Workplace exposure - Measurement of dustiness of bulk materials that contain or release respirable NOAA or other respirable particles - Part 5: Vortex shaker method

This document describes the methodology for measuring and characterizing the dustiness of bulk materials that contain or release respirable NOAA or other respirable particles, under standard and reproducible conditions and specifies for that purpose the vortex shaker method.
This document specifies the selection of instruments and devices and the procedures for calculating and presenting the results. It also gives guidelines on the evaluation and reporting of the data.
The methodology described in this document enables
a)   the measurement of the respirable dustiness mass fraction,
b)   the measurement of the number-based dustiness index of respirable particles in the particle size range from about 10 nm to about 1 µm,
c)   the measurement of the number-based emission rate of respirable particles in the particle size range from about 10 nm to about 1 µm,
d)   the measurement of the number-based particle size distribution of the released respirable aerosol in the particle size range from about 10 nm to 10 µm,
e)   the collection of released airborne particles in the respirable fraction for subsequent observations and analysis by electron microscopy.
This document is applicable to the testing of a wide range of bulk materials including nanomaterials in powder form.
NOTE 1    With slightly different configurations of the method specified in this document, dustiness of a series of carbon nanotubes has been investigated ([5] to [10]). On the basis of this published work, it can be assumed that the vortex shaker method is also applicable to nanofibres and nanoplates.
This document is not applicable to millimetre-sized granules or pellets containing nano-objects in either unbound, bound uncoated and coated forms.
NOTE 2   The restrictions with regard to the application of the vortex shaker method on different kinds of nanomaterials result from the configuration of the vortex shaker apparatus as well as from the small size of the test sample required. Eventually, if future work will be able to provide accurate and repeatable data demonstrating that an extension of the method applicability is possible, the intention is to revise this document and to introduce further cases of method application.
NOTE 3   As observed in the pre-normative research project [4], the vortex shaker method specified in this document provides a more energetic aerosolization than the rotating drum, the continuous drop and the small rotating drum methods specified in FprEN 17199 2 [1], FprEN 17199 3 [2] and FprEN 17199 4 [3], respectively. The vortex shaker method can better simulate high energy dust dispersion operations or processes where vibration or shaking is applied or even describe a worst case scenario in a workplace, including the (non-recommended) practice of cleaning contaminated worker coveralls and dry work surfaces with compressed air.
NOTE 4   Currently no classification scheme in terms of dustiness indices or emission rates has been established according to the vortex shaker method. Eventually, when a large number of measurement data has been obtained, the intention is to revise the document and to introduce such a classification scheme, if applicable.

Exposition am Arbeitsplatz - Messung des Staubungsverhaltens von Schüttgütern, die alveolengängige NOAA oder andere alveolengängige Partikel enthalten oder freisetzen - Teil 5: Verfahren mit Vortex-Schüttler

Diese Europäische Norm enthält die Methodik für die Messung und Charakterisierung des Staubungs-verhaltens von Schüttgütern, die Nanoobjekte oder Partikel im Submikrometerbereich enthalten oder unter wiederholbaren und Standardbedingungen freisetzen, und legt zu diesem Zweck das Verfahren mit Vortex-Schüttler fest.
Darüber hinaus legt diese Europäische Norm die Auswahl der Instrumente und Vorrichtungen sowie die Verfahren für die Berechnung und Präsentation der Ergebnisse fest. Des Weiteren enthält die Norm eine Anleitung für die Auswertung und Angabe der Daten.
Die in dieser Europäischen Norm festgelegte Methodik ermöglicht
a)   die Berechnung des Massenanteils an alveolengängigem Staub;
b)   die Bestimmung des massenbasierten Staubindex alveolengängiger Partikel im Größenbereich zwischen ungefähr 10 nm und 1 000 nm;
c)   die Bestimmung des zahlenbasierten Staubindex alveolengängiger Partikel im Größenbereich zwischen ungefähr 10 nm und 1 000 nm;
d)   die Bestimmung der zahlenbasierten Emissionsrate alveolengängiger Partikel im Größenbereich zwischen ungefähr 10 nm und 1 000 nm;
e)   die Bestimmung der zahlenbasierten Größenverteilung des freigesetzten einatembaren Aerosols im Größenbereich zwischen ungefähr 10 nm und 10 µm;
f)   die Sammlung freigesetzter Schwebstoffe in der alveolengängigen Fraktion für anschließende Beobachtungen und Analysen durch Elektronenmikroskopie.
Diese Europäische Norm ist für die Prüfung einer Vielzahl verschiedener Schüttgüter einschließlich Nanomaterialien in Pulverform anwendbar.
ANMERKUNG 1   Das Staubungsverhalten einer Reihe Carbon-Nanoröhrchen wurde mit einer von dem in dieser Europäischen Norm festgelegten Verfahren leicht abweichenden Konfiguration untersucht ([5] bis [10]). Auf der Grundlage dieser veröffentlichten Arbeiten kann angenommen werden, dass das Verfahren mit Vortex-Schüttler auch für Nanofasern und Nanoplättchen anwendbar ist.
Diese Europäische Norm ist nicht für Granulate und Pellets im Millimeter-Größenbereich anwendbar, die Nanoobjekte in ungebundener, gebundener, unbeschichteter oder beschichteter Form enthalten.
ANMERKUNG 2   Dies liegt an der Konfiguration des Vortex-Schüttlers und der geringen erforderlichen Prüfprobe. Sofern zukünftige Arbeiten korrekte und wiederholbare Daten liefern, die nachweisen, dass dies möglich ist, ist beabsichtigt, die Europäische Norm zu revidieren und diese Anwendung einzuführen.
ANMERKUNG 3   Das vornormative Forschungsprojekt [4] hat gezeigt, dass das in dieser Europäischen Norm festgelegte Verfahren mit Vortex-Schüttler eine energetischere Zerstäubung ermöglicht als das Verfahren mit rotierender Trommel, kontinuierlichem Fall und kleiner rotierender Trommel respektive nach prEN 17199 2:2017 [1], prEN 17199 3:2017 [2] und prEN 17199 4:2017 [3]. Das Verfahren kann Arbeiten oder Prozesse mit hochenergetischer Staubdispersion durch Vibration besser simulieren oder sogar ein Worst-Case-Szenario am Arbeitsplatz einschließlich der (nicht empfohlenen) Praxis der Reinigung kontaminierter Arbeitsoveralls und trockener Arbeitsoberflächen mit Druckluft beschreiben.
ANMERKUNG 4   Bisher wurde noch kein Klassifizierungsschema im Hinblick auf Staubungsindizes oder Emissions-raten nach dem Verfahren mit Vortex-Schüttler erstellt. Schließlich, wenn eine große Anzahl an Messdaten vorliegt, ist beabsichtigt, diese Europäische Norm zu revidieren und ein solches Klassifizierungsschema einzuführen.

Exposition sur les lieux de travail - Mesurage du pouvoir de resuspension des matériaux en vrac contenant ou émettant des nano-objets et leurs agrégats et agglomérats (NOAA) ou autres particules en fraction alvéolaire - Partie 5: Méthode impliquant l'utilisation d'un agitateur vortex

Le présent document décrit la méthodologie permettant de mesurer et de caractériser le pouvoir de resuspension de matériaux en vrac contenant ou émettant des NOAA ou autres particules en fraction alvéolaire dans des conditions normalisées et reproductibles et spécifie, à cette fin, le but de la méthode de l’agitateur vortex.
Le présent document spécifie le choix des instruments et dispositifs ainsi que les procédures de calcul et d’expression des résultats. Il fournit également des lignes directrices concernant l’évaluation et la consignation des données.
La méthodologie décrite dans le présent document permet :
a)   le mesurage de la fraction massique des poussières alvéolaires ;
b)   le mesurage de l’indice du pouvoir de resuspension en nombre de particules alvéolaires dans la plage granulométrique comprise entre environ 10 nm et 1 µm ;

Izpostavljenost na delovnem mestu - Meritve prašnosti razsutih materialov, ki vsebujejo ali sproščajo respirabilne nanopredmete ter njihove agregate in aglomerate (NOAA) in druge respirabilne delce - 5. del: Metoda s krožnim mešalnikom

Ta evropski standard določa metodologijo za merjenje in opredelitev prašnosti razsutih materialov, ki vsebujejo ali sproščajo nanopredmete ali submikrometrske delce v standardnih in ponovljivih pogojih, ter za ta namen določa metodo s krožnim mešalnikom.
Poleg tega navaja ta evropski standard tudi izbiro instrumentov in naprav ter postopke za izračun in predstavitev rezultatov. Podaja tudi smernice za vrednotenje in poročanje podatkov.
Metodologija, ki je opisana v tem evropskem standardu, omogoča:
a)   merjenje masnega deleža pri respirabilni prašnosti,
b)   določanje indeksa prašnosti na podlagi mase respirabilnih delcev v razponu velikosti od približno 10 nm to 1000 nm;
c)   določanje indeksa prašnosti respirabilnih delcev na podlagi števila v razponu velikosti od približno 10 nm to 1000 nm;
d)   določanje stopnje emisij respirabilnih delcev na podlagi števila v razponu velikosti od približno 10 nm to 1000 nm;
e)   določanje števila porazdelitev velikosti sproščenega respirabilnega aerosola v razponu velikosti od približno 10 nm to 10 µm;
f)   zbiranje sproščenih lebdečih delcev v respirabilnih deležih za nadaljnje opazovanje in analizo z elektronsko mikroskopijo.
Ta evropski standard se uporablja za preskušanje širokega nabora razsutih materialov, vključno z nanomateriali v prahu.
OPOMBA 1:    Prašnost niza ogljikovih nanocevk je bila preiskana (od [5] do [10]) z nekoliko drugačnimi konfiguracijami metode, ki je navedena v tem evropskem standardu. Na podlagi tega objavljenega dela je mogoče sklepati, da se lahko metoda s krožnim mešalnikom uporablja tudi za nanovlakna in nanoplošče.
Ta evropski standard se ne uporablja za milimetrske granule ali pelete, ki vsebujejo nanopredmete v nevezani, vezani, prevlečeni ali neprevlečeni obliki.
OPOMBA 2:   To izhaja iz konfiguracije naprave s krožnim mešalnikom in potreben je majhen preskusni vzorec. Če bo delo v prihodnje prineslo točne in ponovljive podatke, ki bi pokazali, da je to mogoče, bo predvidena revizija evropskega standarda in uvedba te uporabe.
OPOMBA 3:   Kot je bilo ugotovljeno v prednormativnem raziskovalnem projektu [4], omogoča metoda s krožnim mešalnikom, ki je navedena v tem evropskem standardu, bolj energetsko aerosolizacijo v primerjavi z vrtečim bobnom, trajnim padanjem in majhnim vrtečim bobnom, ki so navedeni v standardih prEN 17199-2:2018 [1], prEN 17199-3:2018 [2] oziroma prEN 17199-4:2018 [3]. Omogoča boljšo simulacijo visokoenergijskih postopkov in procesov razprševanja prahu, pri katerih se uporablja vibracija, ali celo opis najslabšega možnega scenarija na delovnem mestu, vključno s prakso čiščenja kontaminiranih delavskih kombinezonov in suhih delovnih površin s stisnjenim zrakom (se ne priporoča).
OPOMBA 4:   Za indekse prašnosti ali stopnje emisij trenutno še ni vzpostavljena nobena klasifikacijska shema v skladu z metodo s krožnim mešalnikom. Ko bo sčasoma pridobljenih veliko merilnih podatkov, je predvidena revizija evropskega standarda in uvedba take klasifikacijske sheme, če bo to ustrezno.

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
26-Mar-2019
Current Stage
6060 - Definitive text made available (DAV) - Publishing
Due Date
27-Mar-2019
Completion Date
27-Mar-2019

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN 17199-5:2019
01-september-2019
Izpostavljenost na delovnem mestu - Meritve prašnosti razsutih materialov, ki
vsebujejo ali sproščajo respirabilne nanopredmete ter njihove agregate in
aglomerate (NOAA) in druge respirabilne delce - 5. del: Metoda s krožnim
mešalnikom
Workplace exposure - Measurement of dustiness of bulk materials that contain or

release respirable NOAA or other respirable particles - Part 5: Vortex shaker method

Exposition am Arbeitsplatz - Messung des Staubungsverhaltens von Schüttgütern, die

Nanoobjekte oder Submikrometerpartikel enthalten oder freisetzen - Teil 5: Verfahren

mit Vortex-Schüttler

Exposition sur les lieux de travail - Mesurage du pouvoir de resuspension des matériaux

en vrac contenant ou émettant des nano-objets et leurs agrégats et agglomérats (NOAA)

ou autres particules en fraction alvéolaire - Partie 5: Méthode impliquant l'utilisation d'un

agitateur vortex
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN 17199-5:2019
ICS:
13.040.30 Kakovost zraka na delovnem Workplace atmospheres
mestu
SIST EN 17199-5:2019 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST EN 17199-5:2019
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SIST EN 17199-5:2019
EN 17199-5
EUROPEAN STANDARD
NORME EUROPÉENNE
March 2019
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
ICS 13.040.30
English Version
Workplace exposure - Measurement of dustiness of bulk
materials that contain or release respirable NOAA or other
respirable particles - Part 5: Vortex shaker method

Exposition sur les lieux de travail - Mesurage du Exposition am Arbeitsplatz - Messung des

pouvoir de resuspension des matériaux en vrac Staubungsverhaltens von Schüttgütern, die

contenant ou émettant des nano-objets et leurs Nanoobjekte oder Submikrometerpartikel enthalten

agrégats et agglomérats (NOAA) ou autres particules oder freisetzen - Teil 5: Verfahren mit Vortex-Schüttler

en fraction alvéolaire - Partie 5: Méthode impliquant
l'utilisation d'un agitateur vortex
This European Standard was approved by CEN on 8 February 2019.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this

European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references

concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN

member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by

translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management

Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and United Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2019 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 17199-5:2019 E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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SIST EN 17199-5:2019
EN 17199-5:2019 (E)
Contents Page

European foreword ....................................................................................................................................................... 4

Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .................................................................................................................................................................... 6

2 Normative references .................................................................................................................................... 7

3 Terms and definitions ................................................................................................................................... 7

4 Symbols and abbreviations ......................................................................................................................... 8

5 Principle ............................................................................................................................................................. 8

6 Equipment ...................................................................................................................................................... 10

6.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 10

6.2 Test apparatus............................................................................................................................................... 12

6.2.1 Vortex shaker apparatus ........................................................................................................................... 12

6.2.2 Cylindrical container .................................................................................................................................. 12

6.2.3 Humidification system of incoming and dilution air....................................................................... 15

6.2.4 Sampling line for the measurement of the respirable dustiness mass fraction .................... 15

6.2.5 Sampling line for other measurements ................................................................................................ 17

6.2.6 Conductive flexible tubing, carbon impregnated ............................................................................. 19

6.2.7 Respirable cyclone, made of stainless steel ........................................................................................ 19

6.2.8 Air sampling cassette .................................................................................................................................. 19

6.2.9 Condensation particle counter (CPC), with alcohol as working fluid........................................ 20

6.2.10 Time- and size-resolving aerosol instrument .................................................................................... 20

6.2.11 Aerosol sampler for analytical electron microscopy analysis ..................................................... 20

6.2.12 Analytical balance, capable of weighing to a resolution of 10 µg ............................................... 21

6.2.13 Microbalance, capable of weighing to a resolution of 1 µg ........................................................... 21

6.2.14 Filters for gravimetric analysis ............................................................................................................... 21

6.2.15 Micro-centrifuge tubes ............................................................................................................................... 21

7 Requirements ................................................................................................................................................ 21

7.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 21

7.2 Engineering control measures ................................................................................................................ 21

7.3 Conditioning of the test material ............................................................................................................ 21

7.3.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 21

7.3.2 Specified conditions .................................................................................................................................... 22

7.3.3 As-received conditions ............................................................................................................................... 22

7.4 Conditioning of the test equipment ....................................................................................................... 22

8 Preparation .................................................................................................................................................... 22

8.1 Test sample .................................................................................................................................................... 22

8.2 Moisture content of the test material ................................................................................................... 23

8.3 Bulk density of the test material ............................................................................................................ 23

8.4 Preparation of test apparatus ................................................................................................................. 23

8.5 Aerosol instruments and aerosol samplers........................................................................................ 23

9 Test procedure .............................................................................................................................................. 23

10 Evaluation of data ........................................................................................................................................ 26

10.1 Respirable dustiness mass fraction ....................................................................................................... 26

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SIST EN 17199-5:2019
EN 17199-5:2019 (E)
10.2 Number-based dustiness index, number-based emission rate and modal

aerodynamic equivalent diameters of the particle size distribution ........................................ 26

10.2.1 General ............................................................................................................................................................. 26

10.2.2 Number-based dustiness index ............................................................................................................... 27

10.2.3 Number-based emission rate ................................................................................................................... 27

10.2.4 Modal aerodynamic equivalent diameters of the number-based particle size

distribution ..................................................................................................................................................... 27

10.3 Morphological and chemical characterization of the particles.................................................... 28

11 Test report ...................................................................................................................................................... 29

Annex A (informative) Pictures illustrating some of the equipment of the method ........................... 30

Annex B (informative) Examples of TEM images obtained with the vortex shaker method ........... 35

Annex C (informative) Motivation for development of the vortex shaker method ............................ 36

Bibliography ................................................................................................................................................................. 37

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SIST EN 17199-5:2019
EN 17199-5:2019 (E)
European foreword

This document (EN 17199-5:2019) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 137

“Assessment of workplace exposure to chemical and biological agents”, the secretariat of which is held

by DIN.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an

identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by September 2019 and conflicting national standards

shall be withdrawn at the latest by September 2019.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the

European Free Trade Association.

According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the

following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,

Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia,

France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
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SIST EN 17199-5:2019
EN 17199-5:2019 (E)
Introduction

Dustiness measurement and characterization provide users (e.g. manufacturers, producers,

occupational hygienists and workers) with information on the potential for dust emissions when bulk

material is handled or processed in workplaces. They provide the manufactures of bulk materials

containing NOAA with information that can help to improve their products and reduce their dustiness.

It allows the users of the bulk materials containing NOAA to assess the controls and precautions

required for handling and working with the material and the effects of pre-treatments (e.g. modify

surface properties or chemistry). It also allows the users to select less dusty products, if available. The

particle size distribution of the aerosol and the morphology and chemical composition of its particles

can be used by occupational hygienists, scientists and regulators to further characterize the aerosol in

terms of particle size distribution and chemical composition and to thus aid users to evaluate and

control the health risk of airborne dust.

This document gives details on the design and operation of the vortex shaker test method that

measures the dustiness of bulk materials that contain or release respirable NOAA or other respirable

particles in terms of dustiness indices or emission rates. Dustiness indices as well as emission rates can

be determined number- or mass-based. In addition the test method characterizes the released aerosol

by measuring the particle size distribution using direct-reading aerosol instruments and collects

samples for off-line analysis (as required) for their morphology and their chemical composition.

The vortex shaker method is useful for addressing the ability of bulk materials including nanomaterials

(in powder form), to release airborne particles (aerosol) during agitation, the so-called dustiness.

The vortex shaker method provides a simulation of operation or processes where the agitation

mechanism delivering energy to the powder to release airborne particles is the vibration or shaking

mechanism. Vibration and shaking are mechanisms that are often found in industry, either voluntarily

or involuntarily. Many surfaces receiving powders are vibrating or shaking, as for example during

powder transportation by belt feeder or vibrating conveyor. Moreover, by providing an energetic

aerosolization, the vortex shaker method provides even a simulation of the worst-case scenario in a

workplace, as for example the (non-recommended) practice of cleaning contaminated worker coveralls

and dry work surfaces with compressed air.

The vortex shaker method presented here differs from the rotating drum, the continuous drop and the

small rotating drum methods presented in EN 17199-2 [1], EN 17199-3 [2] and EN 17199-4 [3]

respectively. The rotating drum and small rotating drum methods perform, both, repeated agitation of

the same sample nanomaterial while the continuous drop method simulates continuous feed of a

nanomaterial. The method described in this document, in turn, provides an agitation to a small test

sample of powder.

This document was developed based on the results of pre-normative research [4]. This project

investigated the dustiness of ten bulk materials (including nine bulk nanomaterials) with the intention

to test as wide a range of bulk materials as possible in terms of magnitude of dustiness, chemical

composition and primary particle size distribution as indicated by a large range in specific surface area.

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SIST EN 17199-5:2019
EN 17199-5:2019 (E)
1 Scope

This document describes the methodology for measuring and characterizing the dustiness of bulk

materials that contain or release respirable NOAA or other respirable particles, under standard and

reproducible conditions and specifies for that purpose the vortex shaker method.

This document specifies the selection of instruments and devices and the procedures for calculating and

presenting the results. It also gives guidelines on the evaluation and reporting of the data.

The methodology described in this document enables
a) the measurement of the respirable dustiness mass fraction,

b) the measurement of the number-based dustiness index of respirable particles in the particle size

range from about 10 nm to about 1 µm,

c) the measurement of the number-based emission rate of respirable particles in the particle size

range from about 10 nm to about 1 µm,

d) the measurement of the number-based particle size distribution of the released respirable aerosol

in the particle size range from about 10 nm to 10 µm,

e) the collection of released airborne particles in the respirable fraction for subsequent observations

and analysis by electron microscopy.

This document is applicable to the testing of a wide range of bulk materials including nanomaterials in

powder form.

NOTE 1 With slightly different configurations of the method specified in this document, dustiness of a series of

carbon nanotubes has been investigated ([5] to [10]). On the basis of this published work, it can be assumed that

the vortex shaker method is also applicable to nanofibres and nanoplates.

This document is not applicable to millimetre-sized granules or pellets containing nano-objects in

either unbound, bound uncoated and coated forms.

NOTE 2 The restrictions with regard to the application of the vortex shaker method on different kinds of

nanomaterials result from the configuration of the vortex shaker apparatus as well as from the small size of the

test sample required. Eventually, if future work will be able to provide accurate and repeatable data

demonstrating that an extension of the method applicability is possible, the intention is to revise this document

and to introduce further cases of method application.

NOTE 3 As observed in the pre-normative research project [4], the vortex shaker method specified in this

document provides a more energetic aerosolization than the rotating drum, the continuous drop and the small

rotating drum methods specified in EN 17199-2 [1], EN 17199-3 [2] and EN 17199-4 [3], respectively. The vortex

shaker method can better simulate high energy dust dispersion operations or processes where vibration or

shaking is applied or even describe a worst case scenario in a workplace, including the (non-recommended)

practice of cleaning contaminated worker coveralls and dry work surfaces with compressed air.

NOTE 4 Currently no classification scheme in terms of dustiness indices or emission rates has been established

according to the vortex shaker method. Eventually, when a large number of measurement data has been obtained,

the intention is to revise the document and to introduce such a classification scheme, if applicable.

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SIST EN 17199-5:2019
EN 17199-5:2019 (E)
2 Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

CEN ISO/TS 80004-2, Nanotechnologies - Vocabulary - Part 2: Nano-objects (ISO/TS 80004-2)

EN 481, Workplace atmospheres - Size fraction definitions for measurement of airborne particles

EN 1540, Workplace exposure - Terminology

EN 13205-2, Workplace exposure - Assessment of sampler performance for measurement of airborne

particle concentrations - Part 2: Laboratory performance test based on determination of sampling

efficiency

EN 15051-1, Workplace exposure - Measurement of the dustiness of bulk materials - Part 1: Requirements

and choice of test methods

EN 17199-1, Workplace exposure - Measurement of dustiness of bulk materials that contain or release

respirable NOAA or other respirable particles - Part 1: Requirements and choice of test methods

EN 16897, Workplace exposure - Characterization of ultrafine aerosols/nanoaerosols - Determination of

number concentration using condensation particle counters

ISO 15767, Workplace atmospheres - Controlling and characterizing uncertainty in weighing collected

aerosols

ISO 27891, Aerosol particle number concentration - Calibration of condensation particle counters

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in EN 1540, EN 15051-1,

CEN ISO/TS 80004-2 and EN 17199-1 apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following addresses:

• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
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SIST EN 17199-5:2019
EN 17199-5:2019 (E)
4 Symbols and abbreviations
AES Atomic Emission Spectroscopy
CPC Condensation Particle Counter
Electrical Low Pressure Impactor
ELPI
EM Electron Microscopy
HEPA High Efficiency Particulate Arrestance
ICP Inductively coupled plasma
MFC Mass flow controller
MS Mass Spectrometry
NOAA Nano-objects, and their aggregates and agglomerates > 100 nm
RH Relative Humidity
TEM Transmission Electron Microscopy
VS Vortex Shaker
XRF X-ray Fluorescence
5 Principle

The vortex shaker method (see Annex A and Annex C) specified in this document measures the

dustiness of bulk materials in terms of
— the respirable dustiness mass fraction,
— the number-based dustiness index, and
— the number-based emission rate.

In addition, this document describes the procedures by which the aerosols can be further characterized

in terms of their particle size distributions and the morphology and chemical composition of their

airborne particles.

The sampling for the purpose of and the execution of qualitative or quantitative analysis of the

morphology and chemical composition of the collected airborne nanostructured particles are described.

Performing these analyses is optional but can provide confirmation of the sizes of the particles

generated and complementary information to the time- and size-resolving instruments.

Table 1 provides
— an overview of the different measurands, their symbols and units,
— information on whether determining these measurands is mandatory or not, and
— the aerosol instruments and sampling devices needed to determine a measurand.

1) ELPI is the trade name or trademark of a product supplied by Dekati. This information is given for the

convenience of users of this European Standard and does not constitute an endorsement by CEN of the product

named. Equivalent products may be used if they can be shown to lead to the same results.

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Table 1 — Measurands, aerosol instruments/sampling devices and associated recommendations

for the vortex shaker method
Method/ device Mandatory/Optional
Measurand (unit)
specific to measurand
Respirable dustiness mass fraction (mg/kg) 25 mm- or 37 mm- air Mandatory
sampling cassette (see
6.2.8) mounted on a
respirable cyclone (see
6.2.7)
Number-based dustiness index of respirable Condensation Particle Mandatory
particles in the particle size range from about Counter (CPC) (see
10 nm to about 6.2.9)
1 µm (1/mg)
Number-based average emission rate of Mandatory
respirable particles in the particle size range from
about 10 nm to about
1 µm (1/mg·s)
Number of modes of the time-averaged number- Time- and size- Mandatory
based particle size distribution as dN/dlogD (-) resolving instrument
covering the particle
Modal aerodynamic equivalent diameters Mandatory
size range from about
corresponding to the highest mode M1 ) and to
10 nm up to about
the second highest mode (M2 ) of the time-
10 µm (see 6.2.10)
averaged number-based particle size distribution
as dN/dlogD (µm)
Number of modes of the time-averaged mass- Cascade impactor Optional
based particle size distribution as dM/dlogD (-) covering the particle
size range from about
Modal aerodynamic equivalent diameters Optional
10 nm up to about
corresponding to the highest mode (M1 ) and to
10 µm (see 6.2.10)
the second highest mode (M2 ) of the time-
averaged mass-based particle size distribution as
dM/dlogD (µm)
Morphological and chemical characterization of TEM-grid holder Optional
the particles including NOAA (-) equipped with porous
Carbon film may be
carbon film TEM-grid
analysed by
(see 6.2.11)
transmission electron
microscopy (TEM)
Chemical characterization of the particles 25 mm- or 37 mm- air Optional
including NOAA (-) sampling cassette
Filters may be
made from conductive
quantitatively
material (see 6.2.8)
analysed by XRF, ICP-
mounted on a
AES or ICP-MS.
respirable cyclone (see
6.2.7)

NOTE The particle size range described above is based on the equipment used during the prenormative

research.
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6 Equipment
6.1 General

The test apparatus consists of an especially designed cylindrical container (see 6.2.2), in which a small

volume (0,5 cm ) of the test sample is placed that is continuously shook according a circular orbital

motion generated by the vortex shaker apparatus (see 6.2.1).

HEPA filtered air, controlled at (50 ± 5) % RH, passes through the cylindrical container at a flow rate

Q = 4,2 l/min in order to transfer the released aerosol inside the container to the sampling or

measurement section.

An overview of the experimental set-up of the vortex shaker test bench is given in Figure 1.

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Key
1 compressed dry air
2 mass flow controller (MFC)
3 humidification system (6.2.3) to deliver 4,2 l/min at (50 ± 5) % RH
4 high-efficiency particle arrestance (HEPA) filter cartridge
5 valve to direct incoming air flow through the cylindrical tube
6 cylindrical container (6.2.2), in which the test sample is poured
7 attachment rubber piece adapted to the design of the bottom of the container
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8 vortex shaker apparatus (6.2.1) producing a circular orbital motion
9 valve to direct incoming airflow bypass the cylindrical tube
10 valve to direct outflow to the sampling and measurement section
11 tube to the sampling and measurement section (6.2.6)
Q flow rate in the vortex shaker
NOTE The test bench external dimensions are about 0,6 m × 0,6 m × 0,6 m.
Figure 1 — Overview of the experimental set-up of the vortex shaker test bench
6.2 Test apparatus
6.2.1 Vortex shaker apparatus

The vortex shaker is composed of a central unit, in which an eccentric motor is located, and an

attachment rubber piece at the top to maintain the bottom of the cylindrical container (6.2.2).

As shown in Figure 1, the vertical axes of the cylindrical container, the attachment rubber piece and the

central unit shall be coaxial before starting the motor of the vortex shaker.

The vortex shaker apparatus shall produce a circular orbital motion in the horizontal plane. The motion

shall be characterized by displacement amplitude of 4 mm and a rotation speed of 1 850 r/min.

The agitation motion is created by holding the top of the container in place while allowing the bottom to

move in its circular orbital motion. Thus, the container shall be held in position by a ring located just

below the cap. The ring shall have an inner diameter of 34 mm and be made of rubber to limit the

transfer of vibrations to the rest of the test bench. It shall be held in place by an attachment piece to the

test bench.

Due the vibrations while motor running, central unit shall have resilient rubber pads. Moreover, extra

rubber elements shall be used to limit the lateral and longitudinal displacements of the central unit.

6.2.2 Cylindrical container
The characteristics of a cylindrical container are shown in Figure 2.

The cylindrical container is obtained by assembling three elements made of stainless steel material and

shown in Figure 3.
...

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