Plastics - Recycled plastics - Sampling procedures for testing plastics waste and recyclates

This Technical Specification specifies a system for sampling procedures for testing plastics waste and recyclates which take into account the specifics of the plastics waste and recyclates. It is intended to cover all stages of the plastic recycling process.
The sampling procedures include the statistical specifics of the plastic waste and the behaviour of recyclates.
The sampling method should produce a representative testing sample. Differences can arise due to:
-the mixture of plastics;
-the origin (e.g. green dot in Germany, or electronic/automotive industry);
-the previous use of the plastic material;
-the residual contents (e.g. of containers);
-inert, residual or moisture content on or in the material.
This Technical Specification is without prejudice to any existing legislation.

Kunststoffe - Kunststoff-Rezyklate - Probenahmeverfahren zur Prüfung von Kunststoffabfall und Rezyklaten

Die vorliegende Technische Spezifikation legt ein System für Probenahmeverfahren zur Prüfung von Kunststoff¬abfällen und Rezyklaten fest, dass die Besonderheiten von Kunststoffabfällen und Rezyklaten berücksichtigt. Es ist dafür vorgesehen, alle Phasen des Kunststoff-Recyclingprozesses abzudecken.
Die Probenahmeverfahren berücksichtigen die statistischen Besonderheiten der Kunststoffabfälle und das Verhalten von Rezyklaten.
Das Probenahmeverfahren sollte eine repräsentative Messprobe ergeben. Abweichungen können aufgrund folgender Faktoren entstehen:
-   der Mischung von Kunststoffen;
-   des Ursprungs (z. B. Grüner Punkt in Deutschland oder Elektronik /Automobilindustrie);
-   der vorherigen Verwendung des Kunststoffmaterials;
-   des Restgehalts (z. B. von Behältern);
-   des inerten Gehalts, des Rest  oder Feuchtegehalts auf dem oder im Material.
Diese Technische Spezifikation berührt keine bestehende Gesetzgebung.

Plastiques - Plastiques recyclés - Procédures d'échantillonnage pour l'essai des déchets de plastiques et des recyclats

La présente Spécification Technique spécifie des procédures d'échantillonnage pour soumettre à essai des
déchets et recyclats de plastiques, qui tiennent compte des spécificités déchets et recyclats de plastiques.
Elle est destinée à couvrir toutes les étapes du processus de recyclage des plastiques.
Les procédures d'échantillonnage intègrent les spécificités statistiques des déchets plastiques et le
comportement des recyclats.
Il convient que la méthode d'échantillonnage produise un échantillon d'essai représentatif. Des différences
peuvent survenir en raison :
⎯ du mélange de plastiques ;
⎯ de l'origine (par exemple point vert en Allemagne, ou industrie électronique/automobile) ;
⎯ de l’usage précédent du matériau plastique ;
⎯ du contenu résiduel (par exemple des conteneurs) ;
⎯ de la teneur en matière inerte, en résidus ou en humidité sur ou dans le matériau.
La présente Spécification Technique ne saurait prévaloir sur toute réglementation existante.

Polimerni materiali - Reciklirani polimerni materiali - Postopki vzorčenja za preskušanje polimernih odpadkov in reciklatov

Ta tehnična specifikacija določa sistem za postopke vzorčenja za preskušanje polimernih odpadkov in reciklatov, ki upoštevajo posebnosti polimernih odpadkov in reciklatov. Zajema vse korake recikliranja polimernih materialov. Postopki vzorčenja zajemajo statistične značilnosti polimernih odpadkov in vedenje reciklatov. Rezultat postopka vzorčenja bi moral biti reprezentativni preskusni vzorec. Razlike se lahko pojavijo zaradi: – mešanice polimernih materialov; – izvora (npr. zelena pika v Nemčiji ali elektronska/avtomobilska industrija); – predhodne uporabe polimernih materialov; – ostankov vsebine (npr. vsebnikov); – inertne, preostale ali vlažne vsebine na ali v materialu. Ta tehnična specifikacija ne posega v nobeno obstoječo zakonodajo.

General Information

Status
Withdrawn
Publication Date
22-Jan-2013
Technical Committee
Current Stage
9960 - Withdrawal effective - Withdrawal
Completion Date
02-Dec-2020

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST-TS CEN/TS 16010:2014
01-maj-2014
3ROLPHUQLPDWHULDOL5HFLNOLUDQLSROLPHUQLPDWHULDOL3RVWRSNLY]RUþHQMD]D
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Plastics - Recycled plastics - Sampling procedures for testing plastics waste and

recyclates
Kunststoffe - Kunststoff-Rezyklate - Probenahmeverfahren zur Prüfung von
Kunststoffabfall und Rezyklaten

Plastiques - Plastiques recyclés - Procédures d'échantillonnage pour l'essai des déchets

de plastiques et des recyclats
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: CEN/TS 16010:2013
ICS:
13.030.50 Recikliranje Recycling
83.080.01 Polimerni materiali na Plastics in general
splošno
SIST-TS CEN/TS 16010:2014 en,fr,de

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

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SIST-TS CEN/TS 16010:2014
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION
CEN/TS 16010
SPÉCIFICATION TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHE SPEZIFIKATION
January 2013
ICS 13.030.50; 83.080.01
English Version
Plastics - Recycled plastics - Sampling procedures for testing
plastics waste and recyclates

Plastiques - Plastiques recyclés - Procédures Kunststoffe - Kunststoff-Rezyklate - Probenahmeverfahren

d'échantillonnage pour l'essai des déchets de plastiques et zur Prüfung von Kunststoffabfall und Rezyklaten

des recyclats

This Technical Specification (CEN/TS) was approved by CEN on 22 October 2012 for provisional application.

The period of validity of this CEN/TS is limited initially to three years. After two years the members of CEN will be requested to submit their

comments, particularly on the question whether the CEN/TS can be converted into a European Standard.

CEN members are required to announce the existence of this CEN/TS in the same way as for an EN and to make the CEN/TS available

promptly at national level in an appropriate form. It is permissible to keep conflicting national standards in force (in parallel to the CEN/TS)

until the final decision about the possible conversion of the CEN/TS into an EN is reached.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,

Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania,

Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United

Kingdom.
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG
Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2013 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TS 16010:2013: E

worldwide for CEN national Members.
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Contents Page

Foreword ..............................................................................................................................................................3

Introduction .........................................................................................................................................................4

1 Scope ......................................................................................................................................................5

2 Normative references ............................................................................................................................5

3 Terms and definitions ...........................................................................................................................5

4 Symbols and abbreviations ..................................................................................................................7

5 Calculating the probability that a given set of samples is representative.......................................7

6 Sampling from non homogeneous material streams .........................................................................9

7 Procedures for the determination of material characteristics through sampling ....................... 10

Annex A (normative) Procedures for the determination of material characteristics through

sampling .............................................................................................................................................. 13

Annex B (informative) Principal development of standard deviation 's' as a function of number of

samples 'n' ........................................................................................................................................... 16

Annex C (informative) Development of factor 't' of the Student distribution for different levels of

confidence ........................................................................................................................................... 17

Bibliography ..................................................................................................................................................... 18

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Foreword

This document (CEN/TS 16010:2013) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 249 “Plastics”, the

secretariat of which is held by NBN.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent

rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This Technical Specification is one part of a series of CEN publications on Plastics Recycling that is structured

as follows:

 EN 15342, Plastics — Recycled Plastics — Characterization of polystyrene (PS) recyclates

 EN 15343, Plastics — Recycled Plastics — Plastics recycling traceability and assessment of conformity

and recycled content

 EN 15344, Plastics — Recycled Plastics — Characterisation of Polyethylene (PE) recyclates

 EN 15345, Plastics — Recycled Plastics — Characterisation of Polypropylene (PP) recyclates

 EN 15346, Plastics — Recycled plastics — Characterisation of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) recyclates

 EN 15347, Plastics — Recycled Plastics — Characterisation of plastics wastes

 EN 15348, Plastic — Recycled plastics — Characterization of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET)

recyclates

 CEN/TR 15353, Plastics — Recycled plastics — Guidelines for the development of standards for recycled

plastics
 CEN/TS 16011, Plastics — Recycled plastics — Sample preparation

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the following

countries are bound to announce this Technical Specification: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus,

Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany,

Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland,

Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.

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Introduction

Recycling of plastics waste is one type of material recovery process intended to save resources (virgin raw

materials, water, energy), while minimising harmful emissions into air, water and soil as well as their impacts

on human health. The environmental impact of recycling should be assessed over the whole life cycle of the

recycling system (from the waste generation point to the disposal of final residues). To ensure that recycling

constitutes the best environmental option for treating the available waste, some prerequisites should

preferably be met:

 the recycling scheme being contemplated should generate lower environmental impacts than alternative

recovery options;

 existing or potential market outlets should be identified that will secure a sustainable industrial recycling

operation;

 the collection and sorting schemes should be properly designed to deliver recyclable plastics waste

fractions fitting reasonably well with the available recycling technologies and with the (changing) needs of

the identified market outlets, preferably at minimum costs for society.

This Technical Specification has been produced in accordance with the guidance produced by CEN on

Environmental Aspects and in accordance with CEN/TR 15353, Plastics — Recycled plastics — Guidelines

for the development of standards for recycled plastics.

NOTE CEN/TR 15353 considers the general environmental aspects which are specific to the recycling process.

This Technical Specification is intended to serve two purposes.

1. To provide a guide to plastic recyclers and others that enables a calculation to be made of the risk of

inaccuracy presented by a chosen sampling regime. This will help to inform decisions about sampling

that can also be influenced by factors such as the supply record of a supplier or the reliability of a

process. This is covered in Clause 5.

2. To define the sampling procedures to be followed to characterise the material being sampled. These

procedures may be followed where a particular level of accuracy is required, or where the sampling is

in support of the resolution of a dispute. This is covered in Clause 7 and Annex A.

It is not the intention of this Technical Specification to develop new sampling methods.

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1 Scope

This Technical Specification specifies a system for sampling procedures for testing plastics waste and

recyclates which take into account the specifics of the plastics waste and recyclates. It is intended to cover all

stages of the plastic recycling process.

The sampling procedures include the statistical specifics of the plastic waste and the behaviour of recyclates.

The sampling method should produce a representative testing sample. Differences can arise due to:

 the mixture of plastics;
 the origin (e.g. green dot in Germany, or electronic/automotive industry);
 the previous use of the plastic material;
 the residual contents (e.g. of containers);
 inert, residual or moisture content on or in the material.
This Technical Specification is without prejudice to any existing legislation.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references,

the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

CEN/TR 15353:2007, Plastics — Recycled plastics — Guidelines for the development of standards for

recycled plastics
CEN/TS 16011, Plastics — Recycled plastics — Sample preparation
EN ISO 472:2001, Plastics — Vocabulary (ISO 472:1999)

ISO 11648-1:2003, Statistical aspects of sampling from bulk materials — Part 1: General principles

ISO 11648-2:2001, Statistical aspects of sampling from bulk materials — Part 2: Sampling of particulate

materials
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms, definitions and abbreviated terms given in EN ISO 472:2001, in

CEN/TR 15353:2007 and the following apply.
NOTE The terms used are confined to the field of bulk sampling.
3.1
bulk material

amount of material within which component parts are not initially distinguishable on the macroscopic level

[SOURCE: ISO 11648-1:2003]
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3.2
sample

combination of a set of increments of material taken from a lot, intended to supply information, and possibly

serve as a basis for a decision concerning the lot or the process by which it has been produced

[SOURCE: ISO 8656-1:1988]
3.3
increment
quantity of bulk material taken in one action by a sampling device
[SOURCE: ISO 11648-1:2003]
3.4
laboratory sample
sample intended to be used for an inspection or for laboratory tests
[SOURCE: ISO 8656-1:1988]
3.5
test sample

sample taken from the laboratory sample and prepared in a suitable manner for subjection to particular tests

Note 1 to entry: Test samples might be prepared, for example, for the determination of particle size distribution,

moisture content, chemical composition, physical or other properties. See also CEN/TS 16011.

[SOURCE: ISO 8656-1:1988]
3.6
central limit theorem

fundamental theorem of probability and statistics, stating that the distribution of the mean of a random sample

from a population with finite variance is approximately normally distributed when the sample size is large,

regardless of the shape of the population's distribution

Note 1 to entry: If x , x , …., x are independent measurements (i.e. a random sample of size n), from a population

1 2 n
where the mean of x is µ, and the standard deviation of x is σ, then:
x1+ x 2+ ...+ xn
The distribution of  = has mean and standard deviation given by:
µ = µ and σ =
 

When n is sufficiently large, then the distribution of  is approximately normal.

3.7
Student's t-distribution
t-distribution

probability distribution that is effective in the problem for estimating the mean of a normally distributed

population when the sample size is small
3.8
duration
length of sample time when sampling from a continuous stream
3.9
plastics waste
plastics fraction of waste
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3.10
waste

material or object which the holder discards, or intends to discard, or is required to discard

[SOURCE: ISO 15270:2008]
4 Symbols and abbreviations
n number of single samples, number of measurements
x independent single measured value
 arithmetic mean (average value, average)
s standard deviation of samples
σ standard deviation of population
µ is the real value of the true mean of the known distribution
t the value of the Student deviation for different levels of confidence
5 Calculating the probability that a given set of samples is representative
5.1 General

In everyday circumstances plastics recyclers require sampling for two basic purposes: to provide input quality

control and to verify the quality of the output recycled plastic. Although the physical properties of input and

output materials might be very different, the underlying statistical principles are the same. The samples taken

shall be sufficiently representative of the batch to satisfy the user of the sample information that it is relevant

for his purpose. The sampling regime will be based on a number of factors including:

 the physical form and homogeneity of the material being sampled;

 the level of confidence in the consistency and reliability of the material being sampled;

 the consequences of the sample not being representative.

The purpose of this section is to provide a tool for the plastic recycler to use to calculate the effectiveness of

his chosen sampling routine or, conversely, to calculate the risk associated with a particular sampling regime.

Sample sizes are often small, and the population standard deviation (σ) is usually unknown. The population

standard deviation (σ) can be replaced with the sample standard deviation (s). To be more conservative in the

analysis, the t-distribution may be used rather than the normal distribution. When sample sizes are large the

results are the same (Central Limit Theorem).

Many common statistical procedures require data to be approximately normal, but the Central Limit Theorem

enables these procedures to be applied to populations that are strongly non-normal. How large the sample

size shall be depends on the shape of the original distribution. If the population's distribution is symmetric, a

sample size of 5 might yield a good approximation; if the population's distribution is strongly asymmetric, a

larger sample size is necessary (50 or more).

Sampling error is in effect and this gives a guide to the limit of detection in that it would be possible to

miss a 10 % component by taking a sample of 100 pieces. It is also important to recognise that the sampling

error is based on the particles as sampled. If these particles have an average mass of 10 g then a sample of

1 kg is needed to get a 10 % error and 100 kg to get a 1 % error.
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5.2 Power and sample size

Power is the likelihood of identifying a significant difference (effect) when one truly exists. Errors are referred

to as Type 1 and Type 2 errors. A Type 1 error results in rejecting good material and a Type 2 error results in

accepting bad material. The easiest way to improve power is to increase sample size.

5.3 Calculation of the variance of sampling

To understand the effect of changing the number of samples, see Annex C. With a number of samples ‘n’ the

factor ‘t’ is determined with different levels of confidence. Using an estimated or calculated standard deviation

‘s’ it is possible to calculate the influence on the sampling by variation of the number of samples with the

formula in Annex A under A.5.2 (reverse calculation).
5.4 Determining the confidence in a sampling routine

In this example a load of ten tonnes of waste plastic is delivered to a plastic recycler for processing.

 The load consists of ten bags of shredded plastic, each bag weighing approximately one tonne.

 The plastic has been shredded to give pieces averaging 150 mm × 150 mm (range > 75 mm to

< 200 mm) by 3 mm thick (range > 2,5 mm to < 3,5 mm).
 The average mass of each shredded piece is 0,06 kg.

 The load is known to contain a mixture of polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP). The supplier claims

that the PP content is less than 5 %.

 The plastic recycler hand samples each bag, taking two sample pieces from each bag; a total of 20

samples.

 Each sample is analysed to find its PP content with the results shown in Table 1.

Table 1 — Analysis results
Sample No PP% Sample No PP%
1 4,25 11 6,55
2 6,15 12 6,10
3 4,90 13 6,95
4 5,30 14 4,85
5 4,95 15 6,95
6 4,15 16 7,10
7 4,95 17 6,65
8 5,75 18 4,75
9 6,80 19 4,85
10 5,15 20 4,10
The average value (mean)  = 5,56 %.
The Standard Deviation, calculated according to A.5.1 gives s = 1,013 929.

The value for 't' to give an assumed 95 % confidence level with 20 samples can be taken from the table in

Annex C giving a figure for 't' of 2,093.
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The confi
...

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