Soil quality - Method for testing effects of soil contaminants on the feeding activity of soil dwelling organisms - Bait-lamina test (ISO 18311:2016)

ISO 18311:2016 specifies a technique for determining the effects of anthropogenic impacts (e.g. substances) in the context of the prevailing environmental conditions on the feeding activity of soil organisms in the field. In addition, the use of this method for monitoring the biological quality of soil is described (see Annex A). The breakdown of organic matter by soil invertebrates and microorganisms is a crucial process that determines important soil functions such as nutrient availability for plants and the maintenance of soil fertility. In addition, decomposing plant litter provides habitats and food for a wide range of organisms, thus supporting biodiversity and ecosystem services [33][34].
ISO 18311:2016 is applicable to all soils in which soil organisms are active. The use of the bait-lamina test is independent from whether there is a litter layer or not. The sampling design of field studies in general is specified in ISO 23611‑6 (see also Reference [20]). The design can vary according to the aim of the study as well as conditions (e.g. soil properties, contamination, etc.) of the site to be investigated.
ISO 18311:2016 is not applicable for semi-terrestrial or very shallow soils. It can be difficult to use it under extreme climatic or geographical conditions (e.g. in high mountains).

Bodenbeschaffenheit - Verfahren zur Prüfung der Auswirkungen von Bodenverunreinigungen auf die Fraßaktivität von bodenbewohnenden Organismen - Köderstreifentest (ISO 18311:2016)

Qualité du sol - Méthode pour tester les effets des contaminants du sol sur l'activité alimentaire des organismes vivant dans le sol - Test Bait-lamina (ISO 18311:2016)

ISO 18311:2016 spécifie une technique permettant de déterminer, sur le terrain, les effets d'impacts anthropogéniques (par exemple, substances), eu égard aux conditions environnementales ambiantes, sur l'activité alimentaire des organismes du sol. Elle décrit également l'utilisation de cette méthode pour la surveillance de la qualité biologique des sols (voir l'Annexe A). La dégradation de la matière organique par les invertébrés et les microorganismes du sol est un processus fondamental qui détermine des fonctions importantes du sol, telles que la disponibilité d'éléments nutritifs pour les végétaux et la préservation de la fertilité des sols. De plus, la décomposition de la litière végétale fournit des habitats et de la nourriture à une grande diversité d'organismes qui concourent à la biodiversité et délivrent des services écosystémiques[33][34].
ISO 18311:2016 s'applique à tous les sols dans lesquels des organismes du sol sont actifs. L'utilisation de l'essai avec bandelettes appâtées ne dépend pas de la présence d'une litière. Le plan d'échantillonnage applicable aux études sur le terrain en général est décrit dans l'ISO 23611‑6 (voir également la Référence [20]). La stratégie peut varier en fonction de l'objectif de l'étude, ainsi que des conditions (par exemple, les propriétés du sol, la contamination, etc.) du site à étudier.
ISO 18311:2016 ne s'applique pas aux sols potentiellement inondables ou très superficiels. Son application peut se révéler difficile dans des conditions climatiques ou géographiques extrêmes (par exemple, en haute montagne).

Kakovost tal - Metoda za preskušanje vplivov onesnaževal v tleh na aktivnost hranjenja v tleh živečih organizmov - Preskus z vabami na traku (ISO 18311:2016)

Standard ISO 18311:2016 določa tehniko za ugotavljanje vplivov antropogenih učinkov (npr. snovi) v kontekstu prevladujočih okoljskih razmer na aktivnost hranjenja organizmov v tleh na terenu. Poleg tega je opisana uporaba te metode za spremljanje biološke kakovosti tal (glejte dodatek A). Razgradnja organskih snovi, ki jo opravljajo nevretenčarji in mikroorganizmi v tleh, je ključen proces, ki določa pomembne funkcije tal, na primer razpoložljivost hranilnih snovi za rastline in ohranjanje rodovitnosti tal. Poleg tega razkrajanje rastlinske stelje zagotavlja habitat in hrano za širok nabor organizmov, s čimer podpira biotsko raznovrstnost in funkcije ekosistemov [33][34].
Standard ISO 18311:2016 se uporablja za vsa tla, kjer so aktivni organizmi v tleh. Uporaba preskusa z vabami na traku je neodvisna od tega, ali obstaja plast stelje ali ne. Načrtovanje vzorčenja za terenske raziskave na splošno je določeno v standardu ISO 23611‑6 (glejte tudi vir [20]). Načrt se lahko razlikuje glede na namen raziskave ter pogoje (npr. lastnosti tal, onesnaženost itd.) na mestu, ki bo preiskano.
Standard ISO 18311:2016 se ne uporablja za semiterestrična ali zelo plitka tla. Njegova uporaba je lahko otežena v skrajnih podnebnih ali geografskih razmerah (npr. v visokogorju).

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
20-Feb-2018
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
21-Feb-2018
Completion Date
21-Feb-2018

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN ISO 18311:2018
01-julij-2018
.DNRYRVWWDO0HWRGD]DSUHVNXãDQMHYSOLYRYRQHVQDåHYDOYWOHKQDDNWLYQRVW
KUDQMHQMDYWOHKåLYHþLKRUJDQL]PRY3UHVNXV]YDEDPLQDWUDNX ,62

Soil quality - Method for testing effects of soil contaminants on the feeding activity of soil

dwelling organisms - Bait-lamina test (ISO 18311:2016)
Bodenbeschaffenheit - Verfahren zur Prüfung der Auswirkungen von
Bodenverunreinigungen auf die Fraßaktivität von bodenbewohnenden Organismen -
Köderstreifentest (ISO 18311:2016)

Qualité du sol - Méthode pour tester les effets des contaminants du sol sur l'activité

alimentaire des organismes vivant dans le sol - Test Bait-lamina (ISO 18311:2016)

Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN ISO 18311:2018
ICS:
13.080.30 Biološke lastnosti tal Biological properties of soils
SIST EN ISO 18311:2018 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN ISO 18311:2018
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SIST EN ISO 18311:2018
EN ISO 18311
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
February 2018
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 13.080.30
English Version
Soil quality - Method for testing effects of soil
contaminants on the feeding activity of soil dwelling
organisms - Bait-lamina test (ISO 18311:2016)

Qualité du sol - Méthode pour tester les effets des Bodenbeschaffenheit - Verfahren zur Prüfung der

contaminants du sol sur l'activité alimentaire des Auswirkungen von Bodenverunreinigungen auf die

organismes vivant dans le sol - Test Bait-lamina (ISO Fraßaktivität von bodenbewohnenden Organismen -

18311:2016) Köderstreifentest (ISO 18311:2016)
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 14 February 2018.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2018 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN ISO 18311:2018 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN ISO 18311:2018
EN ISO 18311:2018 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

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SIST EN ISO 18311:2018
EN ISO 18311:2018 (E)
European foreword

The text of ISO 18311:2016 has been prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 190 “Soil quality” of the

International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and has been taken over as EN ISO 18311:2018 by

Technical Committee CEN/TC 444 “Test methods for environmental characterization of solid matrices”

the secretariat of which is held by NEN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by August 2018, and conflicting national standards shall

be withdrawn at the latest by August 2018.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Endorsement notice

The text of ISO 18311:2016 has been approved by CEN as EN ISO 18311:2018 without any modification.

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SIST EN ISO 18311:2018
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SIST EN ISO 18311:2018
INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 18311
First edition
2016-01-15
Soil quality — Method for testing
effects of soil contaminants on the
feeding activity of soil dwelling
organisms — Bait-lamina test
Qualité du sol — Méthode pour tester les effets des contaminants
du sol sur l’activité alimentaire des organismes vivant dans le sol —
Test Bait-lamina
Reference number
ISO 18311:2016(E)
ISO 2016
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SIST EN ISO 18311:2018
ISO 18311:2016(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2016, Published in Switzerland

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, or posting on the internet or an intranet, without prior

written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

the requester.
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Tel. +41 22 749 01 11
Fax +41 22 749 09 47
copyright@iso.org
www.iso.org
ii © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 18311:2018
ISO 18311:2016(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Principle ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2

5 Reagents and material .................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1 Bait material .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

5.2 Reagents........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3

6 Apparatus (equipment)................................................................................................................................................................................. 3

7 Procedure..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

7.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

7.2 Preparation of the bait-lamina strips .................................................................................................................................. 4

7.3 Experimental design and test performance ................................................................................................................... 5

7.4 Examination of the bait-lamina strips ................................................................................................................................ 7

8 Expression of results ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

9 Validity of the test ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 8

10 Statistical analysis ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

11 Test report ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8

Annex A (informative) Use of the bait-lamina method for monitoring the biological quality

of soils ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................10

Annex B (informative) Examples are taken from one study performed in the Brazilian

[30]

Amazon forest in which the removal of the litter layer was used as stressor ...........................11

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................14

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved iii
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SIST EN ISO 18311:2018
ISO 18311:2016(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (see www.iso.org/directives).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received (see www.iso.org/patents).

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.

For an explanation on the meaning of ISO specific terms and expressions related to conformity

assessment, as well as information about ISO’s adherence to the WTO principles in the Technical

Barriers to Trade (TBT), see the following URL: Foreword — Supplementary information.

The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 190, Soil quality, Subcommittee SC 4,

Biological methods.
iv © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 18311:2018
ISO 18311:2016(E)
Introduction

Ecotoxicological test systems are applied to obtain information about the effects of contaminants in

[38]

soil and are proposed to complement conventional chemical analysis . In addition to laboratory

tests with individual species from important organism groups (e.g. earthworms, enchytraeids, or

collembolans), functional tests can be used to assess the activity of the whole soil organism community

in situ in the field and, thus, the habitat function of soil. They are potentially useful for the evaluation

[1][11][12][26][28]

of the effects of chemicals on the soil , as well as for the long-term monitoring of the

[16][18][34]

biological quality of soils (see Annex A) . Data for these purposes are gained by standardised

methods since they can form the basis for far-reaching decisions (e.g. whether a given site should be

remediated or not). In fact, the lack of such standardised methods is one of the most important reasons

why functional methods have been so far relatively rarely used for the assessment of contaminated

soils or for soil monitoring purposes.

The bait-lamina test is an approach which is used to measure the feeding activity of soil organisms in

[23][35][36]
situ .

The important advantage of the bait-lamina method is its simplicity. Minimal training, special skill, or

equipment is necessary. In contrast to the measurement of other functional parameters, like organic

[22][25][27]

matter breakdown determined in a litterbag test , the bait-lamina method does not disturb the

soil substrate, needs only short exposure periods (few days up to few weeks), and is rapidly evaluated.

In temperate regions, the applicability and usefulness of the bait-lamina test for the comparison and

assessment of the influence of land use or chemicals on the feeding activity of soil communities has

[2][14][28][31]

been demonstrated several times . In addition, bait-lamina tests have also been applied in

[13][15][30]
the tropics .

In addition to measures such as microbial respiration or litter decomposition, feeding activity is one

[7][13]

of several functional parameters applicable for the assessment of the biological status of soils .

Recently, the bait-lamina test was used successfully in several case studies at which an environmental

[8][21]

risk assessment for polluted soils was performed . As a result of these works, the bait-lamina test

was included into the tool box for site-specific risk assessment [e.g. the TRIAD approach (see ISO 19204)].

In fact, it became part of the recommended battery of tests for the ecological risk assessment of soils in

[9]

Great Britain . In addition, in the context of a European soil monitoring programme, the method was

[4]
recommended for this purpose as well by the members of an EU Working Group .
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved v
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SIST EN ISO 18311:2018
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SIST EN ISO 18311:2018
INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 18311:2016(E)
Soil quality — Method for testing effects of soil
contaminants on the feeding activity of soil dwelling
organisms — Bait-lamina test
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies a technique for determining the effects of anthropogenic impacts

(e.g. substances) in the context of the prevailing environmental conditions on the feeding activity of soil

organisms in the field. In addition, the use of this method for monitoring the biological quality of soil is

described (see Annex A). The breakdown of organic matter by soil invertebrates and microorganisms

is a crucial process that determines important soil functions such as nutrient availability for plants and

the maintenance of soil fertility. In addition, decomposing plant litter provides habitats and food for a

[33][34]
wide range of organisms, thus supporting biodiversity and ecosystem services .

This International Standard is applicable to all soils in which soil organisms are active. The use of the

bait-lamina test is independent from whether there is a litter layer or not. The sampling design of field

studies in general is specified in ISO 23611-6 (see also Reference [20]). The design can vary according

to the aim of the study as well as conditions (e.g. soil properties, contamination, etc.) of the site to be

investigated.

This International Standard is not applicable for semi-terrestrial or very shallow soils. It can be difficult

to use it under extreme climatic or geographical conditions (e.g. in high mountains).

2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 11074, Soil quality — Vocabulary

ISO 23611-6, Soil quality — Sampling of soil invertebrates — Part 6: Guidance for the design of sampling

programmes with soil invertebrates
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 23611-6, ISO 11074, and the

following apply.
3.1
exposure time

period in which the bait-lamina strips are exposed in the field, usually in the mineral soil (3.2)

EXAMPLE In temperate zones: 10 d to 20 d; in tropical areas: 4 d to 8 d.
3.2
soil
topsoil with or without a litter layer (3.3)
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 1
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SIST EN ISO 18311:2018
ISO 18311:2016(E)
3.3
litter layer

layer of mainly dead plant organic material present on the surface of the topsoil, which is composed of

debris in different stages of decomposition

Note 1 to entry: Examples are leaves in orchards or forests or “turf” derived from permanent grass grown in

[5]
meadows .
3.4
contaminant
substance or agent present in the soil (3.2) as a result of human activity
3.5
contaminated site

site with areas of high concentrations of substances hazardous to soil (3.2) and soil functions (3.7)

Note 1 to entry: In many countries, contaminated sites are registered publicly as a consequence of a specific

legislation.
3.6
soil water content

mass of water evaporating from the soil (3.2) when dried to constant mass at 105 °C divided by the dry

mass of the soil and multiplied by 100
3.7
soil functions
description of the significance of soils (3.2) to man and the environment

Note 1 to entry: Important soil functions in the context of this International Standard include the following:

— control of substance and energy cycles as compartment of ecosystems;
— basis for the life of plants, animals, and man.
3.8
biodiversity

variability among living organisms from all sources, and the ecological complexes of which they are part

Note 1 to entry: This includes diversity within species, between species, and of ecosystems.

3.9
ecosystem services

benefits that humans recognise as obtained from ecosystems that support, directly or indirectly, their

survival and quality of life

Note 1 to entry: These include provisioning, regulating, and cultural services that directly benefit people and the

supporting services needed to maintain the direct services.
4 Principle

In this functional test, the feeding activity of soil animals is measured. The term “bait lamina” refers to

small perforated plastic strips that are inserted into the soil. An artificial mixture or natural organic

material (= bait) is exposed to soil organisms (e.g. earthworms, Collembola, Diplopoda, Enchytraeidae)

in the apertures of the strip. In principle, the loss of the bait material is assessed by counting the empty

apertures of the bait-lamina strips after a certain exposure time. The number of empty apertures (i.e.

areas from which the bait material has been removed) as well as their vertical distribution along the

strip are evaluated, and it is assumed that this reflects the feeding activity of soil animals.

2 © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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ISO 18311:2016(E)
5 Reagents and material
5.1 Bait material

Organic material used as bait for soil organisms, e.g. a mixture of cellulose powder (70 %, preferably of

nutrient quality), finely ground wheat bran (25 %), and activated carbon powder (5 %).

5.2 Reagents

5.2.1 Hydrochloric acid (10 %), for cleaning of bait-lamina strips at contaminated sites (see 7.2).

6 Apparatus (equipment)
6.1 Bait-lamina strips

Plastic strips (PVC, of grey colour) of 120 mm × 6 mm × 1 mm, which have a pointed tip at the lower end.

In the lower part (85 mm) of each strip 16 bi-conical apertures of 1,5 mm diameter are drilled, which

are 5 mm apart from each other (see also Figure 1). The apertures should be numbered, starting with

number 1 (soil depth = 0,5 cm) and ending with number 16 (soil depth = 8,0 cm).

Bait-lamina strips are commercially available, either with bait-filled or with empty apertures.

6.2 Sharp tool

Tool formed like a thin screw-driver, long nail file or a barbecue skewer which is used to drill a small slit

into the soil in which the individual bait-lamina strips is inserted when the soil is too dry or compact.

7 Procedure
7.1 General

When testing the effects of soil contaminants on the feeding activity of soil dwelling organisms, usually

the bait strips are exposed at the potentially contaminated sites as well as at a reference site. The latter

is defined as a site which in terms of soil properties, land use, or climatic conditions does not differ from

the site to be assessed, except that it is not contaminated.

NOTE The use of the bait-lamina test for monitoring the biological status of soils is described in Annex A.

The test should be performed at times of the year where soil organisms are active (i.e. when unfavourable

environmental conditions such as low soil water content and/or extremely high temperatures do not

[8]

drive them into diapause). In detail, a soil temperature of 5 °C to 15 °C is recommended . The soil

water content should be sufficient for invertebrate activity (i.e. >20 %). Environmental conditions such

[24]

as climate or soil water content are expected to strongly influence the results , therefore the method

should preferably be applied for comparing the biological activity between closely situated plots (e.g.

contaminated sites versus reference areas). When performing this test in the field, the site should be

characterized (e.g. concerning climate such as precipitation, temperature, and land use). However, such

a characterization is not covered by this International Standard.

In addition, pH (ISO 10390), particle size distribution (ISO 11277) dry bulk density (ISO 11272), organic

carbon content (ISO 10694), nitrogen content (ISO 13878) actual soil moisture (ISO 11461 or ISO 11465),

and water holding capacity (ISO 11268-2) shall be measured. These parameters should be determined

in the same soil layer (i.e. the uppermost 8 cm of the mineral soil) or, if applicable, separately in the

uppermost mineral soil layer, the organic horizons, and the litter layer, in which the bait-lamina strips

are exposed. These parameters have to be determined once at the beginning of the test (exception: soil

moisture, this should be measured also at the end of the test).
© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 3
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SIST EN ISO 18311:2018
ISO 18311:2016(E)

If the study is performed at a contaminated site, it is recommended to determine the identity and

concentration of the main contaminants.
7.2 Preparation of the bait-lamina strips

In the lower part (85 mm) of each bait-lamina strip 16 bi-conical apertures of 1,5 mm diameter are

drilled at 5 mm intervals (see also Figure 1). These apertures are the place where the bait is filled-in.

Their bi-conical form secures the stability of the bait-material inside the apertures. Different mixtures

can be used as bait-material, but the following mixture is recommended: cellulose (70 %), finely ground

wheat bran (25 %), and activated carbon (5 %). The latter component’s black colour facilitates the

differentiation between the bait material and soil particles when assessing the feeding activity at the

end of the test. It is very important to grind the bran as fine and homogenous as possible. Therefore, it is

recommended to sieve the grounded bran (mesh size: 0,25 mm). By doing so, not only the homogeneity

of the bait-material but also its stability in the apertures of the bait-lamina strips is improved.

The three components of the bait material shall be well mixed before water is added. The amount of

water cannot be given in detail but it should be enough in order to create a paste. Bait material shall be

sufficiently moist to hold together and fill the apertures of the plastic strip. Too much water can lead to

cracking upon drying causing the bait to fall out of apertures. Both, too dry and too wet baits, are not

stable. This work shall be performed by hand (see Figure 2). After air-drying of the strips, they shall be

visually inspected. All baits which show holes, small fissures, or ruptures shall be treated with the paste

of bait-material again until optically all baits are intact. The whole procedure does secure that the bait-

material remains intact inside the apertures of the plastic strips, in particular when they are inserted

into the soil. Prepared strips may be stored under dry conditions in plastic bags for up to six months.

Before starting a test, their integrity (no mould, holes, fissures, or ruptures in the baits) shall be checked.

Dimensions in millimetres
[24]
Figure 1 — Schematic view of individual bait-lamina strips
4 © ISO 2016 – All rights reserved
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SIST EN ISO 18311:2018
ISO 18311:2016(E)

Figure 2 — Three individual materials (left: activated carbon; above: finely ground wheat bran;

below: cellulose) and the mixture of the three components at right: the bait
Figure 3 — Filling of bait-material into the bait-lamina strips
7.3 Experimental design and test performance

The prepared bait-lamina strips are exposed in the soil for an appropriate period of time, depending

mainly on the climate, the soil properties, and the composition and abundance of the soil organism

community at the test site. On average, the exposure time lasts 10 d to 20 d in temperate zones (e.g.

References [8] and [12]) and 4 d to 8 d (partly 14 d) in tropical areas, e.g. Reference [30]. However,

there are experiences that these numbers can differ considerably: e.g. at coniferous forest sites in

[29]

Germany, with an acid soil with little macro-fauna, an exposure time of 49 d was used , and since

© ISO 2016 – All rights reserved 5
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SIST EN ISO 18311:2018
ISO 18311:2016(E)

only 13 % were consumed after this period, an even longer time would have been better. In a European

ring test performed at various grasslands, exposure times of 56 d and 112 d (including summer) were

[12] [32]
suitable while in a Polish forest bait-lamina were exposed for 33 d and 42 .

Because of these differences, it is recommended to determine the exposure time in a screening or

preliminary test, exposing a few bait-lamina strips (e.g. 5 to 10) for different periods of time in order to

[11]

identify the duration in which at least 30 % but preferably not all bait slits are pierced . For example,

at a tropical forest site the strips were exposed for 2 d, 4 d, 8 d, and 12 d. Based on the results of this

[30]
screening test, the optimal exposure duration was set to 7 d .

At the beginning of the test, the strips are inserted vertically by hand in the soil in a way that the

uppermost aperture is just beneath the soil surface. The depth of the insertion of the strips shall be

determined carefully, since it is often not really clear where the soil surface actually starts [e.g. due to

a litter layer or extended roots (turf)]. The main criterion is that each bait aperture is accessible to soil

organisms and that the way of exposure of all strips is similar. In dry soils as well as in those with high

clay content, the insertion by hand is often not possible. In such cases, a metallic tool shall be used [e.g.

a thin
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