Mountain-bicycles - Safety requirements and test methods

This European Standard specifies safety and performance requirements for the design, assembly, and testing of bicycles and sub-assemblies intended for off-road, rough-terrain use, and lays down guide lines for instructions on the use and care of such bicycles. It applies to bicycles on which the saddle can be adjusted to provide a maximum saddle height of 635 mm or more.
NOTE   For bicycles with a saddle height of less than 435 mm see EN 71 and with a maximum saddle height of more than 435 mm and less than 635 mm see EN 14765.
It does not apply to racing bicycles and specialised types of bicycle such as tandems or bicycles designed and equipped for use in severe applications such as sanctioned competition events, stunting, or aerobatic manoeuvres.
No requirements on lighting equipment, reflectors and warning devices are specified in this European Standard, due to the existence of several different national regulations applicable in the European Countries.

Geländefahrräder (Mountainbikes) - Sicherheitstechnische Anforderungen und Prüfverfahren

Diese Europäische Norm legt Anforderungen an die Leistung und Sicherheitstechnik der Konstruktion, des Zusammenbaus und der Prüfung von Fahrrädern zur Benutzung querfeldein und im unwegsamen Gelände fest und enthält Anleitungen zur Benutzung und Pflege dieser Fahrräder. Sie gilt für Fahrräder mit einer maximalen Sattelhöhe von 635 mm oder mehr.
ANMERKUNG   Fahrräder mit einer Sattelhöhe von weniger als 435 mm siehe EN 71 und mit einer maximalen Sattelhöhe über 435 mm bis 635 mm siehe EN 14765.
Sie gilt nicht für Rennräder und Spezialradtypen wie Tandem-Fahrräder oder Fahrräder, deren Konstruktion und Ausstattung die Benutzung in harten Einsatzgebieten wie im genehmigten Wettbewerb, bei Trickfahrten oder Kunstflugbewegungen vorsieht.
In dieser Europäischen Norm sind keine Anforderungen an Beleuchtungsanlagen, Reflektoren und Warnvorrichtungen festgelegt, da verschiedene unterschiedliche nationale Vorschriften bestehen, die in den Europäischen Ländern anzuwenden sind.

Bicyclettes tout terrain - Exigences de sécurité et méthodes d'essai

La présente norme européenne prescrit les exigences de sécurité et de performance à observer lors de la conception, de l’assemblage et des essais des bicyclettes destinées à une utilisation hors route et tout-terrain et de leurs sous-ensembles, et précise les lignes directrices concernant l'utilisation et l'entretien de ceux-ci. Elle s'applique aux bicyclettes sur lesquelles la selle peut être réglée pour offrir une hauteur maximale de selle supérieure ou égale à 635 mm.
NOTE   Pour les bicyclettes dont la hauteur maximale de selle est inférieure  à 435 mm, se reporter à la norme EN 71 ; pour une hauteur maximale de selle comprise entre 435 mm et 635 mm, se reporter à la norme prEN 14765.
Elle ne s'applique pas aux bicyclettes de course ni aux bicyclettes spécialisées telles que les tandems ou les bicyclettes conçues et équipées pour être utilisées dans des applications exigeantes telles que les  compétitions réglementées, les cascades "" ou les figures acrobatiques.
La présente norme européenne ne comporte pas d’exigences relatives aux dispositifs d’éclairage de signalisation et aux avertisseurs sonores compte tenu des différentes réglementations applicables dans les pays européens.

Gorska kolesa – Varnostne zahteve in preskusne metode

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
27-Feb-2006
Withdrawal Date
01-Jul-2014
Technical Committee
Drafting Committee
Current Stage
9960 - Withdrawal effective - Withdrawal
Completion Date
02-Jul-2014

Relations

Buy Standard

Standard
EN 14766:2006
English language
89 pages
sale 10% off
Preview
sale 10% off
Preview
e-Library read for
1 day

Standards Content (Sample)

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.Mountain-bicycles - Safety requirements and test methodsGorska kolesa – Varnostne zahteve in preskusne metodeBicyclettes tout terrain - Exigences de sécurité et méthodes d'essaiGeländefahrräder (Mountainbikes) - Sicherheitstechnische Anforderungen und PrüfverfahrenTa slovenski standard je istoveten z:EN 14766:2005SIST EN 14766:2006en97.220.4043.150ICS:SLOVENSKI

STANDARDSIST EN 14766:200601-september-2006

EUROPEAN STANDARDNORME EUROPÉENNEEUROPÄISCHE NORMEN 14766November 2005ICS 43.150 English VersionMountain-bicycles - Safety requirements and test methodsBicyclettes tout terrain - Exigences de sécurité et méthodesd'essaiGeländefahrräder (Mountainbikes) - SicherheitstechnischeAnforderungen und PrüfverfahrenThis European Standard was approved by CEN on 7 October 2005.CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this EuropeanStandard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such nationalstandards may be obtained on application to the Central Secretariat or to any CEN member.This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translationunder the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the officialversions.CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia,Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATIONCOMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATIONEUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNGManagement Centre: rue de Stassart, 36

B-1050 Brussels© 2005 CENAll rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reservedworldwide for CEN national Members.Ref. No. EN 14766:2005: E

EN 14766:2005 (E) 2 Contents page Foreword..................................................................................................................................................................4 Introduction..............................................................................................................................................................5 1 Scope...........................................................................................................................................................6 2 Normative references.................................................................................................................................6 3 Terms and definitions.................................................................................................................................6 4 Requirements and test methods................................................................................................................9 4.1 Brake tests and strength tests – special requirements...........................................................................9 4.1.1 Definition of brake tests.............................................................................................................................9 4.1.2 Definition of strength tests.........................................................................................................................9 4.1.3 Numbers and condition of specimens for the strength tests..................................................................9 4.1.4 Accuracy tolerances of test conditions for brake tests and strength tests...........................................9 4.2 Sharp edges................................................................................................................................................9 4.3 Security and strength of safety-related fasteners....................................................................................9 4.3.1 Security of screws......................................................................................................................................9 4.3.2 Minimum failure torque............................................................................................................................10 4.3.3 Folding bicycles........................................................................................................................................10 4.4 Crack detection methods.........................................................................................................................10 4.5 Protrusions................................................................................................................................................10 4.5.1 Requirement..............................................................................................................................................10 4.5.2 Test method...............................................................................................................................................12 4.6 Brakes........................................................................................................................................................12 4.6.1 Braking-systems.......................................................................................................................................12 4.6.2 Hand-operated brakes..............................................................................................................................12 4.6.3 Attachment of brake assembly and cable requirements.......................................................................15 4.6.4 Brake-block and brake-pad assemblies – Security test.........................................................................15 4.6.5 Brake adjustment......................................................................................................................................16 4.6.6 Hand-operated braking-system – strength test......................................................................................16 4.6.7 Braking performance................................................................................................................................16 4.6.8 Brakes – heat-resistance test...................................................................................................................33 4.7 Steering.....................................................................................................................................................34 4.7.1 Handlebar – dimensions...........................................................................................................................34 4.7.2 Handlebar grips and plugs.......................................................................................................................34 4.7.3 Handlebar-stem – insertion-depth mark or positive stop......................................................................34 4.7.4 Handlebar stem-extension to fork-stem – clamping requirements.......................................................35 4.7.5 Steering stability.......................................................................................................................................35 4.7.6 Steering assembly – static strength and security tests.........................................................................35 4.7.7 Handlebar and stem assembly – fatigue test..........................................................................................42 4.8 Frames.......................................................................................................................................................44 4.8.1 Suspension-frames – special requirements...........................................................................................44 4.8.2 Frame and front fork assembly – impact test (falling mass).................................................................45 4.8.3 Frame and front fork assembly – impact test (falling frame).................................................................46 4.8.4 Frame – fatigue test with pedalling forces..............................................................................................48 4.8.5 Frame – fatigue test with horizontal forces.............................................................................................50 4.8.6 Frame – fatigue test with a vertical force................................................................................................51 4.9 Front fork...................................................................................................................................................53 4.9.1 General......................................................................................................................................................53 4.9.2 Means of location of the axle and wheel retention.................................................................................53 4.9.3 Suspension-forks – special requirements..............................................................................................53 4.9.4 Front fork – Static bending test...............................................................................................................54 4.9.5 Front fork – rearward impact test............................................................................................................55

EN 14766:2005 (E) 3 4.9.6 Front fork – bending fatigue test.............................................................................................................57 4.9.7 Forks intended for use with hub- or disc-brakes...................................................................................58 4.10 Wheels and wheel/tyre assemblies..........................................................................................................62 4.10.1 Rotational accuracy..................................................................................................................................62 4.10.2 Wheel/tyre assembly – clearance............................................................................................................62 4.10.3 Wheel/tyre assembly – static strength test.............................................................................................62 4.10.4 Wheel retention.........................................................................................................................................63 4.10.5 Wheels – quick-release devices...............................................................................................................64 4.11 Rims, tyres and tubes...............................................................................................................................64 4.11.1 Tyre inflation pressure.............................................................................................................................65 4.11.2 Tyre and rim compatibility........................................................................................................................65 4.11.3 Rim-wear....................................................................................................................................................65 4.12 Mudguards.................................................................................................................................................65 4.12.1 Requirement..............................................................................................................................................65 4.12.2 Stage 1: Test method – tangential obstruction.......................................................................................65 4.12.3 Stage 2: Test method – radial force.........................................................................................................66 4.13 Pedals and pedal/crank drive system......................................................................................................66 4.13.1 Pedal tread.................................................................................................................................................66 4.13.2 Pedal clearance.........................................................................................................................................67 4.13.3 Pedal/pedal-spindle assembly – static strength test..............................................................................68 4.13.4 Pedal-spindle – impact test......................................................................................................................68 4.13.5 Pedal/pedal-spindle – dynamic durability test........................................................................................69 4.13.6 Drive-system – static strength test..........................................................................................................70 4.13.7 Crank assembly – fatigue tests................................................................................................................71 4.14 Saddles and seat-pillars...........................................................................................................................73 4.14.1 General......................................................................................................................................................73 4.14.2 Limiting dimensions.................................................................................................................................73 4.14.3 Seat-pillar – Insertion-depth mark or positive stop................................................................................74 4.14.4 Saddle/seat pillar – security test..............................................................................................................74 4.14.5 Saddle – static strength test....................................................................................................................75 4.14.6 Saddle and seat-pillar clamp – fatigue test.............................................................................................76 4.14.7 Seat-pillar – fatigue test............................................................................................................................77 4.15 Drive-chain................................................................................................................................................78 4.16 Chain-guard...............................................................................................................................................78 4.16.1 Requirement..............................................................................................................................................78 4.16.2 Chain-wheel disc diameter.......................................................................................................................79 4.16.3 Chain protective device............................................................................................................................79 4.16.4 Combined front gear-change guide.........................................................................................................79 4.17 Spoke protector........................................................................................................................................80 4.18 Lighting systems and reflectors..............................................................................................................80 4.18.1 Lighting and reflectors.............................................................................................................................80 4.18.2 Wiring harness..........................................................................................................................................80 4.19 Warning device.........................................................................................................................................80 4.20 Road-test on a fully-assembled bicycle..................................................................................................80 4.20.1 Requirement..............................................................................................................................................80 4.20.2 Test method...............................................................................................................................................80 5 Manufacturer’s instructions.....................................................................................................................81 6 Marking......................................................................................................................................................82 6.1 Requirement..............................................................................................................................................82 6.2 Durability test............................................................................................................................................83 6.2.1 Requirement..............................................................................................................................................83 6.2.2 Test method...............................................................................................................................................83 Annex A (informative)

Explanation of the method of least squares for obtaining line of best fit

and ± 20 % limit lines for braking performance linearity..................................................................................84 Annex B (informative)

Steering geometry..........................................................................................................87 Bibliography...........................................................................................................................................................89

EN 14766:2005 (E) 4 Foreword This European Standard (EN 14766:2005) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 333 “Cycles”, the secretariat of which is held by UNI. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by May 2006, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by November 2006. The basis of the European Standard is from a standard being developed for ISO and great care has been taken to ensure compatibility between the two documents. This European Standard is completely new and is one of a series being produced to cover all types of bicycle: EN 14764 City and trekking bicycles — Safety requirements and test methods TC 333 WI 00333002 Cycles - Vocabulary — Terminology (ISO 8090: 1990 Modified) EN 14765 Bicycles for young children — Safety requirements and test methods EN 14781 Racing bicycles — Safety requirements and test methods prEN 14872 Bicycles — Accessories for bicycles — Luggage carriers prEN 15194 Cycles — Electrically power assisted cycles — EPAC bicycle According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

EN 14766:2005 (E) 5

Introduction This European Standard has been developed in response to demand throughout Europe, and the aim has been to ensure that bicycles manufactured in compliance with it will be as safe as is practically possible. The tests have been designed to ensure the strength and durability of individual parts as well as of the bicycle as a whole, demanding high quality throughout and consideration of safety aspects from the design stage onwards. The scope has been limited to safety considerations, and has specifically avoided standardisation of components. If the bicycle is used on public roads national regulations apply.

EN 14766:2005 (E) 6

1 Scope This European Standard specifies safety and performance requirements for the design, assembly, and testing of bicycles and sub-assemblies intended for off-road, rough-terrain use, and lays down guide lines for instructions on the use and care of such bicycles. It applies to bicycles on which the saddle can be adjusted to provide a maximum saddle height of 635 mm or more. NOTE For bicycles with a saddle height of less than 435 mm see EN 71 and with a maximum saddle height of more than 435 mm and less than 635 mm see EN 14765. It does not apply to racing bicycles and specialised types of bicycle such as tandems or bicycles designed and equipped for use in severe applications such as sanctioned competition events, stunting, or aerobatic manoeuvres. No requirements on lighting equipment, reflectors and warning devices are specified in this European Standard, due to the existence of several different national regulations applicable in the European Countries. 2 Normative references The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this European Standard. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. ISO 1101, Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS) — Geometrical tolerancing — Tolerances of form, orientation, location and run-out ISO 5775-1, Bicycle tyres and rims — Part 1: Tyre designations and dimensions ISO 5775-2, Bicycle tyres and rims — Part 2: Rims ISO 7636, Bells for bicycles and mopeds — Technical specifications ISO 9633, Cycle chains — Characteristics and test methods 3 Terms and definitions For the purposes of this European Standard, the following terms and definitions apply. 3.1 cycle any vehicle that has at least two wheels and is propelled solely or mainly by the muscular energy of the person on that vehicle, in particular by means of pedals 3.2 bicycle two-wheeled cycle 3.3 tandem bicycle with saddles for two or more riders, one behind the other 3.4 fully-assembled bicycle bicycle fitted with all components necessary for its intended use

EN 14766:2005 (E) 7 3.5 mountain-bicycle bicycle designed for use off-road on rough terrain, on public roads and on public pathways. It will be equipped with a suitably strengthened frame and other components, and, typically, with wide-section tyres with coarse tread patterns and a wide range of transmission gears 3.6 off-road rough-terrain coarse pebble tracks, forest trails, and other general off-road tracks where tree-roots and rocks are likely to be encountered 3.7 suspension fork front fork incorporating controlled, axial flexibility to reduce the transmission of road-shocks to the rider 3.8 suspension-frame frame incorporating controlled, vertical flexibility to reduce the transmission of road-shocks to the rider 3.9 maximum saddle height vertical distance from the ground to the top of the seat surface, measured with the seat in a horizontal position and with the seat-pillar set to the minimum insertion depth [EN 71-1:1998] 3.10 braking distance distance travelled by a bicycle between the commencement of braking (3.11) and the point at which the bicycle comes to rest 3.11 commencement of braking point on the test track or test machine at which the brake actuating device operated directly by the rider's hand or foot or by a test mechanism starts to move from its rest position, on the test track this point being determined by the first brake actuating device (front or rear) to operate 3.12 braking force FBr tangential rearward force between the tyre and the ground or the tyre and the drum or belt of the test machine 3.13 rim-brake brake in which brake-shoes act on the rim of the wheel 3.14 hub-brake brake which acts directly on the wheel-hub 3.15 band-brake brake in which a circumferential band is wrapped around the exterior of a cylindrical drum which is attached to or incorporated in the wheel-hub 3.16 disc-brake brake in which pads are used to grip the lateral faces of a thin disc attached to or incorporated in the wheel-hub 3.17 pedal tread-surface surface of a pedal that is presented to the underside of the foot

EN 14766:2005 (E) 8 3.18 crank assembly for fatigue testing it consists of the two cranks, the pedal-spindles (possibly with adaptors), the bottom-bracket spindle, and the first component of the drive system, e.g. the chain-wheel cluster 3.19 bar-end extension secured to the end of a handlebar to provide an additional hand-grip and usually with its axis perpendicular to the axis of the end of the handlebar 3.20 visible crack crack which results from a test where that crack is visible to the naked eye 3.21 fracture unintentional separation into two or more parts 3.22 wheel-base distance between the axes of the front and rear wheels of an un-laden bicycle 3.23 wheel assembly or combination of hub, spokes or disc, and rim, but excluding the tyre 3.24 quick-release device device to fix or release a part without a tool 3.25 public road any designated and adopted road, pavement, path, or track on which a bicycle is legally permitted to travel, and on most though not all of which, bicycles will share use with other forms of transport including motorised traffic 3.26 public pathway any designated and adopted road, path or track on which a bicycle is legally permitted to travel, and on which, use by motorised traffic is excluded 3.27 aerodynamic extension extension (or extensions) secured to the handlebar or stem, to improve the rider’s aerodynamic posture 3.28 maximum inflation pressure maximum tyre pressure recommended by the tyre manufacturer for a safe and efficient performance 3.29 exposed protrusion protrusion which through its location and rigidity could present a hazard to the rider either through heavy contact with it in normal use or should the rider fall onto it in an accident 3.30 toe-clip device attached to the pedal to grip the toe end of the rider’s shoe but permitting withdrawal of the shoe 3.31 highest gear gear ratio which gives the greatest distance travelled for one rotation of the cranks

EN 14766:2005 (E) 9 3.32 lowest gear gear ratio which gives the shortest distance travelled for one rotation of the cranks 4 Requirements and test methods 4.1 Brake tests and strength tests – special requirements 4.1.1 Definition of brake tests Brake tests to which accuracy requirements apply, as in 4.1.4, are those specified in 4.6.2.2.3 to 4.6.6.2 inclusive and 4.6.7.5.1.3. 4.1.2 Definition of strength tests Strength tests to which accuracy requirements apply, as in 4.1.4, are those involving static, impact or fatigue loading as specified in 4.7 to 4.14 inclusive and 4.18.2. 4.1.3 Numbers and condition of specimens for the strength tests In general, for static, impact and fatigue tests, each test shall be conducted on a new test sample, but if only one sample is available, it is permissible to conduct all of these tests on the same sample with the sequence of testing being fatigue, static and impact. When more than one test is conducted on the same sample, the test sequence shall be clearly recorded in the test report or record of testing. NOTE It should be noted that if more than one test is conducted on the same sample, earlier tests can influence the results of subsequent tests. Also, if a sample fails when it has been subjected to more than one test, a direct comparison with single testing is not possible. In all strength tests, specimens shall be in the fully-finished condition. 4.1.4 Accuracy tolerances of test conditions for brake tests and strength tests Unless stated otherwise, accuracy tolerances based on the nominal values shall be as follows:

Forces and torques……………..0/+5 %
Masses and weights……………± 1 %
Dimensions……………………...± 1 mm
Angles……………………………± 1°
Time duration……………………± 5 s
Temperatures……………………± 2 °C
Pressures………………….........± 5 %

4.2 Sharp edges Exposed edges that could come into contact with the rider's hands, legs etc., during normal riding or normal handling and normal maintenance shall not be sharp. 4.3 Security and strength of safety-related fasteners 4.3.1 Security of screws Any screws used in the assembly of suspension systems or screws used to attach generators, brake-mechanisms and mud-guards to the frame or fork or handlebar, and the saddle to the seat- pillar shall be provided with suitable locking devices, e.g., lock-washers, lock-nuts, or stiff nuts.

EN 14766:2005 (E) 10 NOTE Fasteners used to assemble hub and disc brakes should have heat-resisting locking devices. 4.3.2 Minimum failure torque The minimum failure torque of bolted joints for the fastening of handle bars, handlebar-stems, bar-ends, seats and seat-pillars shall be at least 50 % greater than the manufacturer's recommended tightening torque. 4.3.3 Folding bicycles Folding bicycles shall meet all test requirements. Folding mechanisms shall be designed so that the bicycle can be locked for use in a simple, stable, safe way and when folded no damage shall occur to any cables. No locking mechanism shall contact the wheels or tyres during riding, and it shall be impossible to unintentionally loosen or unlock the folding mechanisms during riding. 4.4 Crack detection methods Standardised methods should be used to emphasise the presence of cracks where visible cracks are specified as criteria of failure in tests specified in this European Standard. See 3.20. NOTE

...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.