system.
Discipline related verification aspects are complemented in Standards specific to those disciplines.
For verification process for SW the following standards are considered fully sufficient for development of these items:
-   ECSS-E-ST-40 Space engineering - Software
-   ECSS-Q-ST-80 Space product assurance - Software product assurance
Detailed requirements for Testing are covered in the ECSS E-ST-10-03.
This standard does not specifically address Validation of space products as a separate process, since product Verification is performed against requirements that also address the suitability of the product to fulfil the needs of its intended use. As such, Validation is achieved through the Verification process provided adequate requirements are placed on the product.
It is recognised that testing and analysis also occur during the product development process, but they are not addressed by this standard as they are not formal requirement verification activities in the sense of the customer-supplier relationship.
The guidelines on verification are provided in the associated handbook ECSS-E-HB-10-02A.
The requirements on the systems engineering process are gathered in ECSS-E-ST-10 "System Engineering"; specific aspects of the SE process are further elaborated in dedicated standards, in particular: ECSS-E-ST-10-06 "Technical Specification", ECSS-E-ST-10-02 "Verification" (the present standard), and ECSS-E-ST-10-03 "Testing". These standards are based on the same principles, process and documentation model.
The applicability of each these standards can therefore not be considered in isolation from the others
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constraints of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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This Standard specifies gyros functions and performances as part of a space project. This Standard covers aspects of functional and performance requirements, including nomenclature, definitions, functions and performance metrics for the performance specification of spaceborne gyros.
The Standard focuses on functional and performance specifications with the exclusion of mass and power, TM/TC interface and data structures.
When viewed from the perspective of a specific project context, the requirements defined in this Standard can be tailored to match the genuine requirements of a particular profile and circumstances of a project.
The requirements verification by test can be performed at qualification level only or also at acceptance level. It is up to the Supplier, in agreement with the customer, to define the relevant verification approach in the frame of a specific procurement, in accordance with clause 5.2 of ECSS-E-ST-10-02.
The present standard does not cover gyro use for launch vehicles.
This standard can be tailored for the specific characteristics and constraints of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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This standard defines requirements for two-phase heat transportation equipment (TPHTE), for use in spacecraft thermal control.
This standard is applicable to new hardware qualification activities.
Requirements for mechanical pump driven loops (MPDL) are not included in the present version of this Standard.
This standard includes definitions, requirements and DRDs from ECSS-E-ST-10-02, ECSS-E-ST-10-03, and ECSS-E-ST-10-06 applicable to TPHTE qualification. Therefore, these three standards are not applicable to the qualification of TPHTE.
This standard also includes definitions and part of the requirements of ECSS-E-ST-32-02 applicable to TPHTE qualification.
ECSS-E-ST-32-02 is therefore applicable to the qualification of TPHTE.
This standard does not include requirements for acceptance of TPHTE.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constrains of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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The target applications covered by this standard are all missions traditionally provided with power distribution and protection by LCLs/RLCLs (science, earth observation, navigation) with exclusion of telecom applications which are traditionally provided with power distribution and protection by fuses.
The present standard applies to power distribution by LCLs/RLCLs for power systems, and in general for satellites, required to be Single Point Failure Free.
The present standard document applies exclusively to the main bus power distribution by LCLs/RLCLs to external satellite loads.
Internal power system protections of LCLs/RLCLs are not covered.
Paralleling of LCLs to increase power supply line reliability is not covered by the present standard, since this choice does not appreciably change the reliability of the overall function (i.e. LCL plus load).
In fact, a typical reliability figure of the LCL (limited to the loss of its switch ON capability) is 20 FIT or less.
If the load to be connected to the LCL line has a substantial higher failure rate than this, it is not necessary to duplicate the LCL to supply that load.

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This European Standard specifies the definition of the different processing steps (levels) of images coming from Earth observation systems observing the surface of the Earth regarding the different sensor sources of the origin data.
It applies at least to image products generated from the following types of sensors:
-   electro-optical (including infrared and hyper-spectral);
-   SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar).
The standard allows to identify the information depth and the used auxiliary data/information. Furthermore it allows the comprehension of image data from different sources and gives hints about the information compatibility.

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This Standard defines the dependability assurance programme and the dependability requirements for space systems.
Dependability assurance is a continuous and iterative process throughout the project life cycle.
The ECSS dependability policy for space projects is applied by implementing a dependability assurance programme, which comprises:
-   identification of all technical risks with respect to functional needs which can lead to non-compliance with dependability requirements,
-   application of analysis and design methods to ensure that dependability targets are met,
-   optimization of the overall cost and schedule by making sure that:
-   design rules, dependability analyses and risk reducing actions are tailored with respect to an appropriate severity categorisation,
-   risks reducing actions are implemented continuously since the early phase of a project and especially during the design phase.
-   inputs to serial production activities.
The dependability requirements for functions implemented in software, and the interaction between hardware and software, are identified in this Standard.
NOTE 1   The requirements for the product assurance of software are defined in ECSS-Q-ST-80.
NOTE 2   The dependability assurance programme supports the project risk management process as described in ECSS-M-ST-80
This Standard applies to all European space projects. The provisions of this document apply to all project phases.
Depending of the product category, the application of this standard needs to be checked and if needed tailored. The pre-tailoring table in clause 8 contains the applicability of the requirements of this document and its annexes according to product type.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristics and constraints of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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This standard specifies the system engineering implementation requirements for space systems and space products development.
Specific objectives of this standard are:
-   to implement the system engineering requirements to establish a firm technical basis and to minimize technical risk and cost for space systems and space products development;
-   to specify the essential system engineering tasks, their objectives and outputs;
-   to implement integration and control of engineering disciplines and lower level system engineering work;
-   to implement the "customer-system-supplier mode" through the development of systems and products for space applications.
Depending of the product category, the application of this standard needs to be checked and if needed tailored. The pre-tailoring table in clause 7 contains the applicability of the requirements of this document and its annexes according to product type. Specific requirements related to system engineering, like technical specification, verification, and testing are specified in dedicated documents and standards within the set of ECSS system engineering standards ECSS-E-ST-10-XX.
Discipline or element specific engineering implementation requirements are covered in dedicated ECSS standards. These standards are based on the same principles, process and documentation model. The applicability of each these standards can therefore not be considered in isolation from the others.
NOTE 1   The term "Discipline" is defined in ECSS-M-ST-10, as "a specific area of expertise within a general subject". The name of the discipline normally indicates the type of expertise, e.g. in the ECSS system mechanical engineering, software and communications are disciplines within the engineering domain.
NOTE 2   The requirements on the system engineering process are gathered in this standard; specific aspects of the SE process are further elaborated in dedicated standards.
For engineering process both for SW and for Ground Segment and Operations the following standards are considered fully sufficient for development of these items:
-   ECSS-E-ST-70 Space engineering - Ground systems and operations
-   ECSS-E-ST-40 Space engineering - Software
-   ECSS-Q-ST-80 Space product assurance - Software product assurance
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constrains of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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This Standard defines the safety programme and the safety technical requirements aiming to protect flight and ground personnel, the launch vehicle, associated payloads, ground support equipment, the general public, public and private property, the space system and associated segments and the environment from hazards associated with European space systems.
This Standard is applicable to all European space projects.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constraints of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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This Standard addresses the utilization of telecommand packets and telemetry packets for the purposes of remote monitoring and control of spacecraft subsystems and payloads.
   This Standard does not address mission­specific payload data packets, but the rules contained herein can be extended to suit the requirements of any mission.
   This Standard does not address audio and video data as they are not contained within either telecommand or telemetry packets.
   This Standard defines a set of services that satisfy all the fundamental operational requirements for spacecraft monitoring and control during spacecraft integration, testing and flight operations, refer to ECSS-E-ST-70-11. It also specifies the structure and contents of the telecommand packets used to transport the requests and the telemetry packets used to transport the reports.
   This Standard can be used by any mission, no matter what its domain of application, orbit or ground station coverage characteristics. However, it is not the intention that the PUS should be applied in its entirety to a given mission. The services defined in this Standard cover a wide spectrum of operational scenarios and, for a given mission, only a subset of these services is likely to be appropriate.
   Choices are made early in the design phase of a new mission resulting in the need to tailor the PUS to suit the requirements of that mission. These choices include:
•   the on-board system design and architecture, in terms of the number of on-board application processes, their on-board implementation (e.g. the allocation to on-board processors) and their roles (i.e. which functions or subsystems or payloads they support);
•   which PUS services are supported by each application process.
   Each mission usually documents the results of this design and selection process in a "Space-to-Ground Interface Control Document".
   Some missions implement a centralized architecture with a small number of application processes, whilst others have a highly­distributed architecture within which a correspondingly larger number of application processes are distributed across several on-board processors.
   The specification of services in this Standard is adapted to the expectation that different missions require different levels of complexity and capability from a given service. To this end, all services are optional and a given service can be implemented at one of several distinct levels, corresponding to the inclusion of one or more capability sets. The minimum capability set corresponds to the simplest possible level that also remains sensible and coherent. At least this set is included in every implementation of a given service.
   The standardized PUS services fulfil the following criteria:
•   Commonality: each standard service corresponds to a group of capabilities applicable to many missions.
•   Coherence: the capabilities provided by each standard service are closely related and their scope is unambiguously specified. Each standard service covers all the activities for managing inter­related state information and all activities that use that state information.
•   Self-containment: each standard service has minimum and well-defined interactions with other services or on-board functions.
•   Implementation independence: the standard services neither assume nor exclude a particular spacecraft architecture (hardware or software).

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This standard describes a standard process and methodology for interface management throughout the life cycle, in terms of identification, requirements specification, definition, approval and control, implementation, verification and validation of interfaces, within a space programme or project and in accordance with the other relevant ECSS standards.

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This standard is applicable to spacecraft projects that opt to use the CAN Network for spacecraft on-board communications and control. It also defines the optional use of the CANopen standard as an application layer protocol operating in conjunction with the CAN Network data link layer.
This standard does not modify the basic CAN Network specification and complies with ISO 11898-1/-2:2003. This standard does define protocol extensions needed to meet spacecraft specific requirements.
This standard covers the vast majority of the on-board data bus requirements for a broad range of different mission types. However, there can be some cases where a mission has particularly constraining requirements that are not fully in line with those specified in this standard. In those cases this standard is still applicable as the basis for the use of CAN Network, especially for physical layer and redundancy management.

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TC - Mistake in formula

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The ECSS standards of the Q branch describe a set of requirements for a Product Assurance programme to be implemented throughout the phases of a space project.
This document defines the Product assurance management requirements for space projects.
This document is structured in two main parts, the first part presenting the principles of Product Assurance management and the second providing the detailed requirements.
In addition, the expected content of the Product Assurance plan is specified in Annex A. Information on the expected delivery of ECSS PA management discipline documents per review is provided in Annex C.
This Standard is applicable to all space projects.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constrains of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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This European Standard specifies the requirements and statements applicable to materials, mechanical parts and processes to satisfy the mission performance requirements.
This standard also specifies the documentation requirements and the procedures relevant to obtaining approval for the use of materials, mechanical parts and processes in the fabrication of space systems and associated equipment.
This standard covers the following:
-   management, including organization, reviews, acceptance status and documentation control;
-   selection criteria and rules;
-   evaluation, validation and qualification, or verification testing;
-   procurement and receiving inspection;
-   utilization criteria and rules.
The relationship between activities and programme phases is defined in Annex E.
The provisions of this standard apply to all actors involved at all levels in the production of space systems. These can include manned and unmanned spacecraft, launchers, satellites, payloads, experiments, electrical ground support equipment, mechanical ground support equipment, and their corresponding organizations.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristics and constraints of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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This standard specifies the requirements for the supplier and PCB manufacturer for PCB design.
This standard is applicable for all types of PCBs, including sequential, rigid and flexible PCBs, HDI and RF PCBs.
This standard can be made applicable for other products combining mechanical and electrical functionality using additive or reductive manufacturing processes, as used in PCB manufacturing. Examples of such products are slip rings and bus bars.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristics and constraints of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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ECSS-E-ST-32-08 specifies the mechanical engineering requirements for materials. This Standard also encompasses the mechanical effects of the natural and induced environments to which materials used for space applications can be subjected.
This standard specifies requirements for the establishment of the mechanical and physical properties of the materials to be used for space applications, and the verification of these requirements.
Verification includes destructive and non-destructive test methods. Quality assurance requirements for materials (e.g. procurement and control) are covered by ECSS-Q-ST-70.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristics and constrains of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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This Standard specifies the requirements applicable to materials, processes and their data selection to satisfy the mission performance requirements.
This Standard covers the following:
•   selection criteria and rules;
•   utilization criteria and rules.
The provisions of this Standard apply to all actors involved at all levels in the production of space systems. These can include manned and unmanned spacecraft, launchers, satellites, payloads, experiments, electrical ground support equipment, mechanical ground support equipment, and their corresponding organizations.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristics and constraints of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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This standard specifies quality assurance and safety assurance requirements for space test centres, applicable to the test process, test personnel (both, of the customer and the space test centre), test facilities, test environment and any operations related to the test specimen under responsibility of the space test centre as requested by the customer.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constraints of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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The standard specifies requirements to ensure safe handling, storage, transportation of space segment hardware, including associated items to avoid degradation from integration up to launch.
The standard is applicable to: Space systems, Space segments, Assembled Spacecraft, Space segment elements, Spacecraft Modules, space segment subsystems, space segment equipment, partly manufactured space segment equipment. Intended programs are all space programs and target users all space hardware suppliers and customers.
The standard does not cover obsolescence management issues.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constrains of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.
NOTE    This standard is applicable to GSE, when mentioned in the different clauses of this standard.

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This standard specifies procedures for the reduction of microbiological contamination of flight hardware using hydrogen peroxide vapour.
The procedures specified in this standard cover:
•   Reduction of microbiological contamination on exposed surfaces.
•   Reduction of microbiological contamination in controlled ambient and vacuum environments.
This standard also specifies requirements for the conditioning of the flight hardware, bioburden reduction cycle development, and equipment to be used for applying a bioburden reduction procedure.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristics and constraints of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00C.

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This Standard specifies a baseline for the attitude and orbit control system requirements to be used in the Project Requirements Document for space applications.
Project requirements documents are included in business agreements, which are agreed between the parties and binding them, at any level of space programmes, as described in ECSS-S-ST-00.
This Standard deals with the attitude and orbit control systems developed as part of a satellite space project. The classical attitude and orbit control systems considered here include the following functions:
•   Attitude estimation
•   Attitude guidance
•   Attitude control
•   Orbit control
•   Orbit estimation, called Navigation in this document, can be part of the function for missions which explicitly require this function
•   Acquisition and maintenance of a safe attitude in emergency cases and return to nominal mission upon command
The present Standard does not cover missions that include the following functions:
•   Real-time on-board trajectory guidance and control
•   Real-time on-board relative position estimation and control
Example of such missions are rendezvous, formation flying, launch vehicles and interplanetary vehicles.
Although the present document does not cover the above mentioned types of mission, it can be used as a reference document for them.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constraints of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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This standard defines test procedures for quantitative and/or qualitative microbiological examination of surfaces of flight hardware and in microbiologically controlled environments (e.g. cleanroom surfaces, cleanroom air, isolator systems).
The following test methods are described:
•   Surface and air sampling and detection of biological contaminants with swabs, wipes, contact plates and air samplers, followed by cultivation for bioburden determination.
•   Sampling of biological contaminants by DNA analysis from swabs and wipes.
The test methods described in this standard apply to controlling the microbiological contamination on all manned and unmanned spacecraft, launchers, payloads, experiments, ground support equipment, and cleanrooms with planetary protection constraints.
This standard does not address molecular contamination control.
This standard does not address the principles and basic methodology for controlling cleanrooms and associated controlled environments
with constraints on particulate contamination.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constrains of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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This standard defines procedures for the reduction of microbiological contamination of flight hardware using heat.
The procedures described in this standard cover:
•   Reduction of microbiological contamination on exposed surfaces, mated surfaces and encapsulated in materials.
•   Reduction of microbiological contamination in dry, ambient and uncontrolled humidity environments.
This standard also sets requirements for the conditioning of the flight hardware, bioburden reduction cycle development, and equipment to be used for applying a bioburden reduction procedure.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristics and constraints of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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This standard establishes the principles and basic methodology for microbiological control of cleanrooms and associated controlled environments with planetary protection constraints.
This standard does not address:
•   the microbiological contamination control of  spaceflight hardware;
•   molecular contamination control. Reference is made to other documents;
•   fire and safety regulations; for these, see regulatory requirements and other national or local documentation.
This standard does not lay down the methods for determining the microbiological and particulate cleanliness levels. Reference is made to other documents.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constrains of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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This standard defines the requirements for selection, control, procurement and usage of EEE components for space projects.
This standard differentiates between three classes of components through three different sets of standardization requirements (clauses) to be met.
The three classes provide for three levels of trade-off between assurance and risk. The highest assurance and lowest risk is provided by class 1 and the lowest assurance and highest risk by class 3. Procurement costs are typically highest for class 1 and lowest for class 3. Mitigation and other engineering measures may decrease the total cost of ownership differences between the three classes. The project objectives, definition and constraints determine which class or classes of components are appropriate to be utilised within the system and subsystems.
a.   Class 1 components are described in Clause 4.
b.   Class 2 components are described in Clause 5
c.   Class 3 components are described in Clause 6.
The requirements of this document apply to all parties involved at all levels in the integration of EEE components into space segment hardware and launchers.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristics and constraints of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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This standard defines the requirements for selection, control, procurement and usage of EEE commercial components for space projects.
This standard is applicable to commercial encapsulated active monolithic parts (integrated circuits and discrete):
•   diodes
•   microwave diodes
•   integrated circuits
•   microwave integrated circuits (MMIC)
•   transistors
•   microwave transistors
This standard is not applicable to the commercial parts from the following families:
•   capacitors
•   connectors
•   crystals
•   filters
•   fuses
•   heaters
•   inductors
•   microwave passive parts
•   oscillators
•   relays
•   resistors
•   switches
•   thermistors
•   transformers
•   cables & wires
•   hybrids
•   surface acoustic waves (SAW)
•   charge coupled devices (CCD)
•   active pixel sensors (APS)
In addition, the following families of EEE components are not addressed by the present ECSS standard but it can be used as guideline and revisited on case/case basis:
•   photodiodes
•   light emitting diodes (LED)
•   phototransistors
•   opto-couplers
•   laser diodes
In line with ECSS-Q-ST-60, this standard differentiates between three classes of components through three different sets of standardization requirements (clauses) to be met.
The three classes provide for three levels of trade-off between assurance and risk. The highest assurance and lowest risk is provided by class 1 and the lowest assurance and highest risk by class 3. Procurement costs are typically highest for class 1 and lowest for class 3. Mitigation and other engineering measures can decrease the total cost of ownership differences between the three classes. The project objectives, definition and constraints determine which class or classes of components are appropriate to be utilised within the system and subsystems.
a.   Class 1 components are described in Clause 4
b.   Class 2 components are described in Clause 5
c.   Class 3 components are described in Clause 6
Annex G includes a diagram that summarizes the difference between these three classes for evaluation, screening and lot acceptance.
The requirements of this document are applicable to all parties involved at all levels in the integration of EEE commercial components into space segment hardware and launchers.
For easy tailoring and implementation of the requirements into a Requirement Management Tool, and for direct traceability to ECSS-Q-ST-60, requirements in this standards have been written in the way of a ECSS Applicability Requirement Matrix (EARM), as defined in Annex A of ECSS-S-ST-00 “ECSS system – Description, implementation and general requirements”.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristics and constrains of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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There is a number of communication protocols that can be used in conjunction with the SpaceWire Standard (ECSS-E-ST-50-12), to provide a comprehensive set of services for onboard user applications. To distinguish between the various protocols a protocol identifier is used, as specified in ECSS-E-ST-50-51.
This Standard specifies the CCSDS packet transfer protocol, which is one of these protocols that works over SpaceWire.
The aim of the CCSDS Packet Transfer Protocol is to transfer CCSDS Packets across a SpaceWire network. It does this by encapsulating the CCSDS Packet in a SpaceWire packet, transferring it across the SpaceWire network and then extracting the CCSDS Packet at the target.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constrains of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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This Standard defines the concept for an OBCP system, identifying the on-board functionality for OBCP execution and the ground functionality for OBCP preparation and subsequent control.
This Standard also defines the development lifecycle for OBCPs and identifies the relationships of this lifecycle with the overall space system, and in particular with the other elements of the on-board software.
This Standard assumes that missions implementing OBCPs are also compliant with ECSS-E-70-41, since a number of services contained therein are invoked in support of the operation of OBCPs and their interaction with the ground.
This Standard may be tailored for the specific characteristic and constraints of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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This Standard describes the methodology, instruments, equipment and samples, used to calculate the thermo-optical properties of thermal-control materials. The following test methods are detailed in this Standard including the configuration of samples and calculations: - Solar absorptance using spectrometer (s) - (see Annex C.2). - Comparative test method (p) - (see Annex C.3). - Infrared emittance using thermal test method (h) - (see Annex C.4). - Infrared emittance using IR spectrometer (h) - (see annex C.5). - Infrared emittance using portable equipment (n) - (see Annex C.6). This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristics and constraints of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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This Standard defines the monitoring and control data that a supplier delivers together with a product in order to allow a customer to
perform space system integration, testing and mission operations.
The requirements in this Standard are defined in terms of what data is provided by the supplier to the customer. How this data is provided (e.g. using spreadsheet data or XML) is outside of scope.
The Standard assumes that missions conform to the following ECSS standards:
•   ECSS-E-ST-50 and ECSS-E-ST-70;
•   ECSS E ST-70 41;
•   ECSS E ST-70 32.
This standard may be tailored for the specific characteristics and constrains of a space project in conformance with ECSS-S-ST-00.

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