Installations for electroheating and electromagnetic processing - Test methods for induction through-heating installations

IEC 63078:2019 specifies the test procedures, conditions and methods for determining the main performance parameters and operational characteristics of induction through-heating installations. Measurements and tests that are solely used for the verification of safety requirements of the installations are outside the scope of this document and are covered by IEC 60519-1 and IEC 60519-3.

Elektroerwärmungsanlagen und Anlagen für elektromagnetische Bearbeitungsprozesse – Prüfverfahren für induktive Durcherwärmungsanlagen

Installations pour traitement électrothermique et électromagnétique - Méthodes d'essai pour les installations de chauffage par induction

L'IEC 63078:2019 spécifie les procédures, conditions et méthodes d'essai permettant de déterminer les paramètres de performance principaux et les caractéristiques de fonctionnement principales des installations de chauffage par induction. Les mesures et les essais qui sont utilisés aux seules fins de la vérification des exigences de sécurité des installations ne relèvent pas du domaine d'application du présent document et sont couverts par l'IEC 60519-1 et l'IEC 60519-3.

Naprave za električno ogrevanje in elektromagnetno obdelavo - Preskusne metode za indukcijske naprave za segrevanje (IEC 63078:2019)

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
20-Feb-2020
Current Stage
6060 - Document made available
Due Date
21-Feb-2020
Completion Date
21-Feb-2020

Buy Standard

Standard
EN IEC 63078:2020
English language
38 pages
sale 10% off
Preview
sale 10% off
Preview

e-Library read for
1 day

Standards Content (sample)

SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN IEC 63078:2020
01-maj-2020
Naprave za električno ogrevanje in elektromagnetno obdelavo - Preskusne metode
za indukcijske naprave za segrevanje (IEC 63078:2019)

Installations for electroheating and electromagnetic processing - Test methods for

induction through-heating installations (IEC 63078:2019)
Elektrowärmeanlagen und Anlagen für elektromagnetische Bearbeitungsprozesse -
Prüfverfahren für induktive Durcherwärmungsanlagen (IEC 63078:2019)

Installations pour traitement électrothermique et électromagnétique - Méthodes d'essai

pour les installations de chauffage par induction (IEC 63078:2019)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN IEC 63078:2020
ICS:
25.180.10 Električne peči Electric furnaces
97.100.01 Grelniki na splošno Heating appliances in
general
SIST EN IEC 63078:2020 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 63078:2020
---------------------- Page: 2 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 63078:2020
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN IEC 63078
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
February 2020
ICS 25.180.10
English Version
Installations for electroheating and electromagnetic processing -
Test methods for induction through-heating installations
(IEC 63078:2019)

Installations pour traitement électrothermique et Elektrowärmeanlagen und Anlagen für elektromagnetische

électromagnétique - Méthodes d'essai pour les installations Bearbeitungsprozesse - Prüfverfahren für induktive

de chauffage par induction Durcherwärmungsanlagen
(IEC 63078:2019) (IEC 63078:2019)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2019-12-27. CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC

Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the

same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic,

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2020 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. EN IEC 63078:2020 E
---------------------- Page: 3 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 63078:2020
EN IEC 63078:2020 (E)
European foreword

The text of document 27/1118/FDIS, future edition 1 of IEC 63078, prepared by IEC/TC 27 "Industrial

electroheating and electromagnetic processing" was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and

approved by CENELEC as EN IEC 63078:2020.
The following dates are fixed:

• latest date by which the document has to be implemented at national (dop) 2020-09-27

level by publication of an identical national standard or by endorsement

• latest date by which the national standards conflicting with the (dow) 2022-12-27

document have to be withdrawn

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CENELEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 63078:2019 was approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard without any modification.

In the official version, for Bibliography, the following notes have to be added for the standards

indicated:
IEC 62076:2006 NOTE Harmonized as EN 62076:2006 (not modified)
IEC 60683:2011 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60683:2012 (not modified)
---------------------- Page: 4 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 63078:2020
EN IEC 63078:2020 (E)
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments)

applies.

NOTE 1 Where an International Publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant

EN/HD applies.

NOTE 2 Up-to-date information on the latest versions of the European Standards listed in this annex is available here:

www.cenelec.eu.
Clause 2 of IEC 60398:2015 is applicable with the following additions:
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC 60398 2015 Installations for electroheating and EN 60398 2015
electromagnetic processing - General
performance test methods
1 2
IEC 60519-1 — Safety in installations for electroheating EN IEC 60519-1 —
and electromagnetic processing - Part 1:
General requirements
IEC 60519-3 2005 Safety in electroheat installations - Part 3: EN 60519-3 2005
Particular requirements for induction and
conduction heating and induction melting
installations
Under preparation. Stage at time of publication: IEC BPUB 60519-1:2020.
Under preparation. Stage at time of publication: FprEN IEC 60519-1:2019.
---------------------- Page: 5 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 63078:2020
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 63078:2020
IEC 63078
Edition 1.0 2019-11
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
NORME
INTERNATIONALE
Installations for electroheating and electromagnetic processing – Test methods
for induction through-heating installations
Installations pour traitement électrothermique et électromagnétique – Méthodes
d'essai pour les installations de chauffage par induction
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
COMMISSION
ELECTROTECHNIQUE
INTERNATIONALE
ICS 25.180.10 ISBN 978-2-8322-7583-2

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

Attention! Veuillez vous assurer que vous avez obtenu cette publication via un distributeur agréé.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
Marque déposée de la Commission Electrotechnique Internationale
---------------------- Page: 7 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 63078:2020
– 2 – IEC 63078:2019 © IEC 2019
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................... 3

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................... 5

1 Scope .............................................................................................................................. 6

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................... 6

3 Terms and definitions ...................................................................................................... 7

4 Basic provisions for testing and test conditions .............................................................. 11

5 Comparing equipment or installations ............................................................................ 13

6 Measurements and workloads ....................................................................................... 13

7 Numerical modelling ...................................................................................................... 14

8 List of tests .................................................................................................................... 14

9 Technical tests and efficiency of the installation ............................................................ 15

Annex A (informative) Energy efficiency assessment ........................................................... 19

Annex B (informative) Visual display of energy efficiency related information ....................... 20

Annex C (informative) Estimating energy use ....................................................................... 21

Annex D (informative) Energy recoverability ........................................................................ 22

Annex AA (normative) Explanatory diagrams for symbols and definitions relating to the

power circuit of induction through-heating equipment ............................................................ 23

Annex BB (informative) List of symbols used in this document ............................................. 27

Annex CC (normative) Determination of billet temperature homogeneity Δθ ....................... 29

Annex DD (informative) Methods for safety tests .................................................................. 34

Bibliography .......................................................................................................................... 35

Figure AA.1 – Basic power circuit of the induction through-heating equipment ...................... 23

Figure AA.2 – Power circuit of the induction through-heating equipment having one

rectifier transformer as well as several semiconductor frequency converters and

compensated circuits/loads ................................................................................................... 24

Figure AA.3 – Power circuit of the induction through-heating equipment having one

rectifier transformer, one rectifier as well as several series type inverters and

compensated circuits/loads ................................................................................................... 25

Figure AA.4 – Examples of compensated circuits .................................................................. 26

Table CC.1 – Arrangement of temperature measuring points of the billets ............................ 31

---------------------- Page: 8 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 63078:2020
IEC 63078:2019 © IEC 2019 – 3 –
INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION
____________
INSTALLATIONS FOR ELECTROHEATING AND ELECTROMAGNETIC
PROCESSING – TEST METHODS FOR INDUCTION
THROUGH-HEATING INSTALLATIONS
FOREWORD

1) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is a worldwide organization for standardization comprising

all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The object of IEC is to promote

international co-operation on all questions concerning standardization in the electrical and electronic fields. To

this end and in addition to other activities, IEC publishes International Standards, Technical Specifications,

Technical Reports, Publicly Available Specifications (PAS) and Guides (hereafter referred to as “IEC

Publication(s)”). Their preparation is entrusted to technical committees; any IEC National Committee interested

in the subject dealt with may participate in this preparatory work. International, governmental and non-

governmental organizations liaising with the IEC also participate in this preparation. IEC collaborates closely

with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in accordance with conditions determined by

agreement between the two organizations.

2) The formal decisions or agreements of IEC on technical matters express, as nearly as possible, an international

consensus of opinion on the relevant subjects since each technical committee has representation from all

interested IEC National Committees.

3) IEC Publications have the form of recommendations for international use and are accepted by IEC National

Committees in that sense. While all reasonable efforts are made to ensure that the technical content of IEC

Publications is accurate, IEC cannot be held responsible for the way in which they are used or for any

misinterpretation by any end user.

4) In order to promote international uniformity, IEC National Committees undertake to apply IEC Publications

transparently to the maximum extent possible in their national and regional publications. Any divergence

between any IEC Publication and the corresponding national or regional publication shall be clearly indicated in

the latter.

5) IEC itself does not provide any attestation of conformity. Independent certification bodies provide conformity

assessment services and, in some areas, access to IEC marks of conformity. IEC is not responsible for any

services carried out by independent certification bodies.

6) All users should ensure that they have the latest edition of this publication.

7) No liability shall attach to IEC or its directors, employees, servants or agents including individual experts and

members of its technical committees and IEC National Committees for any personal injury, property damage or

other damage of any nature whatsoever, whether direct or indirect, or for costs (including legal fees) and

expenses arising out of the publication, use of, or reliance upon, this IEC Publication or any other IEC

Publications.

8) Attention is drawn to the Normative references cited in this publication. Use of the referenced publications is

indispensable for the correct application of this publication.

9) Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this IEC Publication may be the subject of

patent rights. IEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

International Standard IEC 63078 has been prepared by IEC technical committee 27:

Industrial electroheating and electromagnetic processing.
The text of this International Standard is based on the following documents:
FDIS Report on voting
27/1118/FDIS 27/1119/RVD

Full information on the voting for the approval of this International Standard can be found in

the report on voting indicated in the above table.

This document has been drafted in accordance with the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.

This International Standard is to be used in conjunction with IEC 60398:2015.
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 63078:2020
– 4 – IEC 63078:2019 © IEC 2019

The clauses of this document supplement, modify or replace clauses of IEC 60398. When this

document states “addition”, "modification" or “replacement”, the relevant text in IEC 60398 is

to be adapted accordingly.

Subclauses which are additional to those in IEC 60398 are numbered starting from 101.

Additional annexes are numbered AA, BB, etc.

The committee has decided that the contents of this document will remain unchanged until the

stability date indicated on the IEC web site under "http://webstore.iec.ch" in the data related

to the specific document. At this date, the document will be
• reconfirmed,
• withdrawn,
• replaced by a revised edition, or
• amended.
---------------------- Page: 10 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 63078:2020
IEC 63078:2019 © IEC 2019 – 5 –
INTRODUCTION

Induction through-heating and induction melting are very important applications of induction

heating. However, an induction through-heating installation is more complex than an induction

melting furnace, as it includes more heating manners, varieties and sizes. In addition, some

performance tests which are very useful to users, for example the determination of

temperature homogeneity of billets and energy efficiency of the installation, are not easy to

carry out.

Induction through-heating installations are widely used in many industries for example

machine building and metallurgy, for heating billets or workpieces of alloy steel, copper,

aluminum, etc. before their subsequent hot forming (e.g. forging, extruding and rolling), with

clean and fast heating, easy temperature control and automation as well as a high degree of

energy-saving.

This document was prepared on the basis of IEC 60398:2015, with some references made to

IEC 62076:2006 and “Induction Heating – Industrial Applications” published by UIE in 1992.

---------------------- Page: 11 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 63078:2020
– 6 – IEC 63078:2019 © IEC 2019
INSTALLATIONS FOR ELECTROHEATING AND ELECTROMAGNETIC
PROCESSING – TEST METHODS FOR INDUCTION
THROUGH-HEATING INSTALLATIONS
1 Scope
This clause of IEC 60398:2015 is replaced by the following.

This document specifies the test procedures, conditions and methods for determining the

main performance parameters and operational characteristics of induction through-heating

installations.

Measurements and tests that are solely used for the verification of safety requirements of the

installations are outside the scope of this document and are covered by IEC 60519-1 and

IEC 60519-3.

This document is applicable to the induction heating installations which through-heat the

whole or part of metal billet or workpiece for its subsequent hot forming (e.g. forging,

extruding and rolling), using low, mains or medium frequencies. It is possible to use it as a

reference for other induction heating installations for heat-treatment and other purposes as

well as superconducting DC induction through-heating installations.

This document includes the concept and material on energy efficiency dealing with the

electrical and processing parts of the installations, as well as the overall performance.

2 Normative references
This clause of IEC 60398:2015 is applicable except as follows.
Replacement:

The following standards are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their

contents constitutes requirements of this standard. For dated references, only the edition

cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced standard (including

any amendments) applies.
Modification:
Delete footnotes
Additions:

IEC 60398:2015, Installations for electroheating and electromagnetic processing – General

performance test methods

IEC 60519-1:— , Safety in installations for electroheating and electromagnetic processing –

Part 1: General requirements
____________

Sixth edition under preparation. Stage at the time of publication: IEC PRVC 60519-1:2019.

---------------------- Page: 12 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 63078:2020
IEC 63078:2019 © IEC 2019 – 7 –

IEC 60519-3:2005, Safety in electroheat installations – Part 3: Particular requirements for

induction and conduction heating and induction melting installations
3 Terms and definitions
This clause of IEC 60398:2015 is applicable except as follows.
Replacement:

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in IEC 60398:2015 and the

following apply.

ISO and IEC maintain terminological databases for use in standardization at the following

addresses:
• IEC Electropedia: available at http://www.electropedia.org/
• ISO Online browsing platform: available at http://www.iso.org/obp
Additions:

NOTE 101 For the following definitions of terms related to some parts and electrical parameters of power circuit

of induction through-heating equipment, see also the explanatory diagrams in Annex AA. The symbols are also

listed in Annex BB.
3.101
induction through-heating installation

installation comprising induction through-heating equipment and the electrical and mechanical

auxiliaries necessary for the operation and utilization of the equipment

Note 1 to entry: The electrical auxiliaries comprise all electrical components in the power circuit of induction

through-heating equipment, power supply for mechanical auxiliaries and control system; and the mechanical

auxiliaries comprise billet handling mechanism and its mechanical power as well as water cooling system, etc.

3.102
induction through-heating equipment

equipment consisting of one or more heating inductors, supporting frames (cabinets) and the

connections for cooling water and electricity, etc., for induction heating and holding of billet

3.103
batch heating

repetitive static heating manner, which involves placing an individual billet into a heating

inductor for heating and holding, and then extracting it

[SOURCE: IEC 62076:2006, 3.39, modified – The differences between induction through-

heating and induction melting in workload name and technological process have been

considered.]
3.104
stage heating

heating manner having two or more heating inductors, in which, for a two heating inductor

equipment for example, the billet is firstly placed into a heating inductor for heating, secondly

moved to another heating inductor for holding and then extracted
3.105
continuous heating

heating manner, in which the billets progress continuously or rhythmically through one or

more heating inductors for heating and holding
---------------------- Page: 13 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 63078:2020
– 8 – IEC 63078:2019 © IEC 2019

[SOURCE: IEC 62076:2006, 3.40, modified – The differences between induction through-

heating and induction melting in workload name and technological process have been

considered.]
3.106
lining

part of inductor, which is placed between the induction coil and heated

billet as a thermal insulation, and usually consists of a refractory layer and a temperature

holding layer or is directly formed by ramming or pouring refractory materials
3.107
power circuit of induction through-heating equipment

circuit consisting of the power source(s) and compensated circuit(s) of the induction through-

heating equipment, including the conductors connecting both
3.108
power source

equipment for the supply of power to the compensated circuit of induction through-heating

equipment, being mains frequency single phase or three phases power supply or

semiconductor frequency converter and having the following main specified characteristics:

or frequency band f f
• frequency f ….
2 21 22
• voltage U (RMS value)
• current I (RMS value)
• active power P

[SOURCE: IEC 62076:2006, 3.13, modified – The types of power source used have been

specified and supplemented, see Annex AA.]
3.109
compensated circuit of induction through-heating equipment

electric circuit comprising one or more inductors, a compensating capacitor bank and a load-

matching transformer (if applicable)
Note 1 to entry: See Annex AA.
3.110
mass of test billets
test

out of the through-heated billets, total mass of those qualified used for the determination of

specific energy consumption and productivity
3.111
dimensions of billet

maximum dimensions of the overall billets with any transport or protection means, which the

induction through-heating equipment is designed for and is marked on the rating plate,

expressed in diameter × length or width × thickness × length
3.112
billet temperature
temperature of the billet at a given time of the through-heating cycle
3.113
starting temperature of billet
temperature of the billet at the beginning of the through-heating cycle
---------------------- Page: 14 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 63078:2020
IEC 63078:2019 © IEC 2019 – 9 –
3.114
final temperature of billet

temperature of the billet attained at the end of the holding period of the through-heating cycle

3.115
rated temperature of billet

temperature to be requested by through-heating technology for the billet of a given material,

which the induction through-heating equipment is designed for and which is marked on the

rating plate
3.116
temperature homogeneity of billet

homogeneous degree of billet temperature when it is extracted after heating and holding,

which is expressed as the maximum and minimum deviations of the temperatures measured

at the temperature measuring points with the rated temperature of the billet (they may be

positive or negative), or expressed as the transverse (radial) temperature difference and the

longitudinal temperature difference of the billet for the long billets with a circular or

rectangular, etc. uniform cross section

Note 1 to entry: Requirements and measuring conditions for the determination of billet temperature homogeneity

are specified in Annex CC.
3.117
transverse temperature difference of billet
radial temperature difference of billet
bt(r)

maximum and minimum temperature differences which may be positive or negative, between

periphery and centre on the cross section of a long billet with a uniform cross section when it

is extracted after its heating and holding

Note 1 to entry: Usually, the temperature at the centre of a billet cross section is lower.

Note 2 to entry: The radial temperature difference Δθ applies for a billet with a circular cross section.

3.118
longitudinal temperature difference of billet
difference between the maximum temperature and the minimum temperature along the

longitudinal direction of a long billet with a uniform cross section when it is extracted after its

heating and holding
Note 1 to entry: Usually, the temperature at two ends of a billet is lower.
3.119
inlet temperature of cooling water

temperature of the cooling water when entering the cooling water circuit of the heating

inductor

[SOURCE: IEC 62076:2006, 3.33, modified – The term and its symbol have been changed,

the words “coolant” and “inductor assembly” have been replaced by “cooling water” and

“heating inductor”.]
3.120
outlet temperature of cooling water

temperature of the cooling water when leaving the cooling water circuit of the heating inductor,

with the induction through-heating equipment operating at rated conditions
---------------------- Page: 15 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 63078:2020
– 10 – IEC 63078:2019 © IEC 2019

[SOURCE: IEC 62076:2006, 3.34, modified – The term and its symbol have been changed,

the words “coolant”, “inductor assembly” and “furnace” have been replaced respectively by

“cooling water”, “heating inductor” and “induction through-heating equipment”.]
3.121
equipment duty at rated conditions
rated equipment duty

induction through-heating equipment operation with specified dimensions of lining and billet,

specified billet quantity, rated power and rated frequency range without exceeding the

maximum voltage and current defined by the supplier
3.122
thermal steady state

thermal state in which the whole energy input into the induction through-heating

equipment is used for the compensation of its thermal losses

Note 1 to entry: In thermal steady state, the temperatures of all constructional components of induction through-

heating equipment and all the outlet temperatures of the cooling water are relatively stable and do not rise.

[SOURCE: IEC 62076:2006, 3.36, modified – The “furnace” has been replaced by “induction

through-heating equipment” and the note added.]
3.123
hot state

thermal steady state of the induction through-heating equipment when the billet

is at its final temperature

[SOURCE: IEC 60683:2011, 3.13, modified – The definition suitable for induction through-

heating equipment has been given with the ambiguous term “thermal condition” replaced by

“thermal steady state” and “furnace” by “induction through-heating equipment”.]
3.124
cold state

thermal state in which the induction through-heating equipment is not energized

and the temperature of the whole equipment is at ambient temperature

[SOURCE: IEC 60683:2011, 3.4, modified – The definition suitable for induction through-

heating equipment has been given.]
3.125
holding power

active power supplied to the power circuit of induction through-heating

equipment, in order to maintain the specified billet at a specified temperature for its

temperature homogeneity

[SOURCE: IEC 60398:2015, 3.3.2, modified – The original definition including its two notes,

has been simplified according to induction through-heating equipment.]
3.126
electrical energy consumption of the equipment

electrical energy supplied to the power circuit of induction through-heating equipment during

the defined time period
Note 1 to entry: E .is the active electrical energy consumption.
Note 2 to entry: E is the reactive electrical energy consumption.
---------------------- Page: 16 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 63078:2020
IEC 63078:2019 © IEC 2019 – 11 –

[SOURCE: IEC 62076:2006, 3.42, modified – The words “energy consumption” and “furnace”

have been changed to “electrical energy consumption” and “induction through-heating

equipment”, and "during the defined time period" and the notes have been added.]
3.127
electrical energy consumption of the installation
active electrical energy consumption

electrical energy supplied to the induction through-heating installation during the defined time

period, including the active electrical energy consumption of the equipment E and the active

electrical energy consumption of electrical and mechanical auxiliaries of the equipment E

3.128
specific electrical energy consumption of the equipment/installation
e /e
e i
ratio of the electrical energy consumption of the equipment/insta
...

Questions, Comments and Discussion

Ask us and Technical Secretary will try to provide an answer. You can facilitate discussion about the standard in here.