Wind energy generation systems - Part 24: Lightning protection

IEC 61400-24:2019 applies to lightning protection of wind turbine generators and wind power systems. Refer to guidelines for small wind turbines in annex. This document defines the lightning environment for wind turbines and risk assessment for wind turbines in that environment. It defines requirements for protection of blades, other structural components and electrical and control systems against both direct and indirect effects of lightning. Test methods to validate compliance are included. Guidance on the use of applicable lightning protection, industrial electrical and EMC standards including earthing is provided. This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition, published in 2010. This edition includes the following significant technical changes with respect to the previous edition: a) it is restructured with a main normative part, while informative information is placed in annexes.

Windenergieanlagen - Teil 24: Blitzschutz

Systèmes de génération d’énergie éolienne - Partie 24 : Protection contre la foudre

l’IEC 61400-24:2019 s’applique à la protection des aérogénérateurs et des parcs éoliens contre la foudre. Se reporter à l’Annexe M pour les lignes directrices applicables aux éoliennes de petite taille.Le présent document définit l’environnement de foudre applicable aux éoliennes et l’appréciation du risque pour ces mêmes éoliennes dans cet environnement. Il définit les exigences concernant la protection des pales, des autres composants structurels, ainsi que des réseaux de puissance et de commande contre les effets directs et indirects de la foudre. Les méthodes d’essai pour validation de la conformité sont incluses dans le présent document.Des recommandations relatives à l’utilisation des normes applicables en matière de protection contre la foudre, ainsi que des normes électriques industrielles et de CEM, y compris la mise à la terre sont fournies. Cette deuxième édition annule et remplace la première édition parue en 2010. Cette édition inclut les modifications techniques majeures suivantes par rapport à l'édition précédente: a) sa restructuration comprend une partie normative principale, les informations informatives étant intégrées dans des annexes.

Sistemi za proizvodnjo energije na veter - 24. del: Zaščita pred delovanjem strele (IEC 61400-24:2019)

Ta standard se uporablja za zaščito vetrnih turbin in vetrnih sistemov pred delovanjem strele. Za majhne vetrne turbine glej dodatek M. Ta dokument opredeljuje okolje, v katerem lahko strele delujejo na vetrne turbine, in oceno tveganja zanje v tem okolju. Opredeljuje zahteve za zaščito lopatic, drugih strukturnih sestavnih delov ter električnih in krmilnih sistemov pred neposrednimi in posrednimi vplivi delovanja strele. Vključuje tudi preskusne metode za potrditev skladnosti. V dokumentu so navedene smernice za uporabo veljavne strelovodne zaščite ter industrijskih električnih in EMC-standardov, vključno z ozemljitvijo. Na voljo so navodila za osebno varnost. Navedene so smernice za pripravo statistike škode in poročanje. Sklici na druge standarde se nanašajo na splošne standarde za zaščito pred delovanjem strele, nizkonapetostne in visokonapetostne sisteme za stroje in naprave ter elektromagnetno združljivost (EMC).

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
29-Aug-2019
Technical Committee
Drafting Committee
Current Stage
6060 - Document made available
Due Date
30-Aug-2019
Completion Date
30-Aug-2019

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SLOVENSKI STANDARD
SIST EN IEC 61400-24:2019
01-november-2019
Nadomešča:
SIST EN 61400-24:2010

Sistemi za proizvodnjo energije na veter - 24. del: Zaščita pred delovanjem strele

(IEC 61400-24:2019)

Wind energy generation systems - Part 24: Lightning protection (IEC 61400-24:2019)

Windenergieanlagen - Teil 24: Blitzschutz (IEC 61400-24:2019)

Systèmes de génération d’énergie éolienne - Partie 24 : Protection contre la foudre (IEC

61400-24:2019)
Ta slovenski standard je istoveten z: EN IEC 61400-24:2019
ICS:
27.180 Vetrne elektrarne Wind turbine energy systems
91.120.40 Zaščita pred strelo Lightning protection
SIST EN IEC 61400-24:2019 en

2003-01.Slovenski inštitut za standardizacijo. Razmnoževanje celote ali delov tega standarda ni dovoljeno.

---------------------- Page: 1 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 61400-24:2019
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SIST EN IEC 61400-24:2019
EUROPEAN STANDARD EN IEC 61400-24
NORME EUROPÉENNE
EUROPÄISCHE NORM
August 2019
ICS 27.180 Supersedes EN 61400-24:2010 and all of its
amendments and corrigenda (if any)
English Version
Wind energy generation systems - Part 24: Lightning protection
(IEC 61400-24:2019)

Systèmes de génération d’énergie éolienne - Partie 24 : Windenergieanlagen - Teil 24: Blitzschutz

Protection contre la foudre (IEC 61400-24:2019)
(IEC 61400-24:2019)

This European Standard was approved by CENELEC on 2019-08-07. CENELEC members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC

Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration.

Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC

Management Centre or to any CENELEC member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation

under the responsibility of a CENELEC member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the

same status as the official versions.

CENELEC members are the national electrotechnical committees of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic,

Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the

Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,

Turkey and the United Kingdom.
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique
Europäisches Komitee für Elektrotechnische Normung
CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Rue de la Science 23, B-1040 Brussels

© 2019 CENELEC All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CENELEC Members.

Ref. No. EN IEC 61400-24:2019 E
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SIST EN IEC 61400-24:2019
EN IEC 61400-24:2019 (E)
European foreword

The text of document 88/709/FDIS, future edition 2 of IEC 61400-24, prepared by IEC/TC 88 "Wind

energy generation systems" was submitted to the IEC-CENELEC parallel vote and approved by

CENELEC as EN IEC 61400-24:2019.
The following dates are fixed:

• latest date by which the document has to be implemented at national (dop) 2020-05-07

level by publication of an identical national standard or by endorsement

• latest date by which the national standards conflicting with the (dow) 2022-08-07

document have to be withdrawn

This document supersedes EN 61400-24:2010 and all of its amendments and corrigenda (if any).

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. CENELEC shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

Endorsement notice

The text of the International Standard IEC 61400-24:2019 was approved by CENELEC as a European

Standard without any modification.

In the official version, for Bibliography, the following notes have to be added for the standards

indicated:
IEC 60060-1:2010 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60060-1:2010 (not modified)
IEC 60071 (series) NOTE Harmonized as EN 60071 (series)
IEC 60071-2:2018 NOTE Harmonized as EN IEC 60071-2:2018 (not modified)
IEC 60099-4 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60099-4
IEC 60099-5 NOTE Harmonized as EN IEC 60099-5
IEC 60204-1 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60204-1
IEC 60204-11 NOTE Harmonized as EN IEC 60204-11
IEC 60243 (series) NOTE Harmonized as EN 60243 (series)
IEC 60243-1 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60243-1
IEC 60243-3 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60243-3
IEC 60464-2 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60464-2
IEC 60587 NOTE Harmonized as EN 60587
IEC 62561 (series) NOTE Harmonized as EN IEC 62561 (series)
IEC 62561-1 NOTE Harmonized as EN 62561-1
IEC 62793 NOTE Harmonized as EN IEC 62793
IEC 62858 NOTE Harmonized as EN 62858
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SIST EN IEC 61400-24:2019
EN IEC 61400-24:2019 (E)
Annex ZA
(normative)
Normative references to international publications
with their corresponding European publications

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content

constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For

undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments)

applies.

NOTE 1 Where an International Publication has been modified by common modifications, indicated by (mod), the relevant

EN/HD applies.

NOTE 2 Up-to-date information on the latest versions of the European Standards listed in this annex is available here:

www.cenelec.eu.
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year

IEC 60364-4-44 - Low-voltage electrical installations - Part 4-HD 60364-4-442 -

44: Protection for safety - Protection
against voltage disturbances and
electromagnetic disturbances
IEC 60364-5-53 - Low-voltage electrical installations -- Part- -
5-53: Selection and erection of electrical
equipment - Protection, isolation,
switching, control and monitoring
IEC 60364-5-54 - Low-voltage electrical installations - Part 5-HD 60364-5-54 -
54: Selection and erection of electrical
equipment - Earthing arrangements and
protective conductors
IEC 60364-6 - Low voltage electrical installations - Part 6: HD 60364-6 -
Verification
IEC 60664-1 - Insulation coordination for equipment EN 60664-1 -
within low-voltage systems - Part 1:
Principles, requirements and tests
IEC 61000-1 series Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - PartE N 61000-1 series
1-2: General - Methodology for the
achievement of functional safety of
electrical and electronic systems including
equipment with regard to electromagnetic
phenomena
IEC 61000-4-5 - Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - PartE N 61000-4-5 -
4-5: Testing and measurement techniques
- Surge immunity test
IEC 61000-4-9 - Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – PartE N 61000-4-9 -
4-9: Testing and measurement techniques
– Impulse magnetic field immunity test
IEC 61000-4-10 - Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) – PartE N 61000-4-10 -
4-10: Testing and measurement
techniques – Damped oscillatory magnetic
field immunity test
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SIST EN IEC 61400-24:2019
EN IEC 61400-24:2019 (E)
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
IEC 61400-23 - Wind turbines - Part 23: Full-scale EN 61400-23 -
structural testing of rotor blades
IEC 61587-3 - Mechanical structures for electronic EN 61587-3 -
equipment - Tests for IEC 60917 and IEC
60297 - Part 3: Electromagnetic shielding
performance tests for cabinets and
subracks
IEC 61643-11 - Low-voltage surge protective devices - PartE N 61643-11 -
11: Surge protective devices connected to
low-voltage power systems - Requirements
and test methods
IEC 61643-12 - Low-voltage surge protective devices - PartC LC/TS 61643-12 -
12: Surge protective devices connected to
low-voltage power distribution systems -
Selection and application principles
IEC 61643-21 - Low voltage surge protective devices - Part- -
21: Surge protective devices connected to
telecommunications and signalling
networks - Performance requirements and
testing methods
IEC 61643-22 - Low-voltage surge protective devices - PartC LC/TS 61643-22 -
22: Surge protective devices connected to
telecommunications and signalling
networks - Selection and application
principles
IEC 61936-1 - Power installations exceeding 1 kV a.c. - EN 61936-1 -
Part 1: Common rules
IEC 62305-1 (mod) 2010 Protection against lightning - Part 1: EN 62305-1 2011
General principles

IEC 62305-2 (mod) 2010 Protection against lightning - Part 2: Risk EN 62305-2 2012

management
IEC 62305-3 (mod) 2010 Protection against lightning - Part 3: EN 62305-3 2011
Physical damage to structures and life
hazard
IEC 62305-4 (mod) 2010 Protection against lightning - Part 4: EN 62305-4 2011
Electrical and electronic systems within
structures
IEC/TR 60479-4 - Effects of current on human beings and - -
livestock -- Part 4: Effects of lightning
strokes on human beings and livestock
IEC/TR 61000-5-2 - Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part- -
5: Installation and mitigation guidelines -
Section 2: Earthing and cabling
IEC/TS 60479-1 - Effects of current on human beings and - -
livestock - Part 1: General aspects
IEC/TS 61936-2 - Power installations exceeding 1 kV a.c. - -
and 1,5 kV d.c. - Part 2: d.c.
ITU-T K.20 - Resistibility of telecommunication - -
equipment installed in a telecommunication
centre to overvoltages and overcurrents
---------------------- Page: 6 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 61400-24:2019
EN IEC 61400-24:2019 (E)
Publication Year Title EN/HD Year
ITU-T K.21 - Resistibility of telecommunication - -
equipment installed in customer premises
to overvoltages and overcurrents
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SIST EN IEC 61400-24:2019
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SIST EN IEC 61400-24:2019
IEC 61400-24
Edition 2.0 2019-07
INTERNATIONAL
STANDARD
colour
inside
Wind energy generation systems –
Part 24: Lightning protection
INTERNATIONAL
ELECTROTECHNICAL
COMMISSION
ICS 27.180 ISBN 978-2-8322-6599-4

Warning! Make sure that you obtained this publication from an authorized distributor.

® Registered trademark of the International Electrotechnical Commission
---------------------- Page: 9 ----------------------
SIST EN IEC 61400-24:2019
– 2 – IEC 61400-24:2019 © IEC 2019
CONTENTS

FOREWORD ......................................................................................................................... 11

1 Scope ............................................................................................................................ 13

2 Normative references .................................................................................................... 13

3 Terms and definitions .................................................................................................... 15

4 Symbols and units ......................................................................................................... 21

5 Abbreviated terms ......................................................................................................... 24

6 Lightning environment for wind turbine .......................................................................... 25

6.1 General ................................................................................................................. 25

6.2 Lightning current parameters and lightning protection levels (LPL) ........................ 25

7 Lightning exposure assessment ..................................................................................... 26

7.1 General ................................................................................................................. 26

7.2 Assessing the frequency of lightning affecting a single wind turbine or a

group of wind turbines ........................................................................................... 28

7.2.1 Categorization of lightning events .................................................................. 28

7.2.2 Estimation of average number of lightning flashes to a single or a group

of wind turbines ............................................................................................. 28

7.2.3 Estimation of average annual number of lightning flashes near the wind

turbine (N ) .................................................................................................. 31

7.2.4 Estimation of average annual number of lightning flashes to the service

lines connecting the wind turbines (N ) ......................................................... 32

7.2.5 Estimation of average annual number of lightning flashes near the

service lines connecting the wind turbine (N ) ................................................ 32

7.3 Assessing the risk of damage ............................................................................... 33

7.3.1 Basic equation ............................................................................................... 33

7.3.2 Assessment of risk components due to flashes to the wind turbine (S1) ......... 34

7.3.3 Assessment of the risk component due to flashes near the wind turbine

(S2) ............................................................................................................... 34

7.3.4 Assessment of risk components due to flashes to a service line

connected to the wind turbine (S3) ................................................................ 35

7.3.5 Assessment of risk component due to flashes near a service line

connected to the wind turbine (S4) ................................................................ 35

8 Lightning protection of subcomponents .......................................................................... 36

8.1 General ................................................................................................................. 36

8.1.1 Lightning protection level (LPL) ..................................................................... 36

8.1.2 Lightning protection zones (LPZ) ................................................................... 37

8.2 Blades .................................................................................................................. 37

8.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 37

8.2.2 Requirements ................................................................................................ 37

8.2.3 Verification .................................................................................................... 38

8.2.4 Protection design considerations ................................................................... 38

8.2.5 Test methods ................................................................................................. 41

8.3 Nacelle and other structural components .............................................................. 42

8.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 42

8.3.2 Hub ............................................................................................................... 42

8.3.3 Spinner .......................................................................................................... 42

8.3.4 Nacelle .......................................................................................................... 43

8.3.5 Tower ............................................................................................................ 43

8.3.6 Verification methods ...................................................................................... 44

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SIST EN IEC 61400-24:2019
IEC 61400-24:2019 © IEC 2019 – 3 –

8.4 Mechanical drive train and yaw system ................................................................. 44

8.4.1 General ......................................................................................................... 44

8.4.2 Bearings ........................................................................................................ 44

8.4.3 Hydraulic systems ......................................................................................... 45

8.4.4 Spark gaps and sliding contacts .................................................................... 46

8.4.5 Verification .................................................................................................... 46

8.5 Electrical low-voltage systems and electronic systems and installations ................ 46

8.5.1 General ......................................................................................................... 46

8.5.2 Equipotential bonding within the wind turbine ................................................ 50

8.5.3 LEMP protection and immunity levels ............................................................ 51

8.5.4 Shielding and line routing .............................................................................. 52

8.5.5 SPD protection .............................................................................................. 53

8.5.6 Testing methods for system immunity tests .................................................... 57

8.6 Electrical high-voltage (HV) power systems .......................................................... 57

9 Earthing of wind turbines ............................................................................................... 59

9.1 General ................................................................................................................. 59

9.1.1 Purpose and scope ........................................................................................ 59

9.1.2 Basic requirements ........................................................................................ 59

9.1.3 Earth electrode arrangements ........................................................................ 59

9.1.4 Earthing system impedance ........................................................................... 60

9.2 Equipotential bonding ........................................................................................... 60

9.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 60

9.2.2 Lightning equipotential bonding for metal installations ................................... 60

9.3 Structural components .......................................................................................... 61

9.3.1 General ......................................................................................................... 61

9.3.2 Metal tubular type tower ................................................................................ 61

9.3.3 Metal reinforced concrete towers ................................................................... 61

9.3.4 Lattice tower .................................................................................................. 61

9.3.5 Systems inside the tower ............................................................................... 62

9.3.6 Concrete foundation ...................................................................................... 62

9.3.7 Rocky area foundation ................................................................................... 62

9.3.8 Metal mono-pile foundation ............................................................................ 63

9.3.9 Offshore foundation ....................................................................................... 63

9.4 Electrode shape dimensions ................................................................................. 63

9.5 Execution and maintenance of the earthing system ............................................... 64

10 Personal safety .............................................................................................................. 64

11 Documentation of lightning protection system ................................................................ 66

11.1 General ................................................................................................................. 66

11.2 Documentation necessary during assessment for design evaluation...................... 66

11.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 66

11.2.2 General documentation .................................................................................. 66

11.2.3 Documentation for rotor blades ...................................................................... 66

11.2.4 Documentation of mechanical systems .......................................................... 67

11.2.5 Documentation of electrical and electronic systems ....................................... 67

11.2.6 Documentation of earthing and bonding systems ........................................... 67

11.2.7 Documentation of nacelle cover, hub and tower lightning protection

systems ......................................................................................................... 67

11.3 Site-specific information ........................................................................................ 68

11.4 Documentation to be provided in the manuals for LPS inspections ........................ 68

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SIST EN IEC 61400-24:2019
– 4 – IEC 61400-24:2019 © IEC 2019

11.5 Manuals ................................................................................................................ 68

12 Inspection of lightning protection system ....................................................................... 68

12.1 Scope of inspection .............................................................................................. 68

12.2 Order of inspections .............................................................................................. 68

12.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 68

12.2.2 Inspection during production of the wind turbine ............................................ 69

12.2.3 Inspection during installation of the wind turbine ............................................ 69

12.2.4 Inspection during commissioning of the wind turbine and periodic

inspection ...................................................................................................... 69

12.2.5 Inspection after dismantling or repair of main parts ........................................ 70

12.3 Maintenance ......................................................................................................... 71

Annex A (informative) The lightning phenomenon in relation to wind turbines ...................... 72

A.1 Lightning environment for wind turbines ................................................................ 72

A.1.1 General ......................................................................................................... 72

A.1.2 The properties of lightning ............................................................................. 72

A.1.3 Lightning discharge formation and electrical parameters ................................ 72

A.1.4 Cloud-to-ground flashes ................................................................................ 73

A.1.5 Upward initiated flashes................................................................................. 79

A.2 Lightning current parameters relevant to the point of strike ................................... 82

A.3 Leader current without return stroke...................................................................... 83

A.4 Lightning electromagnetic impulse, LEMP, effects ................................................. 83

Annex B (informative) Lightning exposure assessment ........................................................ 84

B.1 General ................................................................................................................. 84

B.2 Methodology to estimate the average annual flashes or strokes to the wind

turbines of a wind farm and upward lightning activity in wind turbines ................... 84

B.2.1 General ......................................................................................................... 84

B.2.2 Methodology to determine average annual flashes to turbines of a wind
farm estimation by increase of the location factor to consider upward

lightning from wind turbines ........................................................................... 84

B.2.3 Upward lightning percentage in wind farms .................................................... 88

B.3 Explanation of terms ............................................................................................. 88

B.3.1 Damage and loss ........................................................................................... 88

B.3.2 Composition of risk ........................................................................................ 90

B.3.3 Assessment of risk components ..................................................................... 90

B.3.4 Frequency of damage .................................................................................... 91

B.3.5 Assessment of probability, P , of damage ..................................................... 92

B.4 Assessing the probability of damage to the wind turbine ....................................... 93

B.4.1 Probability, P , that a lightning flash to a wind turbine will cause

dangerous touch and step voltage ................................................................. 93

B.4.2 Probability, P , that a lightning flash to the wind turbine will cause

injury to an exposed person on the structure ................................................. 94

B.4.3 Probability, P , that a lightning flash to the wind turbine will cause

physical damage ............................................................................................ 94

B.4.4 Probability, P , that a lightning flash to the wind turbine will cause

failure of internal systems .............................................................................. 96

B.4.5 Probability, P , that a lightning flash near the wind turbine will cause

failure of internal systems .............................................................................. 96

B.4.6 Probability, P , that a lightning flash to a service line will cause injury

to human beings owing to touch voltage ........................................................ 96

B.4.7 Probability, P , that a lightning flash to a service line will cause

physical damage ............................................................................................ 97

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SIST EN IEC 61400-24:2019
IEC 61400-24:2019 © IEC 2019 – 5 –

B.4.8 Probability, P , that a lightning flash to a service line will cause failure

of internal systems ........................................................................................ 97

B.4.9 Probability, P , that a lightning flash near an incoming service line will

cause failure of internal systems .................................................................... 98

B.4.10 Probability P that a person will be in a dangerous place .............................. 99

B.4.11 Probability P that equipment will be exposed to damaging event .................. 99

B.5 Assessing the amount of loss L in a wind turbine ................................................ 99

B.5.1 General ......................................................................................................... 99

B.5.2 Mean relative loss per dangerous event ......................................................... 99

Annex C (informative) Protection methods for blades ......................................................... 101

C.1 General ............................................................................................................... 101

C.1.1 Types of blades and types of protection methods for blades ........................ 101

C.1.2 Blade damage mechanism ........................................................................... 102

C.2 Protection methods ............................................................................................. 103

C.2.1 General ....................................................................................................... 103

C.2.2 Lightning air-termination systems on the blade surface or embedded in

the surface .................................................................................................. 104

C.2.3 Adhesive metallic tapes and segmented diverter strips ................................ 104

C.2.4 Internal down conductor systems ................................................................. 105

C.2.5 Conducting surface materials ....................................................................... 105

C.3 CFRP structural components .............................................................................. 106

C.4 Particular concerns with conducting components ..................
...

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